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W        ELCOME
  Nepal's Rural Engineering
 Development: Prospects and
Opportunity for NEC Graduating
           Engineer
       Er Bhim Upadhyaya,
         DDG, DoLIDAR
       bhimupadhyaya@gmail.com   1
Engineer & Engineering
"Engineering is a great profession. There is the
 satisfaction of watching a figment of the
 imagination emerge through the aid of
 science to a plan on paper. then it moves to
 realization in stone or metal or energy. then
 it brings homes to men or women. then it
 elevates the standard of living and adds to
 the comforts of life. this is the engineer's high
 privilege."
     -Herbert Hoover (Er.) 31st President, USA2
Engineer & Engineering
"The great liability of the engineer compared to men
 of other professions is that his works are out in the
 open where all can see them. His acts, step by step,
 are in hard substance. He cannot bury his mistakes
 in the grave like the doctors. He cannot argue them
 into thin air or blame the judge like the lawyers.
 He cannot, like the architects, cover his failures
 with trees and vines. He cannot, like the politicians,
 screen his short-comings by blaming his opponents
 and hope the people will forget. The engineer
 simply cannot deny he did it. If his works do not
 work, he is damned."
   -Herbert Hoover, Engineer & 31st President, USA

                                                   3
Local Infrastructure and Poverty
           Reduction
    Poverty Reduction


     Rural Development


     Local infrastructure
LID Policy, 2061: LID sectors

                               Local
                             Transport
    Housing,
   Building &                                    Social
   Urban Dev.                                    Infras.

  Small                       Local
Irrigation                   Infras.                  Water
  & River                                            Supply &
  Control                                            Sanitation

             Micro-hydro               Solid waste
             & Alternative              Mngt.26
                Energy                                     5
Present Stakeholders


                          USERS
                                         CONSUL-
 NGO                                     TANTS (4
                                      International
                                      , 20 National,
                                           100
                                        Individual)
               DoLIDAR

 CONTR-                                DONORS
 ACTORS                              (ADB, DFID,
                                       ADB, DFID,
(More than                            FINISH,GTZ
   100                              JICA, SDC,
                                    JICA, SDC, WB
              Budget – 24 Billion
                 per year for       WFP,
                                    WFP, UNICEF….)
                infrastructure
Government Organizational Tiers for
      Rural Road Development
                      Ministry of Local Dev
                       Dept of Local Infras Dev
                       & Agri Roads (DoLIDAR)

                     District Dev Com. Office 75

District Technical Office 75


                                                  Municipality 58

                                           Vill. Dev. Com. Office 3915
Organization of DTOs (Headed by SDE in 42
           Districts and by Engineers in 33 Districts)




                           District Technical Office
                           (Chief/District Engineer)




    Rural and       Irrigation and          Water Supply,      Account and
Agricultural Road        Other              Sanitation and    Administration
     Section        Infrastructure         Building Section      Section
                    Development
                        Section
DONORS, Intern'l Firms, INGOs in
        Rural Infras. Sector
       1.Donors           2. International Consulting
World Bank,
                                       Firms
                           WSP (British),
Asian Development Bank,
                           SKAT (Swiss),
UK's DFID,
                           ITECO (Swiss),
JICA,                      Finland Consulting Group,
SDC,                       Ramboll (Finland)
Finland,                               3. INGOs
OPEC Fund,                 Helvetas,
IFAD,                      GTZ
UN WFP                     4. Domestic Consultants
                                       almost all
What is a Project(Public Works)?
                 10

 A Project has the following
  attributes…
  Objective or Goal
  Time
  Cost
  Location or space; and
  A Team-work of experts
     Team-
A Project has mainly 3+1
      Stakeholders: 4C's
               11




1.Client (or Employer)
2.Consultant (or Engineer)
3.Contractor (or Consumer
    Group)
4.Consumer
Project Phases
                 12



1. Study (Data collection & Need)
2. Design Phase (Detailing for Goal)
3. Development Phase (Input-
                      (Input-
   Output Mngt.)
          Mngt.)
4. Operation Phase (Service Mngt.)
PROJECT Management Breakdown
                     Detail Project Report     PROCUREMENT
                      •Selection, Walkover
                                                  MGMT,
 PROJECT MGMT       •EIRR,IEE, Resettlement
                                                  Goods,
(Input & Output)        •Land Acquisition
                                                  works,
                     •Detail Survey, Design
                                                 services
                       •Estimate Approval

                                        DISBURSEMENT    Insurance
   CONTRACT          FINANCIAL
    MGMT               MGMT                            Claim & Refund
                                        Mobilization
                                                   Technical
  Contractors      QLTY/LAB                         Audit
  RBG, VIUG         MGMT                QAP
  Consultants
                                                         Reporting
CONSTRUCTION
    MGMT           SITE MGMT
                                     WORK PLAN
                                                   payment
                               13                   in time
14


        Procurement




Goods    Services     Works
Phases of Public Works                     15




                                                  Works



       Precons-                                                Operation and
                                                Construction
       truction                                                 Maintenance
                                                   Phase           Phase
         Phase
NASC class on Aspects of Rural Infras Project
Managment 066.11.25
16



              Preconstruction
                   Phase



Preparation    Procurement      Contracting
    or              or              or
  Design        Tendering       Agreement
3 Parties Mutual Check and Balance
                17
                     Contractor
                     Consultant
                     Project Manager
                     or Client's
                     Representative
Supervisory Hierarchy
          18

               Client

          Project
          Manager

          Engineer


       Field Supervisor


               Labor
19
                                       Supervison
                                        of Works
                                                                    Aspects



     Process                                             Payment
    (Quality               Performance                     (Cost            Time
   System or                 (Output)                  Control: direct   (Progress)
    control)                                             indirect)



Drawing, Specification, Lab Tests,
  NASC class on Aspects of Rural Infras Project
                                                        Scheduling, Gantt, CPM, PERT
          Qualified Supervisors
  Managment 066.11.25
20

                  Construction
                   Supervison
                                        Components




Money       Materials             Men          Machine
(Finance,   (Site Store,          (Labor,      (Equipments,
Account)    Quarry,Fuel)        Consultants)      Tools)
Opportunity: Nepal's 20 yrs
     ROAD VISION
22
Strategic and Local Road Network of Nepal
            & Accessibility (2hrs; 4 hrs)
                               National Rural Roads Network:
                                                     52,000 Km
                                          Operational Rural Roads:
                                                       15,000 Km




SRN : 5400 Km(78% Access.)
LRN: 4500 Km (85% Access.) of Agri Engineers
                   National Society             TB: 4000 Nos.   23
Planning for all weather accessibility
03




                                                                   0
                                                                         5
                                                                        10
                                                                                15
                                                                                      20
                                                                                      25
                                                                                           30
                                                                                                35
                                                                                                     40
                                                                                                     45
                                                                                                               50
                                                            8/
                                                              39
                                                          03           0.27          Rs billion
                                                            9/
                                                              40
                                                          04           0.34
                                                            0/
                                                              41
                                                          04
                                                            1/         0.33
                                                              42
                                                          04
                                                            2/         0.33
                                                              43




              Sub-
                                                          04           0.28
                                                            3/
                                                              44
                                                          04           0.32
                                                            4/
                                                              45
                                                          04
                                                            5/         0.44
                                                              46
                                                          04
                                                            6/         0.46
                                                              47
                                                          04           0.45
                                                            7/
                                                              48
                                                          04
                                                            8/         0.32
                                                              49
                                                          04
                                                            9/         0.41
                                                              50
                                                          05           0.66




              Sub-engineer in each DDC
                                                            0/




              Posting of 1 Engineer and 1
                                                              51
                                                          05           1.11
                                                            1/
                                                              52
                                                          05
                                                            2/          2.42
                                                              53
                                                          05
                                                            3/          3.34
                                                              54
                                                          05             3.62
                                                                                                                          in Rs Billion




                                                            4/
                                                              55
                                                          05
                                                            5/           3.68
                                            Fiscal Year




                                                              56
                                                          05
                                                            6/           3.97

                 DoLIDAR
                                                              57
                                                                                                                    Budget Allocation for MLD




                                                          05             4.14
                                                            7/
                                                              58
              Establishment of
                                                                                                                                                            allocation




                                                          05
                                                            8/           4.62
                                                              59
                                                          05
                                                            9/           3.59
                                                              60
                                                          06             4.84
                                                            0/
                                                              61
                                                          06              6.54
                                                            1/
                                                              62
                                                          06
                                                            2/                7.53
                                                              63
                                                          06
                                                            3/                8.5
                                                              64
                                                          06                    11.2
                                                            4/
                                                              65
                                                          06
                                                            5/                   13
                                                              66
                                                          06
                                                            6/                           24
           organization
                                                                                                                                                Local development: trend of budget




                                                              67
                                                          06                                         36
                                                            7/
                                                              68
        DTO under DDC and




                                                          06                                              42
25
       expansion of DoLIDAR




                                                            8/
                                                              69
  25




                                                                                                               46
Local Infrastructure Programs
1. District Road Support Programme-DRSP (SDC)
2. Decentralized Rural Infrastructure and Livelihood Program–
   DRILP (ADB/SDC)
3. Rural Access Improvement and Decentralization Project-RAIDP
   (WB)
4. Rural Access Program - RAP II(DFID)
5. Trail Bridge SWAp and Motorable Road Bridge Program
6. Rural Transport Infrastructure Sector Wide Program
7. Road Board Nepal, Road Maintenance Program
8. Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Program –RWSSP
9. Rural Village Water Resource Management Project–RVWRMP
   (FINIDA)
Local Infrastructure Programs (2)

10. Water Supply and Sanitation Project-Western Nepal–WSSP-WN
  (FINIDA)
11.Rural Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Sector Development
  Project–RRRSDP (ADB, DFID, OFID, SDC)
12. Peace and Rehabilitation Program
13. Local Infrastructure for Livelihood Improvement-LILI (SDC)
14.Project for Community Access Improvement – JICA
15. Community Irrigation Program – CIP (ADB)
16. Small Irrigation Program
17. Other Infrastructure Program
Rural Roads: Surfacing Status




    Total Length of Rural Roads: 38, 981.45 km   28
Trail Bridges Sub-Sector
                 Sub-
               Trail Bridge Status




                             Constructed, 4736

Total, 10736

                                     Additional Demand,
                                            6000




                                                          29
More than 52,000 km of
     Rural Roads




                         30
2nd Largest Pedestrian Susp.
                                           Bridge 1452m


More than 6000 such
TB Required

                Seasonal Pontoon
                     Bridge




                                                            31
32
32
Tuin




       Gravity Ropeway
Lab Facility




NASC class on Aspects of Rural Infras Project   34
Managment 066.11.25
Road Construction Technologies




                                                     35
NASC class on Aspects of Rural Infras Project   35
Managment 066.11.25
Good Quality works in progress
              36
Difficulties
and
Challenges
Road ill-designed and in Disrepair




•Poor-Maintenance and
hardships
•12,000km operational
road                    38       38
Hilsa – Humla
(The most remote bridge in the country)




                                          39
Longest Suspended Bridge




   Buwajor Suspended Bridge, Khotang
   Span: 350 m, Sunkoshi River
Longest Suspension Bridge




        Triveni Gurans Bridge, Sindhuli/Udayapur
        Span: 350 m, Kamala River
Chuliledar Manang
(TB in the highest altitude 4200m)




                                     42
Live loads in a Trail Bridge




                               43
Suspension Bridge having highest
        Free Board of 117m,
Span : 344 m Kushma, Gyadi, Parbat
Opportunity in                Electricity connections
                                   To Remaining 62%                  Schools, Health
    New Nepal                          households                     posts for all
                                                                        villages
                                 Rural Electrification

     Remaining
         75%                        Building                          Houses for
      Irrigable     Irrigation     Prosperous              Housing     all Poor
         Land
                                      New
                                     Nepal
   Drinking Water
 To 24% Remaining Water Supply                             Roads     All Villages
    Habitations                                                      40,000/3915
                                                                        VDCs

                                 Rural telecom Connectivity
   Challenging task is the
evolution of the management
  structure for integrated                 Tele
        development                  Connectivity
                                    To all remaning
                                        villages
Challenge: POWER
                                                                Hydro




           Thermal


Nepal's Power Sources:
   Diesel 55 MW                                          Distribution Loss
                                        Renewable
   Nuclear - 0
   Hydro ~ 556 MW(0.67% potential)
                                         Energy         NOW             2025

   Renewable Energy <1 MW                               > 25%       <5%
   Coal Thermal 0

       Total ~ 612 MW
Balanced Development of Hydropower
                     Projects       Large Hydel Projects
                                                       •   Seti west      750 MW
                                                       •   Budhi Gandaki 600
          Karnali          Budhi
Seti
                                                       •   Kali Gandaki   600
                    Kali           Andhi               •   Aruns           643
                                       Langtang        •   Karnalis       1380
                                                       •   Pancheswor 6480
                                           Dudhkoshi
                                                       •   Dudh Koshi      300
                                                Arun   •   Andhi Khola    180
                                                       •   Langtang        218
Pancheswor                                             •   U Tamakoshi    309
                                                       •   20 Other Big Projects
       Hydel Locations                                 Total (30 Projects)
                                                           12,766MW

  Total Hydropower Potential 83,000 MW
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"The Earth contains enough
resources to enable present
and future generations to
live like kings if we but
harness the best
technologies."
        -Buckminister Fuller
                               50
What is the way out?
  The significant problems we have,
cannot be solved at the same level of
thinking with which we created them.
This is possible through Innovation.

                 Albert Einstein
Any Question?


 Thank You
bhimupadhyaya@gmail.com;
     cell 9851104057

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Nepal rural infrastructure project managment under do lidar for nec enginners

  • 1. W ELCOME Nepal's Rural Engineering Development: Prospects and Opportunity for NEC Graduating Engineer Er Bhim Upadhyaya, DDG, DoLIDAR bhimupadhyaya@gmail.com 1
  • 2. Engineer & Engineering "Engineering is a great profession. There is the satisfaction of watching a figment of the imagination emerge through the aid of science to a plan on paper. then it moves to realization in stone or metal or energy. then it brings homes to men or women. then it elevates the standard of living and adds to the comforts of life. this is the engineer's high privilege." -Herbert Hoover (Er.) 31st President, USA2
  • 3. Engineer & Engineering "The great liability of the engineer compared to men of other professions is that his works are out in the open where all can see them. His acts, step by step, are in hard substance. He cannot bury his mistakes in the grave like the doctors. He cannot argue them into thin air or blame the judge like the lawyers. He cannot, like the architects, cover his failures with trees and vines. He cannot, like the politicians, screen his short-comings by blaming his opponents and hope the people will forget. The engineer simply cannot deny he did it. If his works do not work, he is damned." -Herbert Hoover, Engineer & 31st President, USA 3
  • 4. Local Infrastructure and Poverty Reduction Poverty Reduction Rural Development Local infrastructure
  • 5. LID Policy, 2061: LID sectors Local Transport Housing, Building & Social Urban Dev. Infras. Small Local Irrigation Infras. Water & River Supply & Control Sanitation Micro-hydro Solid waste & Alternative Mngt.26 Energy 5
  • 6. Present Stakeholders USERS CONSUL- NGO TANTS (4 International , 20 National, 100 Individual) DoLIDAR CONTR- DONORS ACTORS (ADB, DFID, ADB, DFID, (More than FINISH,GTZ 100 JICA, SDC, JICA, SDC, WB Budget – 24 Billion per year for WFP, WFP, UNICEF….) infrastructure
  • 7. Government Organizational Tiers for Rural Road Development Ministry of Local Dev Dept of Local Infras Dev & Agri Roads (DoLIDAR) District Dev Com. Office 75 District Technical Office 75 Municipality 58 Vill. Dev. Com. Office 3915
  • 8. Organization of DTOs (Headed by SDE in 42 Districts and by Engineers in 33 Districts) District Technical Office (Chief/District Engineer) Rural and Irrigation and Water Supply, Account and Agricultural Road Other Sanitation and Administration Section Infrastructure Building Section Section Development Section
  • 9. DONORS, Intern'l Firms, INGOs in Rural Infras. Sector 1.Donors 2. International Consulting World Bank, Firms WSP (British), Asian Development Bank, SKAT (Swiss), UK's DFID, ITECO (Swiss), JICA, Finland Consulting Group, SDC, Ramboll (Finland) Finland, 3. INGOs OPEC Fund, Helvetas, IFAD, GTZ UN WFP 4. Domestic Consultants almost all
  • 10. What is a Project(Public Works)? 10 A Project has the following attributes… Objective or Goal Time Cost Location or space; and A Team-work of experts Team-
  • 11. A Project has mainly 3+1 Stakeholders: 4C's 11 1.Client (or Employer) 2.Consultant (or Engineer) 3.Contractor (or Consumer Group) 4.Consumer
  • 12. Project Phases 12 1. Study (Data collection & Need) 2. Design Phase (Detailing for Goal) 3. Development Phase (Input- (Input- Output Mngt.) Mngt.) 4. Operation Phase (Service Mngt.)
  • 13. PROJECT Management Breakdown Detail Project Report PROCUREMENT •Selection, Walkover MGMT, PROJECT MGMT •EIRR,IEE, Resettlement Goods, (Input & Output) •Land Acquisition works, •Detail Survey, Design services •Estimate Approval DISBURSEMENT Insurance CONTRACT FINANCIAL MGMT MGMT Claim & Refund Mobilization Technical Contractors QLTY/LAB Audit RBG, VIUG MGMT QAP Consultants Reporting CONSTRUCTION MGMT SITE MGMT WORK PLAN payment 13 in time
  • 14. 14 Procurement Goods Services Works
  • 15. Phases of Public Works 15 Works Precons- Operation and Construction truction Maintenance Phase Phase Phase NASC class on Aspects of Rural Infras Project Managment 066.11.25
  • 16. 16 Preconstruction Phase Preparation Procurement Contracting or or or Design Tendering Agreement
  • 17. 3 Parties Mutual Check and Balance 17 Contractor Consultant Project Manager or Client's Representative
  • 18. Supervisory Hierarchy 18 Client Project Manager Engineer Field Supervisor Labor
  • 19. 19 Supervison of Works Aspects Process Payment (Quality Performance (Cost Time System or (Output) Control: direct (Progress) control) indirect) Drawing, Specification, Lab Tests, NASC class on Aspects of Rural Infras Project Scheduling, Gantt, CPM, PERT Qualified Supervisors Managment 066.11.25
  • 20. 20 Construction Supervison Components Money Materials Men Machine (Finance, (Site Store, (Labor, (Equipments, Account) Quarry,Fuel) Consultants) Tools)
  • 21. Opportunity: Nepal's 20 yrs ROAD VISION
  • 22. 22
  • 23. Strategic and Local Road Network of Nepal & Accessibility (2hrs; 4 hrs) National Rural Roads Network: 52,000 Km Operational Rural Roads: 15,000 Km SRN : 5400 Km(78% Access.) LRN: 4500 Km (85% Access.) of Agri Engineers National Society TB: 4000 Nos. 23
  • 24. Planning for all weather accessibility
  • 25. 03 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 8/ 39 03 0.27 Rs billion 9/ 40 04 0.34 0/ 41 04 1/ 0.33 42 04 2/ 0.33 43 Sub- 04 0.28 3/ 44 04 0.32 4/ 45 04 5/ 0.44 46 04 6/ 0.46 47 04 0.45 7/ 48 04 8/ 0.32 49 04 9/ 0.41 50 05 0.66 Sub-engineer in each DDC 0/ Posting of 1 Engineer and 1 51 05 1.11 1/ 52 05 2/ 2.42 53 05 3/ 3.34 54 05 3.62 in Rs Billion 4/ 55 05 5/ 3.68 Fiscal Year 56 05 6/ 3.97 DoLIDAR 57 Budget Allocation for MLD 05 4.14 7/ 58 Establishment of allocation 05 8/ 4.62 59 05 9/ 3.59 60 06 4.84 0/ 61 06 6.54 1/ 62 06 2/ 7.53 63 06 3/ 8.5 64 06 11.2 4/ 65 06 5/ 13 66 06 6/ 24 organization Local development: trend of budget 67 06 36 7/ 68 DTO under DDC and 06 42 25 expansion of DoLIDAR 8/ 69 25 46
  • 26. Local Infrastructure Programs 1. District Road Support Programme-DRSP (SDC) 2. Decentralized Rural Infrastructure and Livelihood Program– DRILP (ADB/SDC) 3. Rural Access Improvement and Decentralization Project-RAIDP (WB) 4. Rural Access Program - RAP II(DFID) 5. Trail Bridge SWAp and Motorable Road Bridge Program 6. Rural Transport Infrastructure Sector Wide Program 7. Road Board Nepal, Road Maintenance Program 8. Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Program –RWSSP 9. Rural Village Water Resource Management Project–RVWRMP (FINIDA)
  • 27. Local Infrastructure Programs (2) 10. Water Supply and Sanitation Project-Western Nepal–WSSP-WN (FINIDA) 11.Rural Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Sector Development Project–RRRSDP (ADB, DFID, OFID, SDC) 12. Peace and Rehabilitation Program 13. Local Infrastructure for Livelihood Improvement-LILI (SDC) 14.Project for Community Access Improvement – JICA 15. Community Irrigation Program – CIP (ADB) 16. Small Irrigation Program 17. Other Infrastructure Program
  • 28. Rural Roads: Surfacing Status Total Length of Rural Roads: 38, 981.45 km 28
  • 29. Trail Bridges Sub-Sector Sub- Trail Bridge Status Constructed, 4736 Total, 10736 Additional Demand, 6000 29
  • 30. More than 52,000 km of Rural Roads 30
  • 31. 2nd Largest Pedestrian Susp. Bridge 1452m More than 6000 such TB Required Seasonal Pontoon Bridge 31
  • 32. 32 32
  • 33. Tuin Gravity Ropeway
  • 34. Lab Facility NASC class on Aspects of Rural Infras Project 34 Managment 066.11.25
  • 35. Road Construction Technologies 35 NASC class on Aspects of Rural Infras Project 35 Managment 066.11.25
  • 36. Good Quality works in progress 36
  • 38. Road ill-designed and in Disrepair •Poor-Maintenance and hardships •12,000km operational road 38 38
  • 39. Hilsa – Humla (The most remote bridge in the country) 39
  • 40. Longest Suspended Bridge Buwajor Suspended Bridge, Khotang Span: 350 m, Sunkoshi River
  • 41. Longest Suspension Bridge Triveni Gurans Bridge, Sindhuli/Udayapur Span: 350 m, Kamala River
  • 42. Chuliledar Manang (TB in the highest altitude 4200m) 42
  • 43. Live loads in a Trail Bridge 43
  • 44. Suspension Bridge having highest Free Board of 117m, Span : 344 m Kushma, Gyadi, Parbat
  • 45. Opportunity in Electricity connections To Remaining 62% Schools, Health New Nepal households posts for all villages Rural Electrification Remaining 75% Building Houses for Irrigable Irrigation Prosperous Housing all Poor Land New Nepal Drinking Water To 24% Remaining Water Supply Roads All Villages Habitations 40,000/3915 VDCs Rural telecom Connectivity Challenging task is the evolution of the management structure for integrated Tele development Connectivity To all remaning villages
  • 46. Challenge: POWER Hydro Thermal Nepal's Power Sources: Diesel 55 MW Distribution Loss Renewable Nuclear - 0 Hydro ~ 556 MW(0.67% potential) Energy NOW 2025 Renewable Energy <1 MW > 25% <5% Coal Thermal 0 Total ~ 612 MW
  • 47. Balanced Development of Hydropower Projects Large Hydel Projects • Seti west 750 MW • Budhi Gandaki 600 Karnali Budhi Seti • Kali Gandaki 600 Kali Andhi • Aruns 643 Langtang • Karnalis 1380 • Pancheswor 6480 Dudhkoshi • Dudh Koshi 300 Arun • Andhi Khola 180 • Langtang 218 Pancheswor • U Tamakoshi 309 • 20 Other Big Projects Hydel Locations Total (30 Projects) 12,766MW Total Hydropower Potential 83,000 MW
  • 48. g]kfnsf nflu Plss[t ljsf;sf] ;Dk"0f{ o'4 s[lif Pj+ vfBs[lif ljB'tLo zlQm k|zf]wg nufotsf k"jf{wf/ -xl/t–:j]t qmflGt_ xl/t– -phf{ qmflGt_ a[xt kl/of]hgfsf] t k]G6fug ;"rgf tyf lzIff tyf k|ljlw ljsf; :jf:Yo -;"rgf k|ljlw qmflGt_ -dfgj–k'+lh qmflGt_ dfgj– ljz]ifvfn] pBf]u tyf k|Bf]lusL / ko{6gsf] 1fg qmflGtM ljsf; lj1fg tyf k|ljlw -cf}Bf]lus qmflGt_ ;a}sf] ;f+rf] xf] . 48
  • 49. ;d[4 u|fdL0f g]kfnsf k"jf{wf/ k|fs[lts >f]t /fhgLlts OR5fzlQm vlgh 1fg h}ljs ljljwtf hnzlQm % ldzg hn, jiff{, e"ldut hn lzIff ;f}o{ ls/0f hn vfB, :jf:Yo Pj+ d"Nojw{g phf{ Pj+ zlQm ;fdflhs ;'/Iff k"jf{wf/ dfjg >f]t /f]huf/L l;h{gf ljsl;t k/Dk/fut 1fg u|fdL0f k|ljlw 1fgd"lv ;+u7gx? o'jfzlqm ;d[l4 g]kfn ;]jfIf]q jfXo nufgL cfsif{0f ug]{ 49 of]hgfx?
  • 50. "The Earth contains enough resources to enable present and future generations to live like kings if we but harness the best technologies." -Buckminister Fuller 50
  • 51. What is the way out? The significant problems we have, cannot be solved at the same level of thinking with which we created them. This is possible through Innovation. Albert Einstein
  • 52.
  • 53. Any Question? Thank You bhimupadhyaya@gmail.com; cell 9851104057