Nepal infrastructure journal of ser de-n 2013

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Nepal infrastructure journal of ser de-n 2013

  1. 1. A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development Society of Engineersʼ for Rural Development, Nepal (SERDeN) Vol. 4, Issue 4, Bhadra 2070 LocalInfrastructureforLivelihoodImprovementLILI hLjg:t/;"wf/sfnflu:yfgLok'jf{wf/sfo{qmdlnnL æl;+rfO{sfnflus"nf]/Knfli6skf]v/L,cfDbfgLa9b}g;Def//;b"kof]ugu/LÆ xfnlnnLsfo{qmd/fd]5fk,cf]vn9'+uf,vf]6f·,b}n]v,hfh/sf]6,sflnsf]6/c5fdu/L&lhNnfdf;~rfngeO{/x]sf]5. %$)j6fs[ifsJojl:yt;fgfl;+rfO{of]hgflgdf{0fu/L@&,)))s[ifsx?sf]$,)))x]S6/hdLgdfl;+rfO{;'lawfsf]kx'“r a9fp+b}vfB;'/Iffdf;'wf/Nofpg'o;sfo{qmdsf]nIo/x]sf]5. LILIProgrammeSupportUnit,Jawalakhel,Lalitpur,GPOBox688,Kathmandu,Nepal Tel:++977(0)15529929/5000027,Fax:015524991 E-mail:lili@helvetas.org.nphttp://www.helvetasnepal.org.np/lili.htm
  2. 2. kb]g ;b:o O{= e"k]Gb| axfb'/ a:g]t -lgjt{dfg cWoIf_ pkfWoIf O{= u'? k|;fb zdf{ cWoIf O{= s'df/ yfkf sf]iffWoIF O{= ljgf]b e§/fO{ dxf;lrj O{= 8f= d'/nL uf]kfn /+lhtsf/ ;b:o O{= /fh]z l3ld/] ;b:o O{= pdfz+s/ zfx ;b:o O{= ;+hLj a/fn ;b:o O{= O{Zj/ rGb| d/x§f ;b:o O{= lgzf l/hfn ;b:o O{= ;'lbgf s'O{s]n
  3. 3. u|fdL0f k"jf{wf/x?sf] ljsf; lgs} r'gf}ltk"0f{ /x]sf] 5 . ;Lldt ;|f]t ;fwg, b]zsf] ef}uf]lns cj:yf, c:yL/ /fhg}lts kl/j]z nufot ;d:ofx? 68sf/f] ?kdf b]Vg ;lsG5 . o;sf jfjh'b klg u|fdL0f k"jf{wf/x?sf] If]qdf k|fKt kl/0ffd / k/Ldf0fsf] tYonfO{ pT;fxk"0f{ dfGg'k5{ . u|fdL0f k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf] If]qdf OdfGbf/Lsf ;fy cfkmgf] st{Jo lgjf{x ub}{ /xg'ePsf ;Dk'0f{ ldqx?sf] nugzLntf k|lt ;Ddfg k|s6 ub{5' . u|fdL0f k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf] If]qdf sfo{/t O{lGhlgo/x?sf] 5ftf ;+u7gsf] ?kdf :yfkgf ePsf] o; Society of Engineers for Rural Development in Nepal (SERDeN) sf] tk{maf6 :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefusf] !^ cf}+ :yfkgf lbj;sf] cj;/df u|fdL0f k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf] If]qdf ;dlk{t ;Dk"0f{ ;fyLx?nfO{ z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5' . k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf] cg'ej / ;f]rnfO{ phfu/ u/L, 1fg / lzk af8g] x]t'n] ljutsf jif{x?df h:t} o; jif{ klg xfdLn] xfd|f] lgoldt jflif{s k|sfzgnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbb} :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefusf] !^ cf}+ :yfkgf lbj;sf] cj;/df æRural Infrastructure” Journal sf] of] rf}yf] c+s k|sfzgdf NofPsf 5f} . o; k|sfzgnfO{ d't{ ?k lbgsf nfuL laleGg 9·n] of]ubfg k'ofpb} cfpg'ePsf ;|i6f, ;+3;+:yf / lj1fkgbftfx? nufot u|fdL0f k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf If]qdf ls|oflzn ;a}nfO{ d xflb{s wGojfb 1fkg ub}{ ef]nLsf lbgdf ;d]t o:t} ;fy, ;xof]u / ;xeflutfsf] ck]Iff ub}{ cfef/ Aotm ub{5' . O{= s'df/ yfkf cWoIf cWoIfsf] sndaf6cWoIfsf] sndaf6
  4. 4. We would like to congratulate to our Immediate Past President (Executive Member) Er. Bhupendra Bahadur Basnet, Director General, DoLIDAR for his remarkable professional achievements and getting NEA prestigious award "Martial Nawaraj Bista Memorial Award" on the auspicious occasion of 51st Engineers’Day 2070 celebration. Society of Engineers for Rural Development, Nepal (SERDeN) Hearty Congratulation
  5. 5. AND Believes,isonthesameboatwithSERDeN:“BESTWISHES”. DistrictRoadSupportProgram(DRSP) ProgramSupportUnit(PSU) DistrictRoadSupportProgram(DRSP) ProgramSupportUnit(PSU)
  6. 6. xflb{s z'esfdgf !^ cf}+ 8f]ln8f/ :yfkgf lbj;sf] cj;/df SEDREN 4f/f Infrastructure Journal k|sfzg ug{ uO/x]sf]df u|fdL0f kx'+r sfo{qmd t];|f] (RAP-3) sf] tkm{jf6 ufd|L0f If]qdf sfo{/t ;Dk"0f{ Ol~hlgo/x?nfO{ xflb{s awfO{ tyf d+undo z'esfdgf . kl/of]hgfsf] ;+lIfKt lrgf/L k[i7e"le j]nfotL ;xof]u lgof]u (DFID) sf] ;xof]udf ;g !((( df z'? ePsf] u|fdL0f kx'+r sfo{qmd (RAP) sf] bf];|f] r/0f ;g @)!# ;]K6]Dj/df cGt e} t];|f] r/0fsf] k'0f{ sfof{Gjog cS6f]j/df z'? x'b}5 . u|f=k=sf= t];|f] r/0f d'Vot klxn]sf b'O{ r/0fx¿sf] ;kmntfdf cfwfl/t 5 . t/ of] t];|f] r/0fsf] sfo{qmddf klxn]sf] eGbf s]lx gof+ k|fjwfgx¿ ;d]t ;d]l6Psf5g . u|f=k=sf= # sf ljleGg ljz]iftfx¿df, o;n] :yfgLo ;8s ;+hfnsf] Joj:yfkgdf ;'wf/, cfly{s k"jf{wf/ ljsf;, /f]huf/Lsf] ;[hgf, lb3{sflng cfo cfh{gsf] ljsf;, Ifdtf clej[4L tyf ;+:yfut ljsf; tyf k|sf]k pTyfglzntfdf ljz]if hf]8 lbG5 . • u|fdL0f oftfoft k"jf{wf/sf] bLuf] Joj:yfkg ug]{ • u/Lj tyf nfejf6 jlGrt ;d'bfonfO{ /f]huf/L l;h{gf ug]{ • lhNnfsf] d'Vo ;8s ;+hfn (DRCN) nfO{ jfx|} dlxgf ;+rfng ug{ ;xof]u k'of{pg] • cfly{s cj;/sf nflu kx'+r :yfkgf ug]{ ck]lIft glthf /f]huf/Lsf] k|j4g{ ul/ cfDbfgLdf j[4L, jhf/;+u lbuf] kx'+r, cfly{s k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf cj;/x?sf nflu Uf|fdL0f oftfoft k"jf{wf/sf] Aoj:yfkg ;fy} kx'+rdf ;'wf/ g} u|f=k=sf= # sf] ck]lIft glthf xf] . p2]Zo cfof]hgfnfO{ cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ lgsfo -bft[ lgsfo_M j]nfotL ;xof]u lgof]u (DFID) cfof]hgfsf] s'n nfutM 31.5 Million (British pound) cfof]hgf ;+rfng tyf ;dGjo ug]{ lgsfoM ;+3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno, :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu -8f]nL8f/_ cfof]hgfsf ;fem]bf/ lgsfox?M lhNnf txdf sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogsf nflu, lhlj;÷lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no tyf ;DjlGwt ljifout sfof{nox?, u};;, ;DjlGwt k/fdif{bftfx?, :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosx?, :jtGq ljz]if1x? cfof]hgf ;+rfng If]qM !$ lhNnfx? h;dWo] klZrdsf ( lhNnfx? -h'Dnf, x'Dnf, sflnsf]6, d'u', b}n]v, 8f]6L, c5fd, jfh'/f / 88]nw'/f_ df # j6} ;+efux? sfof{Gjog x'g] / % lhNnfx? -kj{t, l;Gw'kfNrf]s, ;+v'jf;ef, df]/¨ / emfkf_ df :yfgLo ;8s ;+hfn dfq sfof{Gjog x'g] . k|f/lDes r/0f (Inception Phase): dO{ b]lv ;]K6]Dj/ @)!#, % dlxgf -h]i7 b]lv cflZjg @)&)_ sfof{Gjog r/0f (Implementation Phase): cS6f]j/ @)!# b]lv dfr{ @)!& -cflZjg @)&) b]lv r}q )&#_ # jif{ ^ dlxgf, k'g gljs/0f x'g ;Sg] . cfof]hgfsf ;+efux? (Components): -s_ :yfgLo ;8s ;+hfn -v_ cfly{s k"jf{wf/ / -u_ cfo cfh{g cfof]hgfsf] cjlwM
  7. 7. "WE EXPRESS OUR HEARTY GREETINGS FOR THE SUCCESS OF DoLIDAR DAY AND THE SEMINAR ON ENHANCEMENT OF QUALITY IN RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE"
  8. 8. An Overview of Rural Access Improvement and Decentralization Project (RAIDP) Project Districts: (58 district): - Road and Trail Bridge districts: (30) - Only Trail Bridge districts: (28 ) Objective of the Project: The project development objective is for resident of participating district of the recipient to utilize improved rural trans- port infrastructure and services in order to have enhanced access to social services and economic opportunities. Project Starting Date: August 15, 2005 Project Closing Date: December 31, 2013 Major Component of the Project: Total Project Cost & Expenditure Total Project Cost: 81.50 Million USD • IDA Financing: 77 (original 32+ AF 45) Million USD • GoN Financing: 4.5 million USD Total Expenditure as of July 15, 2013 : 5349 Million NRs. Physical Target and Progress Total Expenditure & Disbursement Status as of July 15, 2013 (a) Rural Transport Infrastructure Development: - All weather roads in 30 districts - Dry season roads in 7 districts - Motorable bridge in 12 districts - Trail Bridge construction 58 districts - Community Infrastructure Program in 30 districts - Rural Roads Maintenance in 30 districts (b) Capacity Building and Advisory Services (CBAS) Component: - Training - Rural Transport Service Study & Policy Development - Planning - Implementation Support Project components Upgrading/Rehabilitation of Existing Rural Roads (AWR) Construction of motorable River Crossing Construction of Trail bridges (TB) Construction of Dry season roads in hill districts (DSR) Community Infrastructure (CI) Land transfer InitialTarget 1165 km 10 nos 317 nos 211 km RevisedTarget 1740 km 17 nos 705 150 km 647 nos Progress as of July 15, 2013 1358 km 7 nos 564 nos 130 km 550 nos 193 hector
  9. 9. 1 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development Patron Er. Bhupendra Bahadur Basnet Director General Advisor Er. Bhim Prasad Upadhyaya Deputy Director General Er. Ram Krishna Sapkota Deputy Director General Er. Jeevan Kumar Shrestha Deputy Director General Editors Er. Uma Shankar Sah Er. Binod Bhattarai Er. Ishwar Chandra Marahatta Er. Sudina Kuikel Er. Nisha Rijal Cover & Lay-out M'sMouse Putalisadak msmouse@wlink.com.np Poverty reduction and economic prosperity is the ultimate goal of the nation. For this achievement, it is necessary for all people to get the basic services. Development of infrastructures like rural road network, motorable bridges, water supply and sanitation schemes, irrigation, trial bridges, school buildings and community buildings has a significant role in achieving the goal. The proper development of infrastructure in rural areas improves rural economy and quality of life. It promotes better productivity, increased agricultural incomes, adequate employment, easy access for health, education and market centers etc. Presently, construction of rural infrastructures has been undergone vigorously. Analyzing the present scenario it can be felt that focus lies only on increasing the quantity of such rural infrastructures. Good quality infrastructure remains a major challenge for sustainable development. It has to be understood that without proper attention on quality aspect the infrastructure may fail to contribute in awful development process rather end up with wasteful spending. It is the duty of all development activists to ensure quality of works and make it meaningful. Society of Engineers for Rural Development, Nepal (SERDeN) from its publication of “Rural Infrastructure” journal has been continuously sharing ideas and technology applicable for the rural development in Nepal through different theme of the articles. It is our pleasure to publish 4th issue of the “Rural Infrastructure” Journal. We attempted to include the articles of every aspect of rural development, with major focus on quality works in this issue. We would like to thank all the authors for the invaluable articles provided, advertisers and everyone involved in bringing this journal at this stage for their valuable support, guidance, encouragement and help. We accept of same in upcoming days. Your valuable comments and suggestions will be highly appreciated. Note: The content within the articles in this journal are the views of Authors, that is why the editorial board is not responsible for the content in the articles. EDITORIAL Publisher Society of Engineers' for Rural Development, Nepal (SERDeN) Pulchowk, Lalitpur Email: serden.nepal@yahoo.com
  10. 10. 2 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development
  11. 11. 3 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development Contents g]‌kfn bl/‌b| x'gsf sf/‌0f /‌;d[4 kfg]‌{]‌{ h'StL 5 O{= eLd k|;fb pkfWofo 'Enhancement of Quality of Local Infrastructures' 8 Er.RamKrishnaSapkota u|fdL0f ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ff s] xf]< 16 O{= k|f=8f= e/t/fh kxf/L g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df ;+a[l4 / phf{ 19 O{= 8f= nIdL b]jsf]6f RURAL ROAD NETWORK IN NEPAL: A MASSIVE CHALLANGE AHEADTO IMPROVE & MAINTAIN 25 Er.HareRamShrestha Ufl/jLsf ax' cfofd / lgjf/0fsf pkfo 34 /d]z s'df/ clwsf/L Nepal Rural Road Standard 2055, 1st Revision 2069 38 Er.GangaBahadurBasnet Small Irrigation Experiences in DoLIDAR/Local Bodies 42 Er.KumarThapa,SDE Bridge Information Management System (BIMS) and Its application in Local Road Bridge Building 47 Er.MadhavPrasadBhattarai HariPokharel g]kfndf ;/;kmfO tyf :jR5tfsf]] cj:yf, v'nf bL;f d'Qm (Open Defecation Free) If]q 3f]if0ffsf] k|efj tyf v'nf bL;f d'Qm If]q 3f]if0ff kZrft ug'{kg]{ sfo{x? 54 Er.LokNathRegmi k|fs[lts >f]tsf] Joj:yfkgdf :yfgLo lgsfosf r'gf}tLx? 58 /d]zs'df/ s];L lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt / lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nosf] cGt/ ;DaGw 63 zflnu|fd l/hfn An Overview of RRRSDP/ Lalitpur 67 Er.KamalJaishi A method for road network definition in hilly areas of Nepal 72 Dr.Er.JagatK.Shrestha Local Infrastructure for Livelihood Improvement (LILI) – Project Introduction 78 Mr.BhagatBahadurBista Quality Control Issues in RAIDP Sub-Projects 80 Er.ShankarPrasadPandit Step forwards for Rural Road Maintenance 84 Er.MahesworGhimire Overview of Rural Roads 88 Er.SahadevBahadurBhandari :yfgLo ljsf; M l;4fGt / Jojxf/ 93 O{= eLdfh'{g kf08] OTTA SEAL EXPERIENCE IN NEPAL 97 Er.S.G.Joshi Er.A.K.Jha InnovativeWater SupplyTechnologies for Reaching the Hard-to-Reach Population ofWestern Nepal 107 Er.ShankarPrasadPandit GuneshwarPrasadMahato Water Management: AVital Component for the Sustainability of Rural Roads in Nepal 111 Er.SharadManandhar
  12. 12. 4 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development Celebrating the Record: 5000+Trail Bridges in Nepal 119 TulasiNepal Gender equality and Social Inclusion (GESI) – A Key issue in the infrastructure Development 123 BamBahadurThapa lghfdtL ;]jfdf ljs[lt / o;sf] lgoGq0f 126 6]s/fh kGyL k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf] ;d:of – Ps ;dLIff 130 O{= O{Zj/ rGb| aflgof“ Practical Approaches toTransboundaryWater Resources Sharing for Resilient South Asian Region 133 Er.BheshRajThapa jf:t'zf:q 145 O{= Hof]= xl/axfb'/ ;'g'jf/ ælh;'sLÆ The Existing Road Maintenance funds: South Asia and Nepalese Contest 149 Er.RamParajuli A Brief Introduction on Bus RapidTransit (BRT) 156 Er.RajuShrestha Nepalese women and the Civil engineering profession 162 Er.SudinaKuikel Er.NishaRijal kfNkfsf] ;Gbe{df u|fdL0f ;8s ;Defjgf / r'gf}tLx? 166 O{= k|]dgf/fo0f a:ofn Effect ofTransportation on Construction Project in Dolpa: A Case Study 169 Er.SurendraGhimire Quality Control and Assurance System inTrail Bridge Construction 174 Er.ReshamJungSingh Er.SmitaSharmaSingh Successful Experience of Land Acquisition for Rural Road: An Anthropological Perspective 182 ShambhuPrasadKattel,Ph.D. ACCESSTO NORTH-SOUTH ROADS AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NEPAL 188 Er.SantoshKumarGupta “SOLIDWASTE MANAGEMENT IN KATHMANDU” 192 Er.RameshRanabhat Needs of Infrastructure planning and Proper urbanization 201 Er.KamalNeupnae Urgent Need of Procurement Management Information System (PMIS) – For Improving Public Procurements 209 Er.ShreeRamDhakal Water Safety Plan (WSP) for Sustainability and Livelihood improvement 214 Er.GangaDattaNepal Functionality and sustainability of the community managed DWSS in Mid and Far-Western Region of Nepal 224 IndraRajBadu Mobilization of Non-Government Organizations inWASH Scheme Quality Improvement: Experiences of RuralVillage Water Resources Management Project (Under DoLIDAR) 229 NarayanPrasadWagle Cobble Stone Pavements; Green Pavement Initiatives for LowVolume Rural Roads in Nepal 233 Er.RajeshSharma RVWRMP is fulfilling the multiplethirst of rural people in Bajura District 241 RajuShrestha Micro Hydropower Project: As Rural Infrastructure as well as Social Superstructure (Practical experiences from RVWRMP supported Micro Hydropower Projects in FarWestern Development Region, Nepal) 246 Er.RoshanBikramShah Er.JanakBhattarai
  13. 13. 5 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development s'g}‌b]‌z ;d[4, s'g}‌bl/‌b| s]‌sf/‌0fn]‌x'G5< sf7df08f}‌pkTosfsf]‌;Eotfsf]‌cf+sng ubf{ plxNo}‌g}‌;Eo, ;d[4 Pj+ ljsl;t b]‌z ePsf]‌k|dfl0ft x'G5 . cBflk k|rlnt ;lbof}‌+ k'/‌fgf ljleGg hfqf, rf8kj{, dlGb/‌, kf6Lkf}‌jf, ;8s, kf]‌v/‌L, 9'+u]‌wf/‌f Pj+ jf:t' ;d[l4sf k|tLs x'g . b'ef{Uoj;, ljutsf]‌;d[4 Plss[t g]‌kfn cfh bl/‌b| x'g k'u]‌sf]‌5 . k'vf{sf]‌jxfb'/‌L, alnbfg /‌a'l4dQfjf/‌]‌Oltxf;jf6 hfGg kfpbf xfdL ubub x'G5f}‌ . t/‌, olb tL k"vf{ cfh lhpbf x'bfx'g t s]‌xfdLdfly klg ltgn]‌To:t}‌uf}‌/‌j uy]‌{ xf]‌nfg< h'g/‌fi6«sf]‌cfkmgf]‌Oltxf; x'b}‌g, ljj]‌sfgGbsf]‌zJbdf, p;sf]‌ljZjdf s]‌xL klg x'b}‌g . xfd|f k"vf{n]‌uf}‌/‌jzfnL Oltxf; 5f8]‌/‌uPs}‌5g . ;'uf}‌nL ;lGw x'g' cl3;Dd xfd|f]‌ /‌0fsf}‌zn Pj jxfb'/‌Ljf6 l5d]‌sL b]‌zx? ;Gq:t eO/‌xGy]‌ . zlQmzfnL pQ/‌L /‌fHo tTsflng ef]‌6-ltJjt_nfO{ xfd|f k'vf{n]‌ k/‌f:t u/‌]‌s}‌ x'g  . c+u|]‌h;+usf]‌ o'4df g]‌kfnn]‌ w]‌/‌}‌ e"efu u'dfpg' k/‌]‌tf klg p;n]‌ g]‌kfnnfO{ pklgj]‌z eg]‌ jgfPg  . a?, ;'uf}‌nL ;Demf}‌tf u/‌]‌/‌;Ddflgt Pj+ ;dfgtfsf]‌Jojxf/‌u/‌of]‌ . ljZjnfO{ cfkmgf]‌k|zf;lgs Ifdtf /‌bIftfn]‌cf}‌nfdf grfpg ;Sg]‌ c+u|]‌h pNn' eP/‌ x}‌g, jxfb'/‌Lsf]‌ sb/‌ u/‌]‌/‌ pk|fGt g]‌kfnjf6 lg/‌Gt/‌ ;xof]‌u kfpg]‌ jftfj/‌0f ;'lglZrt kfg{ To;f]‌ u/‌]‌sf lyP . Ps;o jif{;Dd /‌f0ffzf;g l6s]‌sf]‌ToxL ;Demf}‌tfsf]‌kmn:j?k xf]‌ . ef/‌tjf6 c+u|]‌h lkmtf{ hfgf;fy /‌f0ff zf;g klg 9Nof]‌ . t/‌, ljsf;sf]‌b[li6n]‌g]‌kfnsf nflu /‌f0ffsfn sfn/‌fqL aGg k'Uof]‌ . c+u]‌|hn]‌pklgj]‌z gagfP/‌ g]‌kfnnfO{ kmfObf eof]‌jf 3f6f< c+u|]‌hlj?4sf]‌() jif{sf]‌:jtGqtfsf]‌n8fOdf ef/‌tjf;Lx?n]‌]‌/‌fHo Joj:yfkg ug{]‌of]‌Uotf, ;Lk, g}‌lts zlQm, k|zf;lgs snf, cEof;;d]‌t /‌fd|/‌L xfl;n ub}‌{ ;g !($& :jtGqtf k|fKt u/‌]‌ . o; pkdxfb]‌zdf clxn]‌ef/‌t zlQm/‌fi6«| jg]‌sf]‌]‌ 5  . k/‌fwLgtf eg]‌sf]‌ s:tf]‌ x'G5< qmflGtaf6 vfl/‌Psf ef/‌tLox?sf]‌ dgdl:tisdf ulx/‌f]‌ 5fk 5 . af]‌wuDo 9+udf ljutsf sfnf]‌o'u bf]‌xl/‌g g;Sg]‌;'lglZrttf ub{}‌gof+ k':tfnfO{ Oltxf;sf]‌lzIff :d/‌0f u/‌fOb}‌ cfPsf]‌ 5  . s'g}‌ k/‌fof b]‌z jf JolQmaf6 cfly{s, ;fdl/‌s a}‌1flgs b[li6n]‌ x]‌k]‌sf]‌ jf x:tIf]‌k u/‌]‌sf]‌ ca ef/‌tLox?n]‌;xb}‌gg, To;sf]‌tTIf0f k|ltsf/‌x'G5 . oxf+h:tf]‌ljb]‌zLn]‌l7s}‌t u/‌]‌sf]‌5 v'lRr+u elgb}‌g . dxfTdf uf+wL, ljj]‌sfgGb, /‌ljGb|gfy 6}‌uf]‌/‌, hjfx/‌nfn g]‌x?, hxf+lu/‌ 6f6f, xf]‌dL efefh:tf ;os8f}‌+ g}‌ltsjfg, rl/‌qjfg, cfWoflTds, k|fl1s, /‌fhgLlts, cf}‌Bf]‌lus, a}‌1flgs g]‌tfx?sf]‌;fldKosf]‌:jfledfgL k|efj ;dfhsf cglulGt jt{dfg k|efjzfnL JolQmTjx?df cf]‌tk|f]‌t kfOG5 . k"j{hsf]‌ul/‌dfsf]‌hu]‌gf{df gof+k':tf klg tlNng b]‌lvG5g . ljZj /‌+ud+rdf ef/‌tLox?sf]‌jr{Zj lg/‌Gt/‌a9b}‌5 . t/‌, ef/‌t ;+u;+u}‌h;f]‌%% jif{ cl3 k|hftGq cfPsf]‌elgPsf]‌ g]‌kfnsf]‌cj:yf eg]‌vl:sb}‌5 . g]‌kfn clxn]‌ljZjsf]‌6fpsf]‌b'vfO{ jg]‌sf]‌5, agfOsf]‌5 . d'n's e'kl/‌j]‌li6t ePsf]‌n]‌ljsf; x'g ;s]‌g . ;fgf]‌d'n's 5, To;}‌n]‌sdhf]‌/‌x'g]‌eOxfNof]‌ . ljsf;sf nflu k"lh+sf]‌ sdL 5 . !& k|ltztdfq hldg v]‌tLof]‌Uo ;dy/‌ePsf]‌n]‌vfB pTkfbg klg yf]‌/‌}‌x'g]‌eOuof]‌ . kxf8L d'n's x'gfn]‌ v]‌tLjf/‌Ljf6 kof{Kt pJhgL ;Sb}‌g . ljh'nL, ;8s, 6]‌lnkmf]‌g, l;+rfOh:tf cTofjZos ef}‌lts ;+/‌rgf ljsf; ug{ O{= eLd k|;fb pkfWofo pkdxflgb]{zs :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu -8f]ln8f/_ g]‌kfn bl/‌b| x'gsf sf/‌0f /‌;d[4 kfg]‌{]‌{ h'StL
  14. 14. 6 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development clt sl7gfO /‌dx+uf]‌k/‌]‌sf]‌5 . k|fljlws, bIf Pj+ lzlIft pRr:t/‌Lo hgzlQmsf]‌sdL /‌xb}‌cfPsf]‌5 . jiff{df cfl>t v]‌tLk|0ffnLsf sf/‌0f dg;'g /‌v8]‌/‌Ln]‌j;]‌{gL s[lif pTkfbg clglZrt Pj+ k|lts"n x'G5 . cg]‌s hfthflt, efiffefifL, wd{, j0f{Joj:yf, cf:yf, /‌fhgLlts ljrf/‌ljljwtf ePsf dflg;x? ePsf]‌d'n's x'gfn]‌;dGjo /‌ ;fdGh:otf hf/‌L /‌fVg ufx|f]‌k/‌]‌sf]‌5 klg elgG5 . s]‌of]‌xf]‌t < To:t}‌, cf}‌Bf}‌lus Pj+ k"lhut pTkfbgsf nflu cfjZos sRrf kbfy{sf]‌sdL ePsf]‌n]‌/‌f]‌huf/‌L ;[hgf ug{ ;lsPsf]‌ 5}‌g . hg;+Vofsf]‌j[l4 /‌tLj| ;x/‌Ls/‌0fsf]‌;d:ofn]‌cdgrog /‌;fdflhs ;befj sfod ug{ xDd]‌kb}‌{ cfPsf]‌ 5 . cfly{s ljsf;sf nflu vf+rf]‌x'g]‌ef}‌lts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs k"jf{wf/‌sf]‌;'ljwfx? 5}‌gg . bIf, lzlIft JolQmx? cljsl;t e]‌sdf uO{ j:g jf sfd ug{ sf]‌xL dfGb}‌gg . g]‌kfnLx? Tolt j'l4 ePsf hft klg xf]‌Ogg . l5d]‌sL d'n'sx?sf]‌xfdLk|lt sf]‌aqmb[li6 Pj+ x}‌sdjfbL Jojxf/‌gx6gfn]‌g]‌kfnnfO{ pGglt ug{ yk cK7of/‌]‌f kb}‌{ uPsf]‌]‌5 eGg]‌klg dflgG5 . s]‌of]‌xf]‌t < o;}‌u/‌L, oxf ;/‌sf/‌x? cl:y/‌Pj+ l56f]‌l56f]‌kl/‌jt{g x'G5g . nfdf]‌;do;Dd Psdgf ;/‌sf/‌jGg /‌rNg ;s]‌g . clt s]‌Gb|Ls[t zf;g k4lt 5 . oxfFsf g]‌tf, of]‌hgfsf/‌, kl/‌of]‌hgfsf/‌, j'l4hLjL, sd{rf/‌L, pBf]‌uklt, Jofkf/‌L, gful/‌s ;dfhsf ;b:o Pj+ lhDd]‌jf/‌egfpbfx? ;a}‌oL o:tf algjgfp s'g}‌g s'g}‌sf/‌0f bzf{P/‌cfkmgf cIfdtf /‌:jfy{dfly kbf{ xfNb}‌cfPsf 5g . s]‌;fRr}‌oL sf/‌sx?n]‌ubf{ g]‌kfn bl/‌b| /‌ oL sf/‌stTj Joxf]‌g'{ gk/‌]‌sfn]‌cGo d'n'sx? ;d[4 ag]‌sf x'g t< To:tf]‌k'li6 x'b}‌g . l5d]‌sL e"6fg klg e'kl/‌j]‌li6t ;fgf]‌b]‌z xf]‌, Toxf oxfFh:tf]‌k|hftflGqs zf;g /‌bIf hgzlQm klg 5}‌g . t/‌, p g]‌kfn eGbf t]‌Aa/‌wgL 5 . o'/‌f]‌ksf bh{gf}‌d'n'sx? e'kl/‌j]‌li6t Pj+ ;fgf 5g t/‌, lgs}‌;d[4 5g . ljZjsf @)) ;oeGbf a9L b]‌zdWo]‌cfsf/‌/‌hg;+Vofsf]‌lx;fjn]‌!%) d'n'sx? g]‌kfneGbf ;fgf ePklg wgL 5g . g]‌kfn ljZjdf g cfsf/‌df, g hg;+Vofdf ;fgf]‌d'n's eGg ldN5 . e"kl/‌j]‌li6ttf /‌ul/‌aL, cfsf/‌/‌ul/‌aLaLr 7f]‌;, ;f]‌emf]‌;DjGw klg /‌x]‌sf]‌ k|dfl0ft x'b}‌g  . hfkfg, l;+ufk'/‌, o'/‌f]‌ksf cg]‌sf}‌d'n'sh:tf ljZjsf sltko d'n'sx?df k|fs[lts >f]‌tx? 5}‌gg, t/‌tL wgL ePsf 5g . g]‌kfndf k|fs[lts >f]‌tsf]‌sdL 5}‌g, t/‌ul/‌a 5 . :jL6h/‌Nof08 klg ;fgf]‌e'kl/‌j]‌i7Lt kxf8L d'n's xf]‌ hxf, lgs}‌;Lldt hdLgdf s]‌jn jif{sf]‌$ dlxgf dfq v]‌tL ug{ ;+ej x'G5 . t/‌, p;n]‌lj:t[t Pj+ j}‌1flgs 9+udf kz'kfng Jofj;fojf6 ljZj:t/‌Lo b'Uw ;fdfu|L pTkfbg u5{ . sf]‌sf]‌]‌cfsf]‌v]‌tL ToxfF x'b}‌g t/‌, ljb]‌zjf6 ToxL sRrf kbfy{ cfoft u/‌L ljZjsf]‌pTs[i6 rsn]‌6sf]‌pTkfbs ub}‌{ ljZj ahf/‌cf]‌u6]‌sf]‌5 . hfkfg cfsf/‌df g]‌kfn eGbf 9fO{u'0ff 7"nf]‌, % u'0ff w]‌/‌}‌ hg;+Vof ePsf]‌, ;/‌sf/‌ rf8f]‌rf8f]‌ kl/‌jt{g eO/‌xg]‌, g]‌kfnh:t}‌ k/‌Dk/‌fut k"jL{o dfGotfsf]‌;fdflhs k2lt ePsf]‌kxf8L d'n's xf]‌ . k|fs[lts >f]‌t /‌sRrf kbfy{df p;nfO{ k|s[ltn]‌7u]‌sf]‌5 . t/‌, k|foM;a}‌sRrf kbfy{x? cfoft}‌u/‌]‌/‌hfkfg ljZj:t/‌sf dfkb08sf ;fdfgx? pTkfbg Pj+ lgof{t u/‌L ljZjsf]‌7"nf]‌ cy{tGq ePsf]‌wgL d'n's aGg ;s]‌sf]‌]‌5 . k|fs[lts >f]‌t jf sRrf kbfy{ /‌v]‌tLof]‌Uo hldg kof{Kt gx'b}‌df, kxf8L jf hg;+Vof w]‌/‌}‌x'b}‌df, b]‌z ul/‌j x'g'kb}‌{g . oL b]‌zx?n]‌k|dfl0ft u/‌]‌sf 5g . ljsl;t hfkfg, cd]‌l/‌sf, j]‌nfot, /‌l;ofh:tf d'n'sdf k'u]‌sf g]‌kfn nufotsf ljsf;zLn Pj+ ul/‌j d'n'ssf k|ltefzfnL hgzlQmn]‌cfkm"nfO{ k|lt:kwf{df pTs[i6 k|dfl0ft ub}‌{ ToxfFs}‌:yfoL jfl;Gbfx?nfO{ kl5 kf/‌]‌sf 5g . g]‌kfnLx?sf]‌dl:tis /‌k|ltef lgDg:t/‌sf]‌5}‌g eGg]‌o;n]‌k'li6 u/‌]‌sf]‌5 . dl:tis Ifdtfdf wgL x'b}‌df d'n's ul/‌a x'b}‌g eGg]‌o;jf6 lg:sif{ lg:sb}‌g . k"lh+sf]‌sdL ljsl;t d'n's nufot hxfFklg 5 . ljZj ahf/‌df rnfodfg k"+lh hlt klg pknJw 5 . To; k+"lhnfO{
  15. 15. 7 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development cfslif{s ug{ ;Sg]‌v'jL /‌jftfj/‌0f agfpg'df g}‌vf; ;d:of gLlxt 5 . k"lh hlxn]‌klg ;Ifd, bIf, r':t k|zf;g Pj+ ;:tf]‌hgzlQm ePsf]‌:yfgtkm{ cfslif{s x'g]‌u5{ . rfxgf, OR5fzlQm x'g]‌/‌cg's"n jftfj/‌0f jgfpg ;s]‌]‌h;n]‌ klg ljZj ahf/‌df pknJw k+"lhnfO{ ca ;lhn}‌leqfpg ;S5 . e"d08nLs[t cy{tGqdf k+"lhsf]‌sdLsf]‌;d:of oltj]‌nf 5b}‌+ 5}‌g  . 1fg /‌k|ljlw gx'b}‌df ul/‌j xf]‌Ob}‌g eGg]‌k|df0f blIf0f sf]‌l/‌of xf]‌ . p;n]‌cfkmgf]‌;d[l4tkm{sf]‌ofqfsf]‌k|f/‌lDes r/‌0fdf ljb]‌zL 1fg /‌k|ljlwsf]‌e/‌k"/‌cfoft u/‌]‌/‌pTkfbsTj /‌pTkfbg a9fpb}‌cfoftLt 1fg /‌k|ljlwnfO{ ;dofg's"n :jb]‌zdf kl/‌is[t kf/‌]‌/‌wgL jg]‌sf]‌xf]‌ . k|ljlw cfoftdf Ps 8n/‌nufgL u/‌]‌/‌;sn /‌fli6«|o cfodf p;n]‌^) 8n/‌ clej[l4 ug{ ;Sof]‌ . ;xL Pj+ rgfvf]‌?kn]‌pkof]‌u ubf{ cfoftLt k|ljlw dx+uf]‌kb}‌{g . ;b'kof]‌u gu/‌]‌/‌, ug{ grfx]‌/‌jf ghfg]‌/‌xf]‌, g]‌kfndf bIf hgzlQmsf]‌sdL klg b]‌lvb}‌g . d'n'sdf ePsf $) eGbf j9L ;+Vofsf OlGhlgol/‌+u sn]‌hx?jf6 dfq j;]‌{gL ^ xhf/‌:gfts OlGhlgo/‌:jb]‌zd}‌pTkfbg eO/‌x]‌sf]‌5 . clxn]‌ @@ xhf/‌OlGhlgo/‌;lxt #% xhf/‌lj1fg /‌k|ljlwsf pRr:t/‌Lo hgzlQm oxf ePsf]‌tYof+s 5 . t/‌, :jfy{j; bIf, pRr:t/‌Lo hgzlQmsf]‌oxf sdL 5 eGg]‌/‌6 Psflt/‌nufOb}‌5 eg]‌, csf]‌{tkm{ b'ef{Uoj; :jb]‌zdf ltgnfO{ pko'Qm sfd /‌jftfj/‌0f glbP/‌ljb]‌lzg' kg]‌{ jfWofTds kl/‌l:ylt yf]‌kl/‌Psf]‌5 jf yf]‌kl/‌b}‌5 . ef}‌lts k"jf{wf/‌, ;dofg's"n lzIff /‌k|ljlwsf]‌b|"t ljsf; g}‌/‌fli6«|o ;d'Ggltsf nflu hf]‌8lbg' kg]‌{ k|d"v If]‌q x'g . >f]‌tsf]‌;d:of b]‌vfP/‌oL If]‌qnfO{ ;bf cgb]‌vf ul/‌b}‌cfPsf]‌5 . cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf]‌d2tn]‌lxhf]‌sf c;+ej Jofjwfgx? cfh ;'lNem;s]‌sf 5g . t/‌, o; d'n'ssf lhDd]‌jf/‌x?df cem}‌k|ljlwzlQm g}‌;d[l4sf]‌ckf/‌Dkl/‌s c4Llto ;+efjgfsf]‌s'GhL xf]‌eGg]‌1fg /‌r]‌tgf v'n]‌sf]‌]‌kfOb}‌g . logn]‌lj1fg /‌k|ljlwk|lt /‌f]‌if /‌logLk|lt a}‌1flgs, k|fljlw1x?n]‌]‌3[0ffsf]‌u|GyL kfn]‌sf b'vMb cj:yf ljBdfg b]‌lvG5g . ljZjk|l;4 ;dfhzf:qL DofGs/‌ cf]‌N;gn]‌ p:t}‌p:t}‌k|fs[lts /‌ef}‌uf]‌lns kl/‌l:ylt ljBdfg ePsf d'n'sx? dWo]‌ cd]‌l/‌sf-wgL_ /‌ o;sf]‌ l5d]‌sL d]‌lS;sf-ul/‌a_, blIf0f sf]‌l/‌of-wgL_ /‌ o;sf]‌ l5d]‌sL pQ/‌ sf]‌l/‌of-ul/‌a_, klZrd hd{gL -wgL_/‌o;sf]‌l5d]‌sL tTsflng k"jL{ hd{gL-ul/‌a_aLr ;d[l4sf]‌:t/‌t'ngf u/‌L Osf]‌gf]‌lds k;{k]‌lS6e hg{n -!((^_df cfkmgf]‌cg';+wfgfTds ;f]‌w k|sflzt ub}‌{ eg]‌sf 5g, æhldg, >lds, k+"lh /‌k|ljlwh:tf pTkfbgsf k/‌Dk/‌fut >f]‌t;fwg pknJwtfsf]‌leGgtfn]‌s'g}‌d'n's wgL jf ul/‌a x'g]‌ub}‌{g . o; ljkl/‌t, oyfy{df ljBdfg /‌fhgLlts gLlt /‌;+:yfut ;+:s[lt, k|s[of Pj+ Joj:yfx?n]‌km/‌s kf5{ .Æ OlGhlgol/‌+u PS;n]‌G;M sNr/‌n P08 cu{gfOh]‌zgn kmofS6/‌ k':tsdf 8f]‌gfN8 lqml:6oG;gn]‌7f]‌s'jf u/‌]‌sf 5g, æTof]‌d'n's h;n]‌, cfkmgf OlGhlgo/‌/‌ k|fljlw1x?nfO{ 7Ls 9+un]‌k|lzlIft kf5{, clg dgf]‌j}‌1flgs Pj+ ef}‌lts cfo kfpg]‌;'lglZrttf u/‌]‌/‌ltgnfO{ k'/‌:s[t u5{, To;n]‌dfq pRr u'0f:t/‌sf pRr k|ljlwo'Qm pTkflbt a:t' /‌;]‌jfx? cGt/‌f{li6«o ?kdf jGb–Jofkf/‌n]‌dfq l6Sg jf afRg ;+ej x'g]‌k|lt:kwf{Tds clxn]‌sf]‌ljZj cy{tGqdf emd]‌nf a]‌xf]‌g'{' kb{}‌g .Æ c/‌asf]‌ d?e"lddf h:tf]‌ k]‌6«f]‌lnod kbfy{sf]‌ ckf/‌ vfgLsf]‌ cs:dft lr67f s;f]‌ gknf{ eg]‌/‌ lbjf:jKg b]‌Vg]‌ xf]‌ eg]‌ cs}‌{ s'/‌f, gq, j}‌1flgs, OlGhlgo/‌/‌k|fljlw1x?n]‌s'g}‌e"ldsf kfpg g;Sg]‌]‌jf c;+Gt'i6 eO/‌xg]‌, ljBdfg g]‌kfnL /‌fhgLlts, k|zf;lgs,;fdflhs jftfj/‌0f Pj+ ;+:s[lt Pj+ ;+:sf/‌ePsf]‌d'n'sn]‌;d[l4sf]‌cfzug'{ Aoy{ 5 . cf]‌N;g /‌lqml:6oG;gsf lg:sif{n]‌oxL eg]‌sf]‌xf]‌ . /‌fhgLlts ;+:sf/‌nfO{ lj1fg /‌k|ljlwsf]‌ljsf; cg's"n kfg]‌{ ljifotkm{ ;'b"/‌lIflthdf klg cem}‌s'g}‌lrGtg ;'? x'g ;s]‌sf]‌gkfOg' /‌, ;Dk"0f{ Wofg hlt cGo k|ljlwOt/‌yfªg]‌s'/‌ftkm{ dfq df]‌l8g' a}‌1flgs k|lt:kwL{ cGt/‌fi6«| hutdf d'n'ssf]‌cl:tTj vt/‌fdf kml;;s]‌sf]‌uDeL/‌nIf0f xf]‌ . wlg jf ul/‌a d'n's s]‌aGg]‌Tof]‌s'/‌f g]‌tfx?sf]‌r]‌tgfdf g}‌e/‌kbf]‌{ /‌x]‌5 . hxfF tL la1fg /‌k|ljlwk|]‌dL 5g Toxf ;d[l2 x'G5 . hxfF 5}‌g Toxf bl/‌b|L x'G5 . bhimupadhyaya@gmail.com
  16. 16. 8 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development Er. Ram Krishna Sapkota Deputy Director General MoFALD/DoLIDAR 'Enhancement of Quality of Local Infrastructures' Definition of quality The following are some of the definitions in the broader terms on quality which however focus on meeting customers' requirements/expectations: 1) Qualityisthedegreetowhichaproductorservicemeetsorexceedsacustomer'srequirements and expectations. 2) Quality is the degree of goodness (Oxford Dictionary). Quality is the fitness for purpose (J. M. Juran) 3) Quality is the conformance to requirements/specifications consistently, in all products. (P. Crosby). This is the Japanese concept. 4) Quality is the consistent conformation to expectation. 5) Quality is the doing things right the first time. 6) Quality is the totality of characteristics of any entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs. ABSTRACT Quality is something that meets customer's requirement and expectations. Anyone can ask a question on quality. In fact, the definition of quality is very broad. We often hear/say: quality (and yes quantity) of drinking water in Kathmandu is very poor, quality of our education is degrading, quality of health services in our country is poor, quality of government services is below standards, quality of infrastructures is poor, quality of technical staff is poor, quality of life is very low and so on and so forth. Additionally, there are frequent news in the national newspapers related to the quality of public works all over the country. Quality assurance of public works in Nepal is therefore very important due to the high cost of quality related issues like complaints, lawsuits (CIAA, court case), finger pointing, time and cost overruns, claims and other cost of quality issues on a routine basis. In this context, 'quality of public works' means different things to different people because of their different perceptions on it. This article therefore, in general, tries to elaborate on quality related issues in the context of public works in Nepal. Moreover, it outlines the causes of having poor quality public works, and remedial measures to be taken by the government institutions towards improving the performance on quality followed by conclusions and recommendations. Key words: quality, quality assurance, quality control, public works, local infrastructure
  17. 17. 9 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development PublicWorks Public works are a broad category of projects, financed and constructed by the government, for employment, health, education and safety and recreational uses in the greater community. In other words, they are intended to improve the well being or the living standards of the general public. They include utilities, roads and bridges, water supply and sanitation, schools and hospitals, irrigation and river training, municipal buildings and other social infrastructures, and usually long-term physical assets and facilities. Public works also refers to physical assets needed to deliver public services. Public services include both infrastructure and services generally provided by the government for the public. Investing in public works projects in order to stimulate the general economy has been a popular policy measure since the economic crisis of the 1930's. Almost all the governments undertake public works projects in order to create jobs and stimulate the economy in their countries. Reflecting increased concern with sustainability, ecology and quality of life, efforts to move towards sustainable infrastructure undoubtedly requires quality of public works. It is the common perception of the people that the quality of public works in general has been ever deteriorating. In order to improve the performance of the government, it is a high time to assess the root causes behind this reality and adopt relevant policy measures to solve the problem. Quality of PublicWorks Projects 1) Major portion of the government budget goes on public works. Its quality significantly matters for 'value for money'. 2) Quality of Public Works in a broader context is a prerequisite for access to regional and global economy and a key determinant of competitive advantage. 3) Without improving the quality of public works substantially, infrastructure itself cannot become an essential driver of competitiveness. Quality public works is critical for efficient functioning of the economy (e.g. high transport cost, due to poor infrastructures, of our export to international markets). 4) Infrastructure reduces the effect of distance between suppliers and consumers in and outside Nepal, with the result of truly integrating the national and international economy. 5) Public works with standard quality reduces income inequalities and poverty in a variety of ways by increasing community’s ability to connect to core economic activities and social services. It is often said that the lack of infrastructure in Nepal represents one of the most significant limitations to economic growth and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Infrastructure Photo 1: Employment Generation by Road Works (RRRSDP- Chitwan)
  18. 18. 10 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development investments and maintenance has been very expensive, especially due to landlocked, rural and sparsely populated settlements. It is argued that capital investment in public works can be used to reduce unemployment, Photo 1. Governments makes an investment in public works because of the overall benefit to society when there is a lack of private sector benefit or the risk is too great for a private company to accept on its own. PublicWorks and Infrastructures Infrastructure is basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function such as roads, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, and so forth, essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions." It is an important term for judging a country or region's development. This is the reason why developed countries has been investing a significant amount of their GDP in the infrastructure. Obviously, the best design of infrastructure like a typical rural road is the effective implementation, Photo 2. There is no meaning of having best infrastructure development plans and programs until and unless they are implemented efficiently and effectively. In order to deliver sustainable infrastructures, the public works contract needs to be implemented effectively. For this to happen, timely supervision plays vital role. Our major weakness, as general public frequently expressed their resentment, has been weak enforcement of rules and regulations and non effective implementation. Effective implementation requires adequate supervision at different levels of execution. Construction supervision, in general, has to adopt the following: 1) Follow construction quality (materials, workmanship and construction process) requirements written in technical specifications. 2) Once the construction contract has been signed between the client/owner and the contractor, all authorizations have been obtained, and all pre-construction submittals have been received from the contractor, the project manager issues an "Order to begin construction". 3) Regularly schedule 'Management Meetings' and obtain contact information for the contractor and all interested parties. 4) Obtain a detailed 'Work Schedule' from the Contractor and obtain proof of certification, insurance and bonds. Examine 'Shop Drawings' submitted by the Contractor and receive reports from the materials 'Quality Control Laboratory'. 5) When required, review change requests by the contractor, and issue construction directives and variation orders. Supervise testing and commissioning and follow work progress and authorize partial payments. 6) When substantially completed, inspect the work and prepare a list of deficiencies. If there are deficiencies, instruct the contractor to rectify within the given time. 7) Verify that all operating and maintenance manuals, as well as warranties, are complete. Prepare "as built" drawings. 8) Make a final inspection, issue a certificate of final completion, and authorize the final payment. Monitor if there are any defects in Defect Liability Period (DLP).
  19. 19. 11 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development QualityAssurance(QA)andQualityControl(QC) The terms “quality assurance” and “quality control” are often used interchangeably to refer to ways of ensuring the quality of works. The terms, however, have different meanings. Principally, QA refers to the actions, procedures, and methods employed at the management and senior technical levels to observe and ensure that prudent quality procedures are in place and are being carried out and desired result of a quality infrastructure is achieved. Moreover, QA is done to confirm that a QC program is effective and it provides feedback on which further development of the QC program can be made. Quality control makes sure that things are going according to plan. The dictionary defines quality control (QC) as 1) The inspection, analysis and action required to ensure quality of output to specifications; 2) The operational techniques and the activities used to fulfill and verify requirements of quality; QC includes the activities as constant supervision by experienced individuals, providing clear decisions and directions, immediate review of completed activities for accuracy and completeness, and accurate documentation of all decisions, assumptions, and recommendations. Quality control procedures, if followed, should ensure that the work is done correctly the first time. Quality control is an ongoing deliberate process, planned and carried out consultants. Quality control is based on the belief that: 1) It should ensure that the work is done correctly the first time. 2) Quality is achieved by focusing on preventing problems or errors rather than reacting/ correcting to them. 3) Quality is achieved by qualified individuals performing all work functions. Quality is achieved by providing proper training of personnel and ensuring that all personnel remain current on the knowledge and skills needed for their position. Findings of Fortune Magazine’s Study Related to Performance of Employees: This is quite relevant example to demonstrate how quality is achieved. USA Service winners 1) Selectively recruit and keep good people 2) Thoroughly train employees in quality service 3) Motivate and reward for quality performance 4) Aggressively monitor quality performance If we can adopt/learn from these four means of ensuring quality in our construction business, much Photo 2: Improving Road Surface with Black Top (RRRSDP- Bhaktapur)
  20. 20. 12 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development of the finger pointing and law cases can be prevented and quality infrastructures be delivered. Japan’s Approach to Quality The following are some of the primary strategies, used by Japanese to achieve superior quality, which can be replicated in our context: 1) Production department’s responsibility for quality. 2) Process quality control - the workers are the quality inspectors. 3) Line stops - each worker has the authority to stop the production line to correct quality problems. 4) 100% check – check every completed product. 5) No - crisis atmosphere. 6) Housekeeping – a neat and clean work environment. 7) Easy - to - see quality and just- in- time inventory control . Quality Procedures Systematic methods to assure construction quality have little value, especially in our context where law and order is weakening for a decade or so, if they are not properly managed by a quality system. However, quality of public works can be achieved by putting strong emphasis on the following five measures: 1) Document Control: To ensure employees have the correct procedures and the procedures are properly maintained. 2) Audits: To verify quality procedures are being followed right from the planning to implementation and then to operation and maintenance of the facility through technical, social, financial, and performance audits. 3) Non-conformance Tracking: To monitor and track quality issues to ensure that construction defects are rectified in time. 4) CAPA (corrective action and preventative action): To correct defective processes (i.e. quality procedures) when detected via audits and non-conformance tracking to prevent defects from re- occurring. 5) Management Review: Reviewing quality and taking the appropriate action to improve the system. The Pervasive Role of Quality Quality has a broader role in everyday life and in every business in general and vital role in the construction business in particular. The following flow diagram illustrates its benefits. Why is quality of infrastructures deteriorating? It is often said that the lack of infrastructure in many developing countries like Nepal represents one of the most significant limitations to economic growth and achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Infrastructure investments and maintenance can be very expensive,
  21. 21. 13 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development especially in such as areas as landlocked, rural and sparsely populated countries like Nepal. However, there can be numerous reasons behind not having quality of local infrastructures in Nepal. Some of the most important reasons/root causes include the following: 1) Inadequate technical capacity of the contractors/clients resulting not only deficient planning and design but also inadequate supervision at the field level. 2) Generally, highly qualified contractors are selected for execution in paper but works is carried out by contractors who do not have the capacity to carryout and complete the entire job in time. 3) Poor enforcement of procurement laws by contracting parties. 4) Frequent transfer of key persons of the project at the implementation/central level. 5) Grossly inadequate monitoring from the supervisory level. 6) Very low bidding by the contractors thereby very hard to deliver quality of works. 7) Tendency of contractors to avoid the tests to confirm the compliance. 8) Delayed budget and program. Inadequate budget to complete the job in time. Looking at very short term benefits. 9) Intention to earn easily without effort. Practice of 'take it as granted.' 10) Coercion and intimidation during bidding and contract administration. 11) Protection from non professionals for non performing contractors. 12) Work in the eleventh hour, when time is run out contractors are more pressed to complete the job. 13) Nonexistent of quality culture in the construction business. Easy access to decision making/influencing authority due to weak chain of command.
  22. 22. 14 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development 14) Grossly inadequate professional integrity. 15) Poor workmanship resulting forgotten value add aspect. Some practical measures to enhance quality of local infrastructures: 1) Assess technical capacity of the contractors/clients and then strengthen this through intensive training/mentoring. 2) Stop subletting of contracts. This has been a major problem in most of the contracts in Nepal. 3) Timely decision at site is a must. For this to happen, there must be full authority for the Project Manager to make necessary decisions. Project manager should have full authority to administer the contract as per international practice. 4) There should be provision of site office and necessary logistics to carry out supervision at the field level in large contracts 5) Strong enforcement of procurement laws. This is one of the prerequisites for creating conducive environment in one hand and to ensure value for money on the other. 6) Establish/promote strong technical chain of command. This is very important in the technical field. Ignorant or non responsive chain of command not only creates loss of 'value for money' but also anarchism. 7) Fair competition among bidders is prerequisite. There should be some clear provisions to disqualify very low bidders. Let us learn from the neighboring countries, how they have been addressing the problem. 8) Key persons of the project should be retained during the entire project period to keep up the institutional memory and make them accountable for the results. 9) Extensive monitoring is required from the supervisory level because there is one saying " you get what you inspect not what you expect". 10) Basic tests should be made mandatory before any payment (of course to confirm the compliance with technical specifications). There should be Materials testing laboratories established in each district and one central laboratory to monitor them and develop in house capacity. 11) Provide physical security against coercion and intimidation during bidding and contract administration. 12) Good performing and professional contractors who deliver quality infrastructures in time are required to be honored/recognized. 13) We have to discourage the general mindset of 'take it as granted' 14) Every position has certain special role to perform. That role should not be undermined. 15) We have to focus on preventing problems or errors as far as practicable rather than reacting/ correcting to them. Because, reactive or corrective measures have always been costly than the preventive ones. 16) There should be qualified and experienced individuals in a project performing all work functions.
  23. 23. 15 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development Conclusion and Recommendations Ensuring quality of local infrastructures has not been always easy basically in a country like ours in transition where maintaining law and order and chain of command within the organizational context is weak. However, we can overcome the obstacles by adopting the following: 1) It is often said that 'you get what you inspect not what you expect'. This is more effective in construction business. It demands robust monitoring and evaluation mechanism. 2) Managing construction time is very important. Delivery of local infrastructures in time means realizing the benefits by the beneficiaries in time. 3) Every members of the construction team is required to do the job right the first time. 4) Mobilize entire team that consists of clients, consultants and contractor to strive for excellence. 5) Contractors need to strive towards continuous improvement in the delivery of quality public work. It is high time to change our culture to learn how to work systematically. 6) It is very important to gain sustained commitment from the top management to combat undue pressure (if any) otherwise it directly or indirectly inhibits achieving quality of local infrastructures. 7) Contractors and users committees have to overcome the “let’s just get it done” mentality. 8) There is a need to overcome “60’s” mentality, where “it’s only wrong if we get caught”. References 1) Progress Monitoring Notes 2) “Performance Management” Training Handouts, Micheal Lowe, 2011, Kathmandu 3) Class Handouts (M.Sc. Env. Engineering, IOE, TU), Prof. Dr. Khemnath Dallakoti 4) Management, Eighth Edition, by Ricky W. Griffin 5) Management: Principles and Functions by John M. Ivancevich et al. 6) QMS Handouts By Raja Ram Pote Shrestha (ISO - EMS Consultant) 7) ISO 9000 Series 8) Quality related materials from the websites -Wikipedia. We Congratulate Society of Engineers for Rural Development, Nepal (SERDeN) for the publication of 4th volume of journal "Rural Infrastructure" on the auspicious occasion of 16th Anniversary of DoLIDAR and extend our best wishes for it's success in contributing towards rural development of Nepal. Shyam Kumar Tamang Proprietor Trishuli Construction Company P. Ltd. Balaju, Kathmandu
  24. 24. 16 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development != Oltxf;sf]‌x/‌]‌s sfnv08df Pp6f dfGotf :yflkt 5M af}‌l4s If]‌qn]‌b]‌zsf]‌:jflwgtf tyf hgtfsf]‌;d[l4 /‌ ;'vdo hLjgsf]‌af/‌]‌df lrGtg ug{'k5{, lasNk vf]‌Hg'k5{, o;sf]‌nflu cfjZos kxn ug'{ k5{ . clxn]‌klg of]‌ sYo TolQs}‌hLjGt tYosf]‌?kdf /‌x]‌sf]‌5 . jf}‌l4s ;d'bfosf]‌e"ldsfn]‌;dfh ablng]‌u5{, of]‌;a{sflng egfO{ xf]‌ . ablng]‌s'/‌f eg]‌sf]‌oyfl:yltaf6 hLjgnfO{ ;xh, ;/‌n /‌;d[4 agfpg]‌eGg]‌xf]‌ . s]‌eof]‌eg]‌hLjg ;'vdo x'G5< k|fo ;a}‌sf km/‌s km/‌s ts{x? xf]‌nfg . cfjZostf /‌cf}‌lrTotfn]‌k'li6 u/‌]‌sf ;'lawfx? pkef]‌u ug]‌{ cj:yf ;Dejt ;a}‌sf]‌rf;f]‌sf]‌laifo xf]‌/‌o;af6 ;'vdo hLjg k|fKt x'G5 eGg]‌xf]‌ . @= g]‌kfndf hxfhsf]‌lasNknfO{ k|of]‌u gug]‌{ xf]‌eg]‌/‌fhwfgLaf6 k"j{ jf klZrd ofqf ug{ a;÷dfO{qmf]‌dfq r9g' kg]‌{ afWotf 5 /‌aiff{bsf]‌;dodf o:tf]‌ofqf klg slx klx/‌f]‌/‌slx af9LFn]‌ubf{ aLrdf st}‌cj?4 x'g]‌vt/‌f e}‌/‌xg]‌ u5{  . u|fld0f If]‌qsf]‌ si6s/‌ hLjgsf]‌ JofVof ;w}‌ e}‌/‌x]‌sf]‌5  . cGo k"jf{wf/‌x? ;d]‌t Go'g 5g /‌ ePsf klg bogLo cj:yfdf 5g . ;'vdo hLjgsf]‌rrf{ x'g]‌u5{ t/‌lalzi7 Ifdtf ePsf af}‌l4s ;d'bfo ;d]‌t lhlhljiffsf]‌nflu si6;fWo k|oTg ul/‌/‌x]‌sf]‌5 . o:tf]‌eofjx cj:yfdf lasNksf]‌vf]‌hL ug{ af}‌l4s If]‌qaf6 kxn ug'{ cfjZos 5 . #= ljsf;sf]‌cjwf/‌0ff hLjg;+u hf]‌l8Psf]‌x'G5 . k|ljlwsf]‌b|'tt/‌ljsf;n]‌ljZjsf ;a}‌7fpx?df ;xh kxF'r ePsf]‌ 5  . e"d08lns/‌0fsf]‌ sf/‌0faf6 hgzlQmsf]‌ ljr/‌0f Jofks 5  . 5f]‌6f]‌ ;dodfg}‌ Ps b]‌zdf sfd ul/‌/‌x]‌sf]‌ dfG5]‌;'ljwf /‌cj;/‌x? x]‌/‌]‌/‌csf]‌{ b]‌zdf u}‌xfN5 . laut s]‌lx aif{ b]‌lv g]‌kfnaf6 klg 7'nf]‌;+Vofdf sfdbf/‌x? lab]‌z u}‌/‌x]‌sf 5g . o;/‌L lab]‌zLosf g]‌kfnLx? :jb]‌z kms{bf Po/‌kf]‌6{ b]‌lv g}‌dgdf v'Nb'nL nfUg yfN5 . Po/‌kf]‌6{sf]‌Joj:yfkg gldn]‌sf]‌nfU5, jflx/‌lg:sbf 6]‌S;Lsf]‌Jojxf/‌/‌Joj:yfkg c:jefljs nfU5, af6f]‌ 3f6f]‌lau|]‌sf]‌cj:yf, 6«flkms cJoj:yf cflbn]‌lbSs agfp5 . 3/‌cfOk'Ubf 3/‌sf]‌l:yltn]‌dg lvGg x'gyfN5, kfgL aQL 6]‌lnkmf]‌g zf}‌rfno, efG5f cflb Jojl:yt ePsf]‌x'b}‌g . ljsf;nfO{ a'emg]‌of]‌Pp6f pbfx/‌0f xf]‌ . $= laleGg ;ef /‌ uf]‌li7x?df ;/‌sf/‌L tyf u}‌/‌;/‌sf/‌L sd{rf/‌Lx?, Joj;foLs JolQmx? tyf k]‌zfut laz]‌if1x?n]‌ k"jf{wf/‌ljsf; ;DalGw l;4fGtx?, lgdf{0f, dd{t tyf ;Def/‌ug]‌{ laifodf ljifb JofVof u5{g . ljZjsf laleGg 7fpx?df s]‌s;/‌L k"jf{wf/‌ljsf; ePsf 5g eGg]‌pbfx/‌0faf/‌]‌rrf{ ub{5g . gLlt lgdf{0f /‌Joj:yfkgdf ;+nUg /‌xg]‌x?sf o:tf rrf{x? rf;f]‌sf laifox? x'G5g, t/‌klg g]‌kfn h:tf b]‌zx?df gof af6f]‌aGof]‌, s]‌lx dlxgfdfg}‌ lau|]‌sf]‌ ;dfrf/‌ cfp5, vfg]‌kfgLsf]‌ wf/‌f grn]‌sf]‌ b]‌lvG5, 7'nf cfof]‌hgfx? clgZroaf6 u'lh|G5g  . lsg o:tf]‌x'G5< ljsf;nfO{ a'emg]‌of]‌csf]‌{ pbfx/‌0f xf]‌ . %= ljsf;nfO{ al:t ljsf;;+u hf]‌8]‌/‌x]‌g]‌{ ul/‌Psf]‌klg 5, zx/‌L ljsf; /‌u|fdL0f ljsf; . zx/‌df afSnf]‌hg;+Vof /‌xg]‌/‌Toxf ;]‌jf /‌;'lawfsf]‌ljt/‌0f, kmf]‌x/‌Joj:yfkg, cfjfudg /‌;'/‌Iffsf]‌Joj:yfkg cflb u+eL/‌laifox? x'g . ufpx?df 5l/‌P/‌/‌x]‌sf]‌hg;+VofnfO{ ;]‌jf /‌;'lawfsf]‌Joj:yfkg TolQs}‌u+eL/‌laifo xf]‌ . ufpdf 5l/‌P/‌ /‌x]‌sf]‌al:tx? Plss[t x'Fb}‌hfbf zx/‌df kl/‌0ft x'g]‌qmd klg :jefljs xf]‌ . sf7df08f}‌h:tf]‌/‌fhwfgL zx/‌df af6f]‌3f6f]‌, vfg]‌kfgL, 9nlgsf;, 6]‌lnkmf]‌g, :s"n tyf c:ktfnsf]‌cJoj:yfkgn]‌oxfsf jfl;Gbfx?sf]‌dg lrdf]‌6g]‌u5{ . /‌fhwfgL;+u hf]‌l8Psf u|fdL0f If]‌qx?df g vfg]‌kfgL 5 g lah'nL, g af6f]‌3f6f]‌5 g :s"n c:ktfn . g]‌kfnsf b'u{d ufpx?df cj:yf s:tf]‌xf]‌nf< ljsf;nfO{ a'emg]‌of]‌csf]‌{ pbfx/‌0f xf]‌ . O{= k|f=8f= e/t/fh kxf/L 8Lg, O=c=;+=, lq=lj= u|fdL0f ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ff s] xf]<
  25. 25. 17 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development ^= g]‌kfnsf]‌;Gbe{ s]‌5 t< la=;+= @)^* sf]‌hgu0fgfn]‌g]‌kfnsf]‌hg;+Vof @,^$,($,%)$ b]‌vfPsf]‌5 . h;dWo]‌ pRr lzIff k|fKt u/‌]‌sf]‌-P;Pn;L eGbf dfly cWoog u/‌]‌sf_ hg;+Vof !^,%@,^@$ /‌x]‌sf]‌5 . of]‌;+Vof hDdf hg;+Vofsf]‌^=@#& k|ltzt dfq xf]‌ . of]‌;+Vofsf]‌$* k|ltzt eGbf al9 -&(^@##_ zx/‌df a;f]‌jf; ub{5g eg]‌em08}‌%@ k|ltzt-*%^#(!_ dflg;x? u|fdL0f If]‌qdf a:5g . csf]‌{ /‌f]‌rs kIf eg]‌sf]‌g]‌kfndf zx/‌L hg;ªVof sl/‌a !&=)& k|ltzt -$%@@^!!_/‌x]‌sf]‌b]‌lvPsf]‌5 -hgu0fgf la=;=@)^*_ /‌u|fdL0f hg;Vof *@=(# k|ltzt-@!(&!*(#_ /‌x]‌sf]‌5 . zx/‌L hg;+Vofsf]‌em08}‌!&=^) k|ltzt jf}‌l4s hg;+Vof 5 eg]‌u|fdL0f hg;+Vofdf of]‌k|ltzt s]‌jn #=*(& k|ltzt dfq 5 . of]‌tYofs+n]‌s]‌b]‌vfp5 eg]‌af}‌l4s hg;+Vof zx/‌df s]‌lGb|t /‌x]‌sf]‌5 . o:tf]‌hg;+Vof ljt/‌0fsf]‌cj:yfdf ljsf; s;/‌L ;Dej x'G5, rf;f]‌sf]‌ljifo xf]‌ . &= g]‌kfnsf]‌ljsf; eg]‌sf]‌g]‌kfnL hgtfsf]‌;'vdo hLjg :yflkt ug]‌{ s'/‌f xf]‌ . zx/‌df a;f]‌jf; ug]‌{nfO{ k'/‌ofpg' kg]‌{ ;]‌jf /‌;'lawfx?sf]‌ljt/‌0f tyf Joj:yfkg h?/‌L 5 eg]‌sl/‌j *# k|ltzt hg;+VofnfO{ Go'gtd ;]‌jf /‌ ;'lawf pknJw u/‌fpg]‌s'/‌f TolQs}‌hl6n laifo xf]‌ . g]‌kfnsf]‌ljsf; ug]‌{ eg]‌sf]‌u|fdL0f If]‌qdf a;f]‌jf; ug]‌{ hgtfsf]‌ hLjg:t/‌ psf:g]‌ s'/‌f xf]‌  . *= ljsf; eg]‌sf]‌ef}‌lts ljsf; dfq eg]‌/‌a'emg' x'b}‌g, o;nfO{ cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f:s[lts ljsf;sf]‌?kdf a'emg' k5{ . zx/‌of ufp sf]‌ljsf; eGgfn]‌Toxf a;f]‌af; ug]‌{ hgtfsf]‌kof{Kt cfDbfgL x'g', Ps cfk;df ;befj, ;lxi0f'tf, d]‌nldnfk tyf ;/‌;xof]‌u x'g', cfcfkmgf ;f:s[lts klxrfgnfO{ ;d[4 agfpb}‌n}‌hfg' eGg]‌ a'emg' k5{ . ;d[4 g]‌kfn lgdf{0f ug{' cfhsf]‌cfjZostf xf]‌ . of]‌eg]‌sf]‌b]‌zsf]‌cy{tGqnfO{ cfwf/‌e"t kl/‌jt{g ug'{ xf]‌ . cyf{t, hgtfx? ul/‌aLsf]‌/‌]‌vf eGbf dfly /‌xg]‌5g, ;a}‌sf]‌;'/‌lIft :jf:y x'g]‌5, ;'/‌Iff Joj:yf alnof]‌x'g]‌5, o;sf]‌;fy}‌b]‌zsf lalzi7tfsf If]‌qx?sf]‌k|ltikwL{ Ifdtfsf]‌ljsf; eO{ u'0f:t/‌o'Qm pTkfbg x'g]‌5 . ljsf; eg]‌sf]‌olx xf]‌ . o;sf]‌k|flKtsf]‌nflu of]‌hgfa4 k|oTg h?/‌L 5 . o:tf]‌k|oTgaf6 dfgj hLjg k|s[lt /‌;dfh ;+u d}‌qLk"0f{ /‌xb}‌;/‌n /‌;'ljwfo'Qm9+uaf6 rNb5 . ;du|tfdf ljsf; eGgfn]‌To:tf]‌;dfh hxf ;fdflhs Gofo :yflkt 5, hxf ;'/‌lIft :jfYosf]‌cj:yf 5, ;'/‌Iffsf]‌k"0f{fe'lt 5, /‌jftfj/‌0f /‌h}‌jLs ljljwtf sf]‌;'/‌Iffdf kof{Kt Wofg lbO{Psf]‌x'G5 . o:tf]‌;dfhsf]‌Joj:yf lbuf]‌cy{ Joj:yf, k|ljlwsf]‌pRrtd k|of]‌u tyf ;'zf;gaf6 x'g ;S5 . lbuf] ljsf;sf] l;4fGt k|s[ltsf] l;df leq hLjg l jftfj/0f, k|fs[lts ;|f]tx? / h}‌jLs ljljwtf d}qL l jftfj/0f ;'wf/ l cfpbf] lk8Lsf] nflu ;|f]tsf] Joj:yf ;an, :j:y / Gofok"0f{ ;dfh l hgtfsf cfsf+Iffx?sf] kl/k"lt{ l JolQmut ;d[l4, ;fdflhs ;b‌efj / ;dfj]l;tfnfO{ k|a4{g l ;a}sf] nflu a/fa/L cj;/sf] kxF'r Joj:yf lbuf] cy{ Joj:yf l ;jn, l:y/ / lbuf] cy{tGq l ;a}sf nflu ;d[l4 / cj;/ l k|b'if0fstf{af6 ;fdflhs tyf jftfj/0f Ifltsf] e/0f l ;|f]tx?sf] bIftfk"0f{ k|of]u jL1fg ;Ddt gLlt lgdf{0f l ;jn a}1flgs k|df0fx?sf] cfwf/df gLltx? th'{df / sfof{Gjog l a}1flgs clgZrotf, ;fdflhs k|a[lQ / d'No dfGotfx?nfO{ u|x0f ;'zf;gsf] k|a4{g l ;dfhsf x/]s txdf k|efjsf/L ;xeflud'ns zf;g Joj:yfsf] k|a4{g l hgtfsf] ;[hgzLntf, phf{ / ljljwtfsf] ;+nUgtf
  26. 26. 18 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development (= ljsf;sf]‌nIf eg]‌sf]‌k|s[ltsf]‌l;df leq hLjgnfO{ ;xh agfpg]‌tyf ;jn :j:y /‌Gofok"0f{ ;dfh lgdf{0f ug]‌{ xf]‌ . o;sf]‌nflu lbuf]‌cy{ Joj:yf, jL1fg ;Ddt gLlt lgdf{0f /‌sfof{Gjog tyf ;'zf;gsf]‌k|a4{g ug'{ k5{ . ljsf;sf]‌of]‌l;4fGt cg'?k g]‌kfnsf]‌vfsf tof/‌ug'{ h?/‌L 5 . !)= g]‌kfnsf]‌;Gbe{df ul/‌aL lgjf/‌0fsf]‌k|lqmofnfO{ ult lbg]‌/‌hghLljsfsf]‌nflu cfjZos ;|f]‌t tyf ;fwgx? pTkfbg ug]‌{ tyf ;fdflhs, cfly{s, /‌fhgLlts, ;f:s[lts tyf jftfj/‌0fLo cj;/‌x?nfO{ Jofks jgfpg]‌s'/‌f lbuf]‌ljsf; xf]‌-of]‌hgf cfof]‌u, @)!@_ . o;sf nflu lzIffsf]‌e"ldsf dxTjk"0f{ 5 . ;an /‌;d[4 g]‌kfn eg]‌sf]‌ /‌fi6«Lo cy{tGqdf cfwf/‌e"t kl/‌jt{g x'g' k5{ . hgtfsf]‌hLjg ul/‌aLsf]‌/‌]‌vf eGbf dfly x'g' k5{, plgx?sf]‌ lzIff /‌:jf:Yo pRr:t/‌sf]‌x'g' k5{, b]‌zsf]‌;'/‌Iff Joj:yf dha'b x'g'k5{, g]‌kfnsf]‌cfwf/‌e"t ;fdYo{sf If]‌qx? U'0ffTds?kdf ljsf; x'g'k5{ . o;af6 pTkfbg a'l4 x'g]‌/‌ljZj ahf/‌df lgof{t a9g]‌5 . @! cf}‌+ ztfAbLsf]‌ ;d[4 g]‌kfnsf]‌kl/‌sNkgf ;fsf/‌kfg{ kf}‌/‌lv xftx?nfO{ ;jn agfpg' k5{ /‌;[hgzLn dl:tisx?nfO{ ;d[4 agfpg' k5{ . !!= s'g}‌klg b]‌z Toxfsf k"j{hx?sf]‌clarlnt k|oTg tyf plgx?sf]‌kl/‌sNkgfaf6 lgdf{0f x'g]‌ub{5 . Pp6f lk8Ln]‌ cfkmgf ;'Gb/‌pknlAwx? csf]‌{ lk8LnfO{ x:tfGt/‌0f ub}‌{ hfG5, /‌x/‌]‌s gofF lk8Ln]‌tL pknlAwx?nfO{ cufl8 a9fpg]‌nIo agfpb5 . d'n'ssf]‌;d[l4 eg]‌sf]‌b]‌z ljsl;t /‌fi6«sf]‌?kdf k|s6 x'g]‌xf]‌ . o;sf]‌nflu g]‌kfn cfly{s tyf k|fljlws?kdf ljsfl;t x'g' k5{ . !@= s'g}‌klg b]‌z ljsl;t /‌fi6«sf]‌?kdf pleg]‌;"rsx? eg]‌sfM /‌fi6«sf]‌k"FhL, hgtfsf]‌;d[l4 /‌cGt/‌fi6«Lo d+rdf b]‌zsf]‌:yflkt :yfg, x'g . /‌fi6«Lo kF"hLnfO{ b]‌vfpg]‌yk ;"rsx? 5g, h:tf]‌ls, s'n u|fxYo pTkfbg, s'n /‌fi6«Lo pTkfbg, e"StfgLsf]‌;Gt'ng, a}‌b]‌lzs d'b|f ;+lrtL, cfly{s a[l4b/‌, k|ltJolQm cfo, O{Toflb . o;sf]‌;fy}‌ Jofkf/‌sf]‌cfsf/‌, ljZj Jofkf/‌df ePsf]‌l;o/‌x?af6 klg b]‌zsf]‌cy{tGqsf]‌zlQm k|ltlalDat x'g]‌u5{ . o;af6 slt k"FhL lgdf{0f x'G5 /‌hDdf x'G5 eGg]‌cfsng ug{ ;lsG5 . !#= cfly{s ;"rsx?sf]‌lalzi7 dxTj x'g]‌u5{, t/‌klg ltlgx?n]‌;dfhsf]‌Pp6f dfq tl:j/‌lbG5g . h:tf]‌ls, k|lt JolQm cfon]‌hgtfsf]‌xftdf ePsf]‌k"FhLsf]‌;+s]‌t ub{5, t/‌k|lt JolQm cfo eg]‌sf]‌wgL /‌ul/‌a aLrsf]‌cf}‌;t b/‌ePsf]‌n]‌o;n]‌;a}‌hgtfsf]‌xftdf Tolt /‌sd 5 eGg]‌b]‌vfpb}‌g . ;+Vof /‌tYofs+x? b]‌Vbf lgs}‌k|efjsf/‌L x'G5g, t/‌;fwf/‌0f hgtfsf y'k|}‌lk8fx? tL tYofs+x? leq n'Sg]‌u/‌]‌sf k|df0fx? k|;:t}‌e]‌l6g]‌u/‌]‌sf 5g . ;du|tfdf b]‌lvg]‌ tl:j/‌sf]‌ 5'66}‌ ;Gbe{df dxTj x'g]‌ u5{, t/‌ b]‌zsf]‌ ;d[l4sf]‌ s'/‌f ubf{ x/‌]‌s gful/‌ssf]‌ Wofg lbg' h?/‌L 5 . gfu/‌Lssf]‌hLjg s;/‌L rn]‌sf]‌5 eGg]‌x]‌Ssf x'g' k5{ . h:tf]‌ls, ;a{;fwf/‌0f hgtfsf]‌:jefljs hLjg rn]‌sf]‌5 5}‌g, p;n]‌cfkmgf 5f]‌/‌f5f]‌/‌Lx?sf]‌nfngkfng /‌lzIff lbIff pko'Qm 9+un]‌-;e|fGt9+un]‌xf]‌O{g_ ug{ ;s]‌sf]‌5 5}‌g, /‌f]‌uJoflw gePsf]‌lb3{ hLjg p;sf]‌5 5}‌g, p;sf]‌Go'gtd ;'lawf ePsf]‌hLjg wfGgsf nflu cfjZos /‌f]‌huf/‌L 5 5}‌g, O{Toflb . ;+ejtM of]‌g}‌;d[4 g]‌kfnsf]‌kl/‌sNkgf xf]‌ . !$= o;}‌u/‌L w]‌/‌}‌ ;"rsx?nfO{ hgtfsf]‌ jf:tljs cj:yfsf]‌ k|ltljDasf]‌?kdf x]‌l/‌G5, h:tf]‌sL, hgtfsf]‌ cfxf/‌ /‌ kf]‌if0f tTjsf]‌cj:yf, cf}‌;t cfo', afn d[To'b/‌, vfg]‌kfgL tyf ;/‌;kmfO{sf]‌Joj:yf, a;f]‌jf;sf]‌Joj:yf, /‌f]‌u Joflwsf]‌cj:yf, ckfu+tf, cg'Tkfbgsf If]‌qx?, :jf:y pkrf/‌dflysf]‌kx'Fr, ;fIff/‌tf, :s"n ;'lawf, pRrlzIffsf]‌cj:yf, O{Toflb . oL ;a}‌;"rsx? ;sf/‌fTds ePtf klg plTkl8t, ul/‌a tyf lae]‌bdf /‌x]‌sf hgtfx?sf cfFz' tyf z':s]‌/‌fx?nfO{ ;Daf]‌wg gubf{ ;Dd g]‌kfn /‌fi6«sf]‌?kdf pleg ;Sb}‌g . ;w}‌h;f]‌ul/‌aL lgjf/‌0f, lg/‌If/‌tf pGd'ng, /‌f]‌u d'lQm, c;dfg cj;/‌sf]‌ cGTo, O{Toflb cleofgx? ;/‌sf/‌af6 e}‌/‌x]‌sf]‌ xf]‌, t/‌ klg b]‌z ljsf;sf]‌ nIo k|fKt x'g ;ls/‌x]‌sf]‌ 5}‌g  . o;sf]‌ ljkl/‌t ul/‌aL /‌ a]‌/‌f]‌huf/‌L al9/‌x]‌sf]‌ cj:yf 5  . ;a}‌ g]‌kfnLnfO{ cfly{s?kdf dfly gp7fP ;Dd o:tf cleofgsf]‌s'g}‌cy{ /‌xb}‌g . ;a}‌g]‌kfnLsf]‌;'/‌lIft /‌;'vdo jt{dfg x'g'k5{ /‌eljio k|lt cfzfjfbL x'g]‌cj:yf x'g'k5{ . ;+ejt ;a}‌n]‌vf]‌h]‌sf]‌g]‌kfn o:t}‌xf]‌ . !%= zx/‌L ljsf; /‌u|fdL0f ljsf;n]‌of]‌tYonfO{ ;Daf]‌wg ug'{ k5{ .
  27. 27. 19 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development != k[i7e"ld s'g}‌klg b]‌zsf]‌lbuf]‌ljsf; /‌;dl[4sf nflu vfB ;'/‌Iff, pmhf{ ;'/‌Iff /‌hn;|f]‌t ;'/‌Iff dxTjk"0f{ c+ux? x'g . oL tLg If]‌qsf]‌;jntf /‌b'j{ntfn]‌cGo If]‌qx? h:t}‌lzIff, :jf:Yo, pBf]‌u, ef}‌lts k"jf{wf/‌cflbsf]‌ljsf;sf]‌ult tyf lbzfnfO{ lgwf{/‌0f ub{5 . k|ltJolQm cfo, dfgj ljsf; ;'rsf+s nufotsf ;d[l4sf ;'rsf+sx?df g]‌kfnsf]‌:yfg ljZjsf]‌ tNnf]‌ !%–@) k|ltzt jl/‌kl/‌ /‌x]‌sf]‌ 5  . csf]‌{lt/‌ ljZjsf]‌ bf]‌;|f]‌ /‌ kfFrf}‌+ 7"nf]‌ cy{tGq ePsf]‌ rLg /‌ ef/‌tsf]‌ aLrdf xfdL /‌x]‌sf 5f}‌+ . o;y{ d'n'ssf]‌ljsf; /‌cl:tTjnfO{ hf]‌ufO{ /‌fVg ;d]‌t Pp6f lehgsf ;fy oL If]‌qx?sf]‌ ljsf;df xfdLn]‌Wofg lbg}‌kb{5 . o;/‌L dfq d''n'ssf]‌cfly{s ;fdflhs ?kfGt/‌0f ;Dej x'G5, g]‌kfnL hgtfsf]‌ lhjg:t/‌nfO{ dfly psf:g ;lsG5 . vfBfGg tyf hn;|f]‌tsf ljifox? klg plQs}‌dxTjsf x'Fbfx'b}‌klg o; n]‌v eg]‌ phf{ cem ljz]‌if u/‌]‌/‌ljB'tLo phf{ /‌;Da[l4;+u s]‌Gb|Lt /‌x]‌sf]‌5 . @= cfo /‌phf{ ljZjdf k|ltjif{ k|ltJolQm phf{ vkt cf}‌;tdf ^* luuf h'n -!,^@* kilogram of oil equivalent, kgoe_ hlt /‌x]‌sf]‌ 5 eg]‌Pl;ofsf]‌xsdf of]‌c+s #& luuf h'n -**) kgoe_ hlt 5 . g]‌kfnsf]‌k|ltjif{ k|ltJolQm phf{ vkt s]‌jn !% luufh'n -#%) kgoe_ a/‌fa/‌dfq 5 . lrq ! df ljZjsf !!@ j6f b]‌zx?sf]‌k|ltJolQm cfo /‌pknAw phf{ vktsf]‌8f6fnfO{ b]‌vfOPsf]‌5 . o; lrqn]‌phf{ vkt /‌pQm b]‌zsf]‌k|ltJolQm cfosf]‌aLrdf ;dfg'kftLo k|ToIf ;DaGw x'Fbf]‌/‌x]‌5 eGg]‌s'/‌f b]‌vfpFb5 . cyf{t phf{ vkt a9L x'g]‌b]‌zsf]‌cfly{s ;+al[4 klg a9L /‌cfly{s ;+al[4 sd ePsf b]‌zx?df phf{sf]‌pknAwtf /‌vkt klg sd x'g]‌s'/‌f o;af6 :ki6 b]‌lvG5 . lrq !M k|ltJolQm cfo / phf{ vktsf] ;DaGw ;|f]tM International Energy Agency (IEA), 2005 O{= 8f= nIdL b]jsf]6f sfo{sf/L cWoIf a'9Lu08sL hnljB't cfof]hgf ljsf; ;ldlt g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df ;+a[l4 / phf{
  28. 28. 20 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development To;}‌ u/‌L lrq @ df ljZjsf !!@ j6f b]‌zx?sf]‌k|ltJolQm cfo /‌ljB'tLo phf{ vktsf]‌;DaGwnfO{ b]‌vfOPsf]‌5 . o; lrqaf6 ljB'tLo phf{ vkt /‌cfly{s ;+al[4sf]‌aLrdf klg k|ToIf ;DaGw /‌x]‌sf]‌b]‌lvG5 . ljB'tLo phf{ eg]‌sf]‌ phf{sf]‌pGgt :j?k xf]‌ . g]‌kfndf o;sf]‌cf}‌;t pkof]‌u s/‌La !)) lsnf]‌jf6 cfj/‌-ogL6_ dfq 5 . hals ljsl;t b]‌zx?df of]‌vkt !) ;f}‌+ xhf/‌o"gL6;Dd eO/‌x]‌sf]‌tYo oxL lrq @ df b]‌lvG5 . lrq @M k|ltJolQm cfo / ljB'tLo phf{ vktsf] ;DaGw ;|f]tM International Energy Agency (IEA), 2005 lrq # df g]‌kfndf jt{dfg cj:yfdf vkt eO/‌x]‌sf phf{sf ;|f]‌tx? b]‌vfOPsf]‌5 . g]‌kfndf bfp/‌f g}‌phf{sf]‌d'Vo ;|f]‌t /‌x]‌sf]‌tYo o; lrqdf :ki6;Fu b]‌Vg ;lsG5 . bfp/‌fn]‌d'n'ssf]‌s"n phf{sf]‌&*Ü hlt dfu k"lt{ u/‌]‌sf]‌kfO{G5 . s[lifhGo /‌kz'hGo kbfy{af6 (Ü hlt /‌cfofltt k|]‌6«f]‌lnod kbfy{af6 *Ü hlt phf{sf]‌dfu k"lt{ eO/‌x]‌sf]‌cj:yf clxn]‌/‌x]‌sf]‌5 . jt{dfg cj:yfdf ljB'tLo phf{sf]‌of]‌ubfg eg]‌@Ü eGbf klg sd /‌x]‌sf]‌5 . ;fy}‌gjLs/‌0fLo phf{sf]‌ljsf; gu0o dfqfdf dfq ePsf]‌tYo lrq # n]‌b]‌vfpFb5 . lrq #M g]‌kfndf k|of]‌u x'g]‌ljleGg k|sf/‌sf phf{ ;|f]‌tM g]‌kfnsf]‌phf{ l/‌kf]‌6{ @))^, hn tyf zlQm cfof]‌u
  29. 29. 21 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development lrq $ df If]‌qut k|of]‌hgdf eO/‌x]‌sf]‌phf{sf]‌vkt b]‌vfOPsf]‌5 . g]‌kfndf 3/‌fo;L k|of]‌hgdf nueu ()Ü phf{ vr{ eO/‌x]‌sf]‌cj:yf clxn]‌/‌x]‌sf]‌5 . cf}‌Bf]‌lus tyf s[lif h:tf pTkfbg d'ns tyf oftfot Pj+ Jokf/‌–Joj;fo h:tf ;]‌jf d'ns If]‌qdf eg]‌gu0o dfqfdf dfq phf{ vkt eO/‌x]‌sf]‌tYo klg o; lrqaf6 b]‌lvG5 . o;af6 xfd|f]‌ cy{tGq pTkfbgd'vL geP/‌lgjf{xd'vL /‌x]‌sf]‌b]‌lvG5 . lrq $M phf{sf]‌If]‌qut k|of]‌u ;|f]‌tM g]‌kfnsf]‌phf{ l/‌kf]‌6{ @))^, hn tyf zlQm cfof]‌u dflysf]‌tYofÍx?nfO{ ;/‌;tL{ x]‌bf{ /‌cfly{s ;+j[l4;+u phf{nfO{ hf]‌8bf tnsf s'/‌fx?df xfd|f]‌Wofg k'Ug h?/‌L b]‌lvG5  . c_ cfly{s ;+j[l4sf nIox?sf]‌lgwf{/‌0f cf_ phf{sf ;DaGwdf -s_ k|ltJolQm phf{ vkt a9fpg' kg]‌{ -v_ phf{sf]‌ pGgt ;|f]‌tx?sf]‌ ljsf;df hf]‌8 lbg'kg]‌{ -u_ phf{sf]‌k|of]‌u pTkfbgzLn sfo{df nufpg' kg]‌{ -3_ lbuf]‌cfly{s ljsf;sf nflu lbuf]‌?kdf phf{sf]‌pknAwtfsf]‌Uof/‌]‌G6L x'g'kg]‌{ #= d'n'ssf]‌nflu cfjZos phf{ s'g}‌klg d'n'snfO{ cfjZos kg]‌{ phf{ p;sf]‌cfly{s ljsf; /‌hLjg:t/‌nfO{ s'g :t/‌df k'¥ofpg]‌eGg]‌s'/‌f;+u ;DalGwt x'G5 . o;y{ g]‌kfnsf]‌;Gbe{df klg ca cfjZos kg]‌{ phf{sf]‌s'/‌f ubf{ log}‌cfwf/‌df ljZn]‌if0f ug'{ pko'Qm x'G5 . ;+a[4 g]‌kfn agfpg]‌kl/‌sNkgf g]‌kfnsf ;a}‌/‌fhgLlts kf6L{x?n]‌u/‌]‌klg Plss[t g]‌kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ -dfcf]‌jfbL_ n]‌dfq 7f]‌; ?kdf cfˆgf uGtAox?sf]‌lgwf{/‌0f u/‌]‌sf]‌kfOG5 . h; cg';f/‌p;n]‌cfufdL !) jif{df g]‌kfnL hgtfsf]‌hLjg:t/‌nfO{ dWod:t/‌df, @) jif{df pRr:t/‌df tyf $) jif{df clt pRr:t/‌df k'¥ofpg]‌nIo /‌fv]‌sf]‌5 . of]‌eg]‌sf]‌cfufdL !) jif{df k|To]‌s g]‌kfnLsf]‌;/‌b/‌cfo k|ltjif{ #,))) 8n/‌sf]‌xf/‌fxf/‌Ldf tyf cfufdL @) /‌$) jif{ leq of]‌cfonfO{ qmdzM !*,))) /‌$),))) 8n/‌;Dd k'¥ofpg]‌eGg]‌xf]‌ . o;nfO{ g}‌ cfwf/‌ dfg]‌/‌ cfpFbf jif{x?df g]‌kfndf slt phf{ pTkfbg /‌k|of]‌u ug'{kb{5 eGg]‌cfFs8f oxf k|:t't ul/‌Psf]‌5 .
  30. 30. 22 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development lrq ! df b]‌vfOPsf]‌k|ltJolQm cfo /‌phf{ vktsf]‌;DaGwsf cfwf/‌df cfufdL !), @) /‌$) jif{df g]‌kfnLsf]‌ hLjg:t/‌nfO{ dfly pNn]‌v ul/‌P adf]‌lhd k'¥ofpgsf nflu cfjZos kg]‌{ k|ltAolQm /‌hDdf phf{ tflnsf ! df lbOPsf]‌5 . o;af6 cfufdL !), @) /‌$) jif{df qmdzM $!, !#* /‌@&^ million ton of oil equivalent (mtoe) a/‌fa/‌sf]‌phf{ cfjZos kg]‌{ blvG5 . To;}‌u/‌L o;af6 cfufdL !), @) /‌$) jif{df qmdzM !), @% /‌$% xhf/‌ d]‌ufjf6 ljB'tLo phf{ d'n'sdf rflxg]‌blvG5 -tflnsf @_. tflnsf !M eljiosf nflu cfjZos phf{sf]‌l:ylt jif{ k|ltJolQm cfo -8n/‌_ hg;+Vof -xhf/‌df_ k|ltJolQm cfjZos phf{ (kgoe) hDdf cfjZos phf{ (mtoe) cfufdL 10 3,000 35,868 1,143 41 20 18,000 41,742 3,309 138 40 jif{ 40,000 51,891 5,314 276 tflnsf @M eljiosf nflu cfjZos ljB'tLo phf{ jif{ k|ltJolQm cfo k|ltJolQm cfjZos ljB'tLo phf{ cfjZos ljB'tu[xsf]‌Ifdtf -8n/‌_ (KWh) (MW) cfufdL 10 3,000 1500 10,000 20 18,000 5,500 25,000 40 jif{ 40,000 10,000 45,000 $= ljB'tLo phf{ pTkfbg /‌k|of]‌u phf{x? dWo]‌;aeGbf pGgt ?ksf]‌phf{ ljB'tLo phf{ xf]‌ . cfkmg}‌d'n'sdf pknAw k|r'/‌hn;|f]‌taf6 pTkfbg ug{ ;lsg]‌phf{ hnljB't ePsfn]‌cfufdL jif{x?df d'ntM hnljB'tsf]‌ljsf;df ljz]‌if hf]‌8 lbg' kg]‌{ blvG5 . u}‌/‌hnfzoo'Qm cfof]‌hgfx?af6 pTkfbg x'g]‌ljh'nLsf]‌dfqf lxpFbsf]‌;'Vvfofddf hl8t IfdtfeGbf lgs}‌sd cyf{t hl8t Ifdtfsf]‌Ps ltxfO b]‌lv cfwfcflw hltdfq x'g hfG5 . o;y{ hnfzoo'Qm (Storage Type) tyf u}‌/‌ hnfzoo'Qm (Run of the River) cfof]‌hgfx?sf]‌;Gt'lnt ljsf; u/‌]‌/‌dfq hnljB't pTkfbg clwstd pkof]‌uL (Optimized) x'g;S5 . o;/‌L dfq jiff{ofd /‌lxpFbsf]‌;'Vvfofddf b]‌lvg]‌ljB't cfk"lt{sf]‌c;Gt'ngnfO{ ;Daf]‌wg ug{ ;lsG5 . o;/‌L x]‌bf{ hnfzoo'Qm tyf u}‌/‌hnfzoo'Qm hnljB't cfof]‌hgfx?sf]‌cg'kft $)M^) ljsf; u/‌]‌df /‌pbfx/‌0fsf nflu tn tflnsf # df lbOP adf]‌lhd ljleGg ljB'tu[xx? ;+rfng u/‌]‌df jif{el/‌g}‌Psgf;n]‌ljB't cfk"lt{ ug{ ;lsg]‌b]‌lvG5 . tflnsf #M ljB't u[x ;+rfng tflnsf ofd hnfzoo'Qm (S) u}‌/‌ hnfzoo'Qm (R) s'n pknAw ljB't jiff{ofd S/‌4: 10% R: 60% 70% of (S+R) lxpFbofd S: 40% R/‌2* : 30% 70% of (S+R) Ifdtf 40% of (S+R) 60% of (S+R) * lxpbofddf hnljB't pTkfbg cfwf pTkfbg x'G5 eg]‌/‌lnFbf S = hnfzoo'Qm cfof]‌hgfsf]‌Ifdtf, R = u}‌/‌ hnfzoo'Qm cfof]‌hgfsf]‌ Ifdtf
  31. 31. 23 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development ;fy}‌ b|'tt/‌ lsl;dn]‌ eO/‌x]‌sf]‌ k|ljlwsf]‌ ljsf;nfO{ x]‌bf{ afof]‌UofF;, dfOqmf]‌xfO8«f]‌, ;f}‌o{phf{ tyf jfo'phf{sf]‌ ljsf; ;xh aGb}‌ hfg]‌ b]‌lvG5  . o;af/‌]‌df csf]‌{ 5'66}‌ ljZn]‌if0fsf]‌ h?/‌t b]‌lvG5  . ljB'tLo phf{sf]‌pTkfbgzLn If]‌qdf ul/‌g]‌k|of]‌un]‌dfq d'n'ssf]‌cfly{s ;fdflhs ?kfGt/‌0f ;Dej x'G5 . ljZjsf ljleGg d'nssf]‌tYof+snfO{ x]‌bf{ -pbfx/‌0fsf nflu s]‌xL b]‌zx?sf]‌tYof+s lbOPsf]‌5_ cfufdL jif{x?df tflnsf $ jf lrq % df lbOP cg';f/‌sf]‌pkof]‌u ug'{kg]‌{ b]‌lvG5 . tflnsf $M phf{sf]‌If]‌qut k|of]‌u -∞_ k|of]‌u yfONof08 sf]‌l/‌of hfkfg g]‌kfn xfn cfufdL 10 20 40 jif{ cf}‌Bf]‌lus 37 44 39 3.5 20 30 40 oftfoft 37 22 27 3.8 10 18 29 s[lif 4 3 3 0.8 10 7 3 Joj;flos 5 15 13 1.5 11 11 11 3/‌fo;L 16 11 15 90.3 47 31 14 cGo 1 5 3 0.2 2 3 3 s"n 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 ;|f]‌tM International Energy Agency (IEA), 2005 tyf g]‌kfnsf]‌phf{ l/‌kf]‌6{ @))^, hn tyf zlQm cfof]‌u lrq %M k|If]‌lkt phf{sf]‌If]‌qut k|of]‌u %= pk;+ef/‌ g]‌kfndf k|of]‌u x'g]‌phf{x?df bfp/‌fsf]‌of]‌ubfg &*Ü /‌x]‌sf]‌5 . t/‌xfd|f]‌jgh+unsf]‌ Ifdtf eg]‌s]‌jn $*Ü dfq phf{ k"lt{ ug{ ;Sg]‌/‌x]‌sf]‌5 -yfkf /‌yfkf, !((%_ . lbuf]‌?kdf xfdL jgh+unaf6 ^% nfv 6g bfp/‌f lng;S5f}‌+ t/‌jflif{s dfu !%) nfv 6g /‌x]‌sf]‌b]‌lvG5 -WECS, 2006; Shrestacharya, 2002_ . kmn:j?k jgh+unn]‌lbg ;Sg]‌
  32. 32. 24 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development Ifdtf eGbf a9L dfqfdf bfp/‌f s6fgL x'g]‌ u/‌]‌sf]‌ sf/‌0fn]‌ jif]‌{gL g]‌kfnsf]‌ jgIf]‌q 3l6/‌x]‌sf]‌ 5  . o;sf]‌ kl/‌0ffd af9L, klx/‌f]‌h:tf k|fs[lts k|sf]‌kx? jif}‌{ lkR5]‌a9L/‌x]‌sf 5g . cyf{t jftfj/‌0fdf x|f; cfO/‌x]‌sf]‌5 . bfp/‌f, s[lifhGo cjz]‌if tyf uf]‌a/‌h:tf phf{sf]‌]‌k|of]‌u vfgf ksfpg]‌, 3/‌nfO{ Gofgf]‌kfg]‌{ h:tf 3/‌fo;L k|of]‌hgdf x'g]‌ub{5 . o:tf sfdaf6 lg:sg]‌k|b'lift w'jfFn]‌dlxnf tyf afnaflnsfsf]‌:jf:Yodf ;d]‌t xflg k'¥ofO/‌x]‌sf]‌5 . ;fy}‌k]‌6«f]‌lnod kbfy{sf]‌cfoftdf jif]‌{gL c/‌af+}‌?kofF ljb]‌lzPsf]‌dfq xf]‌O{g pRr ;/‌sf/‌L cg'bfgsf]‌gfpFdf c/‌af}‌+ ?kofF ;d]‌t u'dfpg' k/‌]‌sf]‌ 5  . o;n]‌ d'n'ssf]‌ cy{tGqnfO{ g}‌ w/‌fzfoL agfO/‌x]‌sf]‌ 5  . lbuf]‌?kdf phf{sf]‌pknAwtf xfl;n ug{ b]‌zleq g}‌pknAw ;|f]‌t;fwgaf6 pTkfbg ug{ ;lsg]‌phf{ ljsf;df ljz]‌if ?kn]‌hf]‌8 lbg' kb{5 . jftj/‌0fLo ;+/‌If0f tyf hg:jf:ynfO{ dWogh/‌/‌fVb}‌casf lbgx?df k/‌Dk/‌fut phf{sf]‌ k|of]‌unfO{ hlt ;lsG5 sd ub}‌{ nfg' h?/‌L 5 . cfofltt phf{sf]‌klg ;s]‌;Dd sd k|of]‌u ug'{ plrt x'G5 . o;y{ xfd|f]‌d'n'ssf]‌kl/‌k|]‌Iodf hnljB'tLo tyf gjLs/‌0fLo phf{sf]‌ljsf;df hf]‌8tf]‌8sf ;fy nfUg'sf]‌ljsNk b]‌lvb}‌g . ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L l g]‌kfnsf]‌phf{ l/‌kf]‌6{ @))^, hn tyf zlQm cfof]‌u l yfkf, e]‌v a= /‌k|wfg, e/‌t a=, ;g !((%,hn;|f]‌t ljsf;M g]‌kfnL b[lisf]‌0f, sf]‌gfs{ k|sfzg, sf7df+8f}‌, g]‌kfn, l International Energy Agency (IEA), 2005 l SEDO, 2009, The Sustainable Energy Development Office (SEDO), the Government of Western Australia. l Shrestacharya, A. 2002, Energy Economics of Nepal, Udaya Books, Kathmandu. l Taskforce, 2009, bz jifL{o hnljB't ljsf; of]‌hgf th'{df sfo{bn, 2065 l WRI (World Resources Institute), ;g @))@, http:/‌/‌earthtrends.wri.org/‌visited August 2009 phf{sf o"lg6x? /‌ltgx?sf]‌aLrsf]‌;DaGw kgoe kg of oil equivalent toe ton of oil equivalent 1 toe = 1000 kgoe = 41.868 *10^9 J = 11630 KWh mtoe million toe 1 mtoe = 10^6 toe KWh Kilowatt hour 1 KWh = 3.6 * 10^6 J GWh Gigawatt hour 1 GWh= 10^6 KWh J Joule We Congratulate Society of Engineers for Rural Development, Nepal (SERDeN) for the publication of 4th volume of journal "Rural Infrastructure" on the auspicious occasion of 16th Anniversary of DoLIDAR and extend our best wishes for it's success in contributing towards rural development of Nepal. Lekh Bahadur Basnet Proprietor Tani Nirman Sewa P. Ltd. Battisputali, Kathmandu
  33. 33. 25 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development Er. Hare Ram Shrestha MIE (Civil, India), M. Sc. (Env Mgmt.), M. Phil. (Env. Sc.) Executive Director: Sustainable Infrastructure Development Foundation (SIDeF) President: Society of Consulting Architectural and Engineering Firms (SCAEF) Nepal PastVice President : Nepal Engineers Association (NEA) RURAL ROAD NETWORK IN NEPAL: A MASSIVE CHALLANGE AHEADTO IMPROVE & MAINTAIN 1 INTRODUCTION Transport facilities help to develop the access of rural-urban linkages. Rural transport reduces isolation, stimulates marketing activities, improves public services and thus rural connectivity is key component of rural development. Nepal's rugged terrain prevents people from moving with ease. Nepal’s road network and quality are among the lowest in South Asia. More than one-third of its people live in more than two hours walk from the nearest all-season road; In addition, some 60% of road network and most rural roads are not operational during rainy season. Hence improving fair weather roads to an all-weather standard and implementing a maintenance system is essential for Nepal’s economic growth and social welfare. Planning, implementation and operation and maintenance of district level transport infrastructure are the responsibility of the District Development Committees (DDCs) with the assumption that the DDCs can effectively mobilize the local resources and acquire people’s participation. Now 50944 km length of rural road networks have been constructed (DoLIDAR, 2012). These lengths do not include urban roads in municipal area. Rural roads is expected to integrate the rural area in main stream of country's overall economic activities reducing the isolation and hence providing access to deliver all the basic government services - health, education and thereby improving the livelihood of the rural people. History of Development of Strategic Road in Nepal The historical evidence shows that the Gorkhali rulers had devised a number of arrangements for maintaining lines of transport and communications from Kathmandu to different districts. As mentioned by Regmi (1987) these arrangements could be described under two main headings: An east-west track through the hill region and postal service for the transportation of official mail and supplies. However, Rana rulers (until 1950), according to Regmi (1987), refrained from constructing large-scale transportation infrastructure because they were afraid that economic development should provide a motive for the British to annex the Kingdom. Road construction initiative took place after the fall of Rana Regime. The major emphasis on the construction of a strategic road network during the period of 1950 – 1975 gradually changed and the country started to focus on constructing roads of regional importance. Nepal's first highway Tribhuwan Rajpath connecting Birgunj and Kathmandu was constructed by Government of India, completed in 1956. The agreement among the Governments of India, United States of America and Nepal in 1958 to establish the Regional Transportation Organization (RTO) for building roads was an organised and planned way on a long term basis, was the first effort in the history of Nepalese motorized road construction in Nepal (Zimmermann and Rajbhandari, 1995).
  34. 34. 26 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development The RTO formulated a 20-year program to build north-south roads connecting Indian cities and railheads along the border. After the collapse of RTO in 1962, Nepal continued its effort to invite donors and build roads. Second highway Siddhartha Rajmarga connecting Sunauli and Pokhara was constructed by Government of India. The earlier policy of emphasizing north-south roads was replaced by the east-west roads like the East-West Highway (1026 km) and Prithivi Raj Marg (Naubise - Pokhara, 176 km). With the internal resources of Nepal and contributions received from the major donor countries and agencies like India, China, USSR, UK, USA, Switzerland, Japan, World Bank (WB) and Asian Development Bank (ADB), Nepal developed the present strategic road networks, which is now at the range of ten thousand kilometres. Strategic Roads Network (SRN) are planned, implemented and maintained by Department of Roads (DOR). Initiative and Development of Rural Roads With the construction of national highways, second priority was given to construct the feeder roads linking major market towns and district headquarters with the national highways. National highways and feeder roads are strategic roads. After the construction of feeder roads network, construction of district roads started in various part of the country since 1980ies. Government initiative started the rural access programme with the formation of Local Development Construction Committee in 1977. Later Programme was named as "Goreto Ghodeto Aayojana (Foot Trail Mule Trail Project) in 1989. Local people initiated the construction of rural roads in the beginning and accelerated further since early 1990ies by the local bodies like DDCs and VDCs. Department of Roads, DDCs and MLD started funding the construction of rural roads. Programme was named as Local Development Construction Project in 1994 till the formation of Department of Local Infrastructure Development and Agricultural Roads (DoLIDAR) under Ministry of Local Development. Before formation of DoLIDAR, during eighties some district and regional integrated rural development projects were started e.g. Rapti Integrated Rural Development Project (supported by USAID), Koshi Hill Agricultural Rural Development Project (KHARDP, Supported by UK), Palpa Development Project (PDP, supported by GTZ and SDC), Dhading Development Project (DDP, supported by GTZ). Though these projects were focussed on agriculture, due to high demand of local people, these projects had to undertake some rural roads projects. Rapti project constructed Ghorahi - Pyuthan Road, PDP initiated three roads in Plapa - Aryabhanjyang - Rampur, Harthok, - Chhahara and Banstari - Jhadewa roads. DDP initiated two roads in Dhading - Dhadingbesi - Salyantar and Bhimdhunga - Lamidanda roads. These roads played a pioneer role in showing the need of rural roads in other districts too. With growing demand of rural roads, formation of new dedicated department was necessitated and DoLIDAR was formed under Ministry of Local Development in 1997. After the formation of DoLIDAR, construction of rural roads in district level got momentum throughout the country. Road sector programme was named as Local Development Construction and Agricultural Roads Project in 2000. Road sector programme was named as Agriculture and Local Level Road Project in 2005. Later to streamline the rural road funding sector wide approach is adopted and termed as Rural Transport Infrastructure Sector Wide Approach Programme from 2009. Thus rural road programme passed its course from three decades. Now, with the VDC grant started since last few years rural road construction is increased suddenly and significantly. Though road construction started haphazardly, even without conducting the survey works road construction started hiring dozers, local people with their initiative started roads, especially in hill districts.
  35. 35. 27 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development 2 RRN PRESENT SCENARIO There are two distinct scenario of road status in Terai and hill districts. Terai districts have all three categories of roads - blacktop, gravel and earthen roads. Whereas, most of the roads in hill districts are earthen. For example total rural roads in Morang district is 1233 kms, in which 953.65 kms gravel road, 22.72 km is black top and 257.51 km is earthen roads. In terms of percentage - gravel roads occupy 77.29% of road is gravel, 21% and blacktop road is 1.84%. Sindhupalchowk, a hill district, has the highest road length among the hill district with 1778 km of total road length. But, no blacktop road yet and only 15 km. of gravel roads exist in the district. Therefore, most of the roads are fair weather. Thus the priority of road works and maintenance is different in Terai and hill roads. National Total: According to the DoLIDAR (2012) Rural Road Record, total rural road length is 50944 kms. Earthen road is 34766 kms, gravel road 14602 and blacktop road is 1576 km. Thus, earthen road is 68%, gravel road 29% and blacktop road is 3 % only. This is sizeable road length of rural road with 34.61 km road length per 100 square km of land area of Nepal. Actually this figure will be more if the land area of plain and hill only is counted deducting the inhabitable land area of snow clad mountains. This figure is quite high if all roads could be made all weather. Since 68% road length is earthen road, which is pliable during fair weather of 8 months only. Many of these roads are not operational during fair weather too, due to incompleteness, especially the rocky cliff and absence of river crossings. Therefore people are deprived of the year round access. Implementation Need of RRN There is huge funding gap between required budget and available budget for road woks. Actual demand of completing the remaining works i.e widening, structural works (retaining walls), side and cross drainage works is very high for almost all the roads. At the same time upgrading demand and requirement of roads to gravel standard is also very high. Many of the important district roads, which are now within the first five top priority roads in DTMP were started to construct as early as 30 years ago. Begnas - Bhorletar Road, Kaski was initiated in 2036 B.S, 34 years ago. Many of the roads in hill district, public vehicles are operational during fair weather only since last 10 to 15 years. People have strong urge to make these roads to gravel standard. It is realised that due to absence of year round operation, many potential economic activities are hindered. For example an entrepreneur in Bhorletar in Kaski district planned to put a juice factory, but he was reluctant, because he fears his investment will not yield the benefit unless there is uninterrupted all weather road round the year. Cases of implementation of roads activities have different priorities in various districts, Implementation priorities could be broadly grouped in three categories - Terai, districts, hill districts and mountain districts. Terai districts: Most of the terai districts are in need of; ll Proper establishment of all sets of maintenance mechanism - routine, recurrent and periodic maintenance for gravel standard road. ll Completion of structural works, especially the side drain and cross drain works. ll River and rivulets crossing structures e.g. culverts, smaller to long span bridges. ll Upgrading of road surface to blacktop standard.
  36. 36. 28 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development Hill districts: Many hill districts have initiated the roads construction and most of the roads are in the state of under-construction. Construction of many top priority roads were started long ago, since 20 to 30 year, are partially operational since last few years. Majority of other roads, particularly initiated by VDCs in hill districts in recent years are dozer roads. These roads are of poor quality, poorly aligned and many roads are not even surveyed. To make the priority roads, operational at least during fair weather of 9 months, requirement of such roads in hill districts are; ll Road surface spot improvement works in problematic area. ll Widening of road width wherever it is very narrow, which are incomplete particularly in rocky area. ll Structural works and retaining walls. ll Construction of side and cross drains in required places. ll River and rivulets crossing structures e.g. culverts and bridges ll Establishment of maintenance mechanism. To make top priority roads to all weather operational, proper gravel works throughout the road length is required. Various surface pavement method is applied in Sindhupalchowk district - river gravel, stone soling, cobble soling etc. But stone soling is widely practiced with good workmanship with long experiences. Cost is similar to river gravel in lower hills, whereas in higher altitude and ridge area stone soling is cheaper than river gravel. Dozer roads, which are mostly initiated by VDCs in recent years, are more problematic. These roads are to be treated as new construction. Interventions requirement of these roads are; ll Assessment of alignment itself and corrections of alignment so that any investment made now onwards are not wasted. ll Retaining structures ll Widening to the required road width. ll Construction of side and cross drains in required places. ll Spot improvement of road surface to operate during fair weather If these roads are to be made all weather, depending on the potential and demand of traffic volume, such roads are to be upgraded to gravel standard. DDC is starting to employ length man for routine maintenance work. All weather roads as a reliable access to various services, entrepreneurs are encouraged to establish the permanent nature of economic and business activities. Investors are likely to invest their business, agricultural activities and economic activities along the vicinity of all weather roads. Earlier road work was based on adhoc basis and budget allocations of roads were influenced by the political parties. Maintenance of gravel road is understood as spreading of gravel, no detail mechanism of grading, watering, cambering and rolling is practiced in rural roads of terai. New DTMP Guidelines was prepared for DoLIDAR with the support of RTI Sector Maintenance Pilot. All the districts are investing in hundreds of roads with limited fund. Thus fund provided to each road used to be insignificant in terms of requirement. No roads are in complete state. District Road Core Network (DRCN) concept is introduced in new DTMP Guidelines. This rule has
  37. 37. 29 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development become a good tool to bring to the politician to agree on identifying the priority roads to fund to the meaningful scale. 3 PROBLEMS & CHALLANGES Budget required and available has huge gap for RRN. Roads are incomplete due to inadequate budget. Due to less funding, minor works are done in small section, which is easily washed out during monsoon and get damaged by operation of vehicle, which actually is repeating every year, has in turn made roads more expensive. In steeper area, full road width is not obtained to gain more road length. This is causing the difficulty for the vehicle. Political influence is still prevalent in allocating funds for roads. Problem is still with RBN fund to follow their specific rules. DDCs are hesitant to use RBN fund fulfilling the various conditions for the relatively smaller fund received from RBN. District Assembly takes place mostly in Falgun, budget allocation is rearranged/reallocated and only after that, road work is initiated. Fund is released on Chaitra every year, works starts from Baisakh and during monsoon. Works is done during monsoon. This has created difficulties in managerial and financial problems and ultimately led to poor quality of works and sometime lead to financial irregularity. Monitoring of road works could not be done as required due to absence of fund required to send staff for monitoring. No separate fund is allocated for monitoring works. Dedicated fund is required for monitoring of works. Low bidding is major problem to maintain quality of work. Contractor is bidding at low rate, this make difficult to complete construction work on time. Sometime formation of User committee is difficult as the parties have disputes and do not accept each other. Difficult to follow engineering norms for smaller fund, especially for the works that require machine works e.g. roller. 4 RRN ASSETVALUE: According to the recent Rural Road Inventory published by DoLIDAR, total road length of the country is 50944 km. Earthen road is 34766 kms, gravel road 14602 and blacktop road is 1576 km. Earthen road is 68%, gravel road 29% and blacktop road is 3 % only. Unless the road surface is upgraded to gravel level, people will deprive of all weather access. Many roads are constructed by the local contribution in the beginning. Some hill districts have road asset of more than Rs. 2 billion (Sindhupalchowk district). Thus more assets are created than the actual fund invested by the government for rural road sector. Both UC and contractor model is used. Some works are appropriate to work through contractors' e.g. structural works and pavement works requiring use of machine. Track opening and widening works from UC is appropriate, whereas structural works is appropriate from contractors.
  38. 38. 30 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development RRN ASSET VALUE Table 1: National total of rural road length and equivalent asset value   Terai Road length Km Rate per km NRs. (Million) Amount NRs (Million) Earthen 8204 3 24,612.0 Gravel 12320 5 61,600.0 Blacktop 938 7 6,566.0 Hill     Earthen 21540 2 43,080.0 Gravel 2119 6 12,714.0 Blacktop 637 10 6,370.0 Mountain     Earthen 5023 3 15,069.0 Gravel 162 9 1,458.0 Blacktop 1 12 12.0 Total 50944   171,481.0 Thus, tentatively rural road asset of 171 billion is created so far in the country, which is significant. To bring to the earthen road to complete earthen level road in hill and mountain roads, same amount is further required e.g. 43 billion and 15 billion. If the asset created could be preserved and could be further developed to all weather level, accessibility and mobility of the rural people will be greatly enhanced. COST TO UPGRADE Terai To upgrade to gravel level To upgrade to blacktop level length Km Rate/Km Million Cost Million length Km Rate/Km Million Cost Million Earthen 8204 2 16408 8204 2 16408 Gravel     0 12320 2 24640 Blacktop     0     0 Hill     0     0 Earthen 21540 4 86160 21540 3 64620 Gravel     0 2119 3 6357 Blacktop     0     0 Mountain     0     0 Earthen 5023 6 30138 5023 4 20092 Gravel       162 4 648 Blacktop           0 Total 132,706.0 132,765.0 But to bring to all these roads to gravel level as all weather roads, additional cost of 133 billion is required. To bring to black top level further additional cost of another 133 billion is required.
  39. 39. 31 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development 5 THE ISSUES Due to fewer budgets, some works get damaged; therefore works are to be complete type for permanent nature. Budget release is during the onset of monsoon and works is to be carried out during monsoon. Due to spot gravel and section works, vehicle ply during monsoon too, though road is not gravel throughout. All RRs are not under DDC, DOR is still involved in RR. Maintenance demand is very high, fund is not enough. Clear demarcation of maintenance works could not be established due incomplete state of roads. Major agricultural product in hills and mountains during summer is potato. Unless the road is all weather operational farmer has to transport the potato by porter, which cost very high eight to ten times higher. Therefore to reduce the transportation cost and to maximize the farmer's profit maximised, all weather road is needed. Works are not good due late release of budget - at the end of fiscal year only. DDC is compelled to release the fund, without actually completing the work in field in consideration of works that will be presumably completed by UC. Maintenance of roads toward systematic approach is slowly taking place, DDC/DTO slowly starting toward quality control works in rural road sector. In the districts, where rural road projects e,g. RAIDP, Many district roads are now slowly being all weather roads, local people are operating vehicle fair weather day during monsoon even in earthen roads where many spot improvement is carried out. In such roads, now bridges are also to be constructed. Gravel road need bridges to make the roads all weather. Thus a huge challenge lies to meet the peoples' aspiration and expectation to make the road all weather. This is very important task of the programme to integrate the rural area to the main stream of national development. Constructions of new roads were the high priority until recent past years. Now the priority is shifted to complete the roads undertaken earlier. But maintenance aspect of road is not the major concern of people and being shadowed. Local people could not get full benefit from road until the road is built to all weather level. If the road operate throughout the year, full access to health, education and market is possible and the livelihood of could be improved. Connectivity and productivity should be maintained. After connection of road, productivity will also increased of rural area and local product goods supply to market centre. If village connected by road. All weather roads has begun demonstrating its impacts through the reduction of travel time to reach the nearest town and social amenities. Similarly, travel behavior of the beneficiaries has changed due to easier access to work place and nearest town. Transportation cost of goods in the hill districts is highly fluctuating in fair weather roads in the same area due to unavailability of service during monsoon season
  40. 40. 32 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development There are some new trends of shifting towards non-agricultural activities in the project areas. With the improvement of roads, migration in search of work has increased in various districts of Tarai. Employment opportunities through new business sector i.e. grocery shops, store houses, poultry farming, etc have recently started in many areas. As routine maintenance requirement, length man system is started for the maintenance works in many districts. Mostly five km for one length man, employed for 3 to 4 months during monsoon. In some cased local business community is also sharing. Emergency maintenance is also getting attention of the local people. This shows some commitment from local level. But recurrent and periodic maintenance is not yet understood in district level, which needs to be emphasised. 6 RECOMMENDATION Some programmes and projects in DoLIDAR have shown the good trend in institutionalising the maintenance system for rural roads under DDC and DTO. Therefore, it is recommended that the projects should focus on maintenance mechanism to internalise in DDC and DTO to manage the rural road asset created in the districts. Capacity building activities of DTO and DDC and local community needs to be conducted in the form of training and exposure visits. For institutional strengthening of DTO and DDC, road related lab and equipment to be set up in the district - roller and mechanical equipment a lab etc. Posts of technical staffs (engineers, sub-engineers etc) are to be increased for adequate monitoring of maintenance works. Capacity building activities includes survey equipment/logistics, lab, transportation, man power, relevant training, exposure visits etc. Important district roads are being funded for many years, mostly more than 15 year ago. But these roads are not in complete state yet. Therefore a Project Concept to complete the roads within 5 year as a "project" type is to be introducing in pilot basis. Priority roads are to be constructed for all weather standards to operate whole the year. Recently introduced District Road Core Network (DRCN) concept could be instrumental in identifying the important roads in district, but it is found that, present trend of fund allocation could not meet the completion of core network of district is also. Therefore further important roads need to be identified among the core network and these roads are to be brought to all weather standards for first five years period. DTICC should also function as a strong monitoring body. Present tradition of adhoc monitoring is not effective. Monitoring scheduled should be developed so that systematic and transparent monitoring could be established. Monitoring works has become very week activities and not getting enough attention. Therefore clear provision of budget for monitoring is needed. Performance based contract is recommended to introduce in pilot basis. This could function well in Terai road. Lack of timely release of fund has become major headache of all RTI stakeholders. This has created hassle to complete the work during the end of fiscal year, which is coincided with monsoon. Therefore fund should be released in the beginning of fiscal year for the smooth implementation of RTI works.
  41. 41. 33 A Journal on Rural Infrastructure Development Smaller and piece works get damaged. Unattended road sections between spot improvements of stone soling or gravel are seen damaged. Therefore it is recommended to continue the sections, rather than distributing to insignificant portions. REFERENCES 1 DoLIDAR 2069 (2012) "Gramin Sadak Abhilekh" (Rural Road Archive), DoLIDAR, Kathmandu. 2 DoLIDAR 2013 "Nepal Rural Road Standard, 2055 1st Revision 2069", Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development, DoLIDAR, Kathmandu. 3 DoLIDAR 2066 "Rural Transport Infrastructure Sector Wide Approach (RTI SWAp) Implementation Directives 2063, 1st Revision 2066," Ministry of Local Development, DoLIDAR, Local Development Construction and Agricultural Road Project, Kathmandu. 4 Shrestha H. R. Et.al. 2011 "District Transport Planning Trend in Nepal" International Conference on Sustainable Development of Transport System, H.R. Shrestha and U. K. Shrestha, 20-22 October 2011, Kathmandu. 5 DoLIDAR 2066 "RTI SWAp Programme Implementation Directives 2066" DoLIDAR/MLD, Kathmandu. 6 Regmi, M.C, 1987. An Economic History of Nepal (1846-1901). Varanashi, India: Nath Publishing House. 7 Zimmermann, J. and Rajbahandari, B.C., 1995. A Historical Overview of Expansion of Roads in Nepal and Development of Department of Roads. Lalitpur, Nepal: A Paper Presented in a Talk Program on 5 June, 1995 in Swiss Development Cooperation. We Congratulate Society of Engineers for Rural Development, Nepal (SERDeN) for the publication of 4th volume of journal "Rural Infrastructure" on the auspicious occasion of 16th Anniversary of DoLIDAR and extend our best wishes for it's success in contributing towards rural development of Nepal. Dalanath Adhikari Proprietor Adhikari Nirman Sewa Pvt. Ltd. Hansapur, Gorakha

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