Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
1
:yfgLo ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f Pj+ Joj:yfkg sfo{
;+rfng lgb]{lzsf - lbUbz{g _ d:of}bf
@)^@
lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no
/
:yfg...
2
# lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nosf] sfo{If]q #*
$ ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgf jf sfo{ jlu{s/0f #*
$=! ;fj{hlgs sfo...
3
!=k[i6e"ld!=k[i6e"ld!=k[i6e"ld!=k[i6e"ld
;+ df tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno, :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu -8f]nL...
4
ubf{ ckgfpg' kg]{ sfo{ljlw ;':ki6 kf/L lgwf{/0f ug'{ o; lbUbz{g sf] d"n p2]Zo xf] . lhNnf k|fljlws
sfof{no g]kfn ;/sf/ :...
5
• :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ g]kfn ;/sf/jf6 pknJw u/fOg] cg'bfgjf6 ;+rfng x'g] k"jf{wf/ ljsf;
sfo{x?,
• :yfgLo lgsfo ;DjGwL P]g lg...
6
tyf ;+rfng ;+jlGw cfof]hgfx?
gu/kflnsf leqsf gu/ ljsf; ;+jlGw cfof]hgfx?
Plss[t ljsf; cfof]hgf
pkIf]q ljsf;, e"—pkof]u t...
7
;+ df tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno cGtu{t ;+rfng x'g] ;Dk"0f{ u|fdL0f k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf sfo{x? :yfgLo
k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif...
8
sfof{nojf6 k|efjsf/L?kdf sfo{ ;+rfng ug{ u/fpgsf nflu o; sfof{nonfO{ ef}lts ;fwg ;DkGg kf/L
;+:yfut ;xof]u k'/ofpg' lhlj...
9
:yfgLo lgsfonfO{ cg'bfg:j?k pknJw u/fOg] :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno cGtu{t ljlgof]lht jfx]ssf
/sdjf6 ;+rfng x'g] g]kfn ;/sf/sf ...
10
lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{non] Joj:yfkg ug'{ kg]{ egL g]kfn ;/sf/ n] tf]s]sf cGo ljsf; sfo{sd tyf
cfof]hgf ;+rfngsf nflu cfjZ...
11
12
*=! sfo{qmd Pj+ ;+rfng ah]6 /sd k|jfx rf6{*=! sfo{qmd Pj+ ;+rfng ah]6 /sd k|jfx rf6{*=! sfo{qmd Pj+ ;+rfng ah]6 /sd k|j...
13
*=@ sfo{ ;+kfbg k|ltj]bg k|jfx tyf k|zf;lgs lgoGq0f Pj+ ;'kl/j]If0f rf6{*=@ sfo{ ;+kfbg k|ltj]bg k|jfx tyf k|zf;lgs lgo...
14
(= ljlQo Pj+ k|zf;lgs ;'kl/j]If0f tyf lgoGq0f(= ljlQo Pj+ k|zf;lgs ;'kl/j]If0f tyf lgoGq0f(= ljlQo Pj+ k|zf;lgs ;'kl/j]...
15
;+rfng , ef}lts tyf ljlQo Joj:yfkg cg'udg tyf ;dLIff k|0ffnLnfO{ Jojl:ylts/0f nufot o:t} cGo
If]qdf vr{ ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
c...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Nepal draft directive for ddc-dt0 relation mechanism under mo fald-dolidar prepared by bhim upadhyaya

537 views

Published on

जिल्ला प्राविधिक कार्यालयलाइ विशुद्ध इन्जिनियरिंङ जिम्मेवारी बहन गर्न आवश्यक पर्ने अधिकार श्रोत र संगठनका लागि यो निर्देशिकाको मस्यौदा म आफैले गरेर सम्बन्धित अधिकारीसमक्ष पठाएको छु ।

  • Be the first to comment

Nepal draft directive for ddc-dt0 relation mechanism under mo fald-dolidar prepared by bhim upadhyaya

  1. 1. 1 :yfgLo ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f Pj+ Joj:yfkg sfo{ ;+rfng lgb]{lzsf - lbUbz{g _ d:of}bf @)^@ lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no / :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno, :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu, lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, tyf cGo ljifout g]kfn ;/sf/sf ljefu jf lgsfox?jLr sfo{;+rfng ug]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu jgfOPsf] lhNnf:t/df ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f sfo{ ;+rfng lgb]{lzsflhNnf:t/df ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f sfo{ ;+rfng lgb]{lzsflhNnf:t/df ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f sfo{ ;+rfng lgb]{lzsflhNnf:t/df ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f sfo{ ;+rfng lgb]{lzsf -cfy{s k|zf;g P]g )%% -cfly{s k|zf;g lgodfjnL )%^_, k|zf;sLo sfo{ljlw P]g )!#- sfof{no :yfkgf ug]{ ;DjGwL lgodx? )$)_ sf lgodfjnLx?n] lbPsf] sfo{ljlw jgfpg] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L g]kfn ;/sf/n] jgfPsf] -sfo{ljlw_ lgb]{lzsf . :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu ljifo ;"lrljifo ;"lrljifo ;"lrljifo ;"lr ljifoljifoljifoljifo k]h g+k]h g+k]h g+k]h g+ ! k[i6e"ld #& @ p2]Zo #&
  2. 2. 2 # lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nosf] sfo{If]q #* $ ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgf jf sfo{ jlu{s/0f #* $=! ;fj{hlgs sfo{s|dsf] jlu{s/0f #* $=@ k"jf{wf/ sfo{s|dx?sf] :yfgLo :t/ / s]Gb|:t/df jlu{s/0fsf cfwf/ #( % :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf;;+u ;+j4÷;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox?sf] lhDDf]jf/L $) %=! ;+3Lodfdnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno $) %=@ :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu $! %=# lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt÷cGo :yfgLo lgsfo $! %=$ lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no-l8l6cf]_ $! %=% g]kfn ;/sf/sf cGo ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ljefu tyf sfof{nox? $@ ^= jflif{s - ef}lts tyf ljlQo nIo_ sfo{s|d :jLs[lt k|s[of $@ &= sfo{s|d jh]6sf] cfly{s sfo{ljlw $# &=! Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/ vr{ $# &=@ jh]6 k|jfx / vr{sf] clVtof/L $# &=# k|rng ug'{ kg]{ cfly{s lgodx? $$ *= cg'udg tyf ;ldIff Joj:yf $$ *=! cGtlg{sfo ;DjGw ;+oGq kmnf] rf6{ -sfo{s|d tyf ;+rfng jh]6 /sd k|jfx_$$ *=@ cGtlg{sfo ;DjGw ;+oGq kmnf] rf6{ -sfo{;+kfbg k|ltj]bg k|jfx tyf k|zf;lgs lgoGq0f tyf ;'kl/j]If0f_ $% ( k|zf;lgs tyf ljlQo ;'kl/j]If0f tyf lgoGq0f $^ (=! ljlQo k|ltj]bgsf kmd]{6x? $& (=@ sd{rf/L Joj:yf $& (=# sd{rf/L kl/rfng tyf lgoGq0f $& !) Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/sf] jF8kmf8 tyf vr{ :jLs[lt Joj:yf $&
  3. 3. 3 !=k[i6e"ld!=k[i6e"ld!=k[i6e"ld!=k[i6e"ld ;+ df tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno, :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu -8f]nL8f/_ dftxt lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nox? :yfkgf ug]{ lg0f{ox?sf lgDg k[i6e"ld /x]sf 5g . k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]usf] kltj]bg @)$* sf] k|s/0f $=^=@ -u_ / -3_df lhNnfdf :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ k|fljlws ;]jf 6]jf k'/ofpg / lhNnf :t/df tTsfnLg >L % sf] ;/sf/sf Ps} k|s[ltsf :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ sfo{s|dx? ;+rfng ug{ Pp6} sfof{no /fVg' prLt x'g] l;kmfl/; . g]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs vr{nfO{ ldtJooL kf/L 7LSssf] cfsf/df Nofpgsf nflu tTsfnLg >L % sf] ;/sf/n] rfNg' kg]{ k|zf;lgs ;'wf/sf] l;kmfl/; ug{ u7Lt ;fj{hlgs vr{ k'g/fjnf]sg cfof]u @)%&;fj{hlgs vr{ k'g/fjnf]sg cfof]u @)%&;fj{hlgs vr{ k'g/fjnf]sg cfof]u @)%&;fj{hlgs vr{ k'g/fjnf]sg cfof]u @)%& sf] k|ltj]bgsf] k|s/0f @=%=% v -@_ / -#_ / Pj+ u -!_ df lhNnf:t/sf] ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f sfo{ ;+rfng ug{ u/fpgsf nflu l;rfO{ ljefu, vfg]kfgL ljefu tyf cfjf; tyf zx/L ljsf; ljefusf lhNnf :t/sf sfof{nox?nfO{ Plss[t u/L Pp6} ;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f sfof{no :yfkgf u/L o;} sfof{nojf6 lhNnf :t/df lgdf{0f sfo{{ u/fpg] / dWod jf 7"nf l;rfO{ cfof]hgf, 7"nf vfg]kfgL cfof]hgf, /fhdfu{ jf ;xfos dfu{sf nflu ;DjlGwt l8lehg sfof{no jf cfof]hgf sfof{nojf6 ;+rfng ug]{ u/fpg] l;kmfl/; . tTsfnLg >L % sf] ;/sf/ d+ ksf] ldlt )%*.@.!!sf] lg0f{ojf6 dflysf l;kmfl/;x?nfO{ cfwf/ dfgL lhNnfdf ;+rfng x'g] ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ;+u ;DjlGwt ;8s, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{, l;rfO{, emf]n'+u] k'n,u|fdL0f phf{, ejg / cfjf; zx/L ljsf;nufotsf ;fj{hlgs sfo{nfO{ :yfgLo tyf s]Gb| :t/df juL{s/0f ug]{ / :yfgLo :t/sf sfo{x? ;+rfng ug{ :yfgLo ljsf; d+qfno dftxtsf] :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu -8f]ln8f/_cGtu{t krxQ/ lhNnfdf lhNnf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfof{no :yfkgf ug]{ . :yfgLo :t/ / s]Gb|:t/sf lhNNff ef}lts k"jf{wf/ sfo{x?sf] jlu{s/0f / b/jGbL l;kmfl/; ug{ ;fdfGo k|zf;g d+qfnosf ;lrjsf] ;of]hsTjdf :yfgLo ljsf;, s[lif, hn>f]t, ef]lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfnosf ;lrjx? /xs]f ;ldlt u7g . df=cy{ dGqLsf] cfj )%*.%( sf] ;+;bdf k|:t't jflif{s jh]6 jStJosf] k|s/0f (% df :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu cGtu{t Plss[t k|fljlws ;]jf k'/ofpg lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no :yfkgf ug]{ lg0f{o . dlGqkl/ifbn] tf]s] jdf]lhd ;fdfGo k|zf;g d+qfnosf ;lrj ;d]tsf] ;ldltn] tTsfnLg >L % sf] ;/sf/nfO{ j'emfPsf] >fj0f @)%* sf] lhNNfflhNNfflhNNfflhNNff k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfof{no :yfkgf ug]{k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfof{no :yfkgf ug]{k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfof{no :yfkgf ug]{k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfof{no :yfkgf ug]{ ;DjlGw k|ltj]bgdf :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu dftxt :yfkgf x'g] lhNnf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfof{non] ug]{ sfo{ / cGo ljefu cGtu{t :yfkgf x'g] l8lehg sfof{non] ug]{ sfo{sf] juL{s/0f u/L lhNnf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfof{no sf] k|zf;lgs lgoGq0f 8f]nL8f/n] ug]{ l;kmfl/; . tTsfnLg >L % sf] ;/sf/ d+k sf] ldlt )%*.&.@& sf] j}7sjf6 k'gM krxQ/ lhNnfdf lhNnflhNnflhNnflhNnf k"jf{wf/ ljsf;k"jf{wf/ ljsf;k"jf{wf/ ljsf;k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfof{nosfof{nosfof{nosfof{no :yfkgf ug]{ lg0f{o . o; sfof{nosf] sfo{If]q Plss[t ldl>t ljlzi6 k|s[ltsf] ePsf]n] o;nfO{ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt dftxt g/fvL 8f]nL8f/ dftxt /fVg] / :yfgLo ljsf; clwsf/Ln] lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt / lhNnf k"j{fwf/ ljsf; sfo{fno ljr ;Dks{ clws[t (Liason)sf]?kdf dfq sfo{ ug]{ / o; sfof{nosf] k|zf;lgs lgoGq0f 8f]nL8f/n] ug]{ lg0f{o . tTsfnLg >L % sf] ;/sf/ -dk+_ / d+ k+ ljsf; ;ldltsf] ldlt )%*.!@.^ sf] lg0f{ojf6 lhNnf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfof{no / 8f]nL8f/sf] kl/dflh{t b/jGbL, ;+u7g / sfo{ljj/0f :jLs[t ug]{ lg0f{o . tTsfnLg >L % sf] ;/sf/ -dGqLkl/ifb_ s]f ldlt )%(.!).!& sf] j}7ssf] lg0f{ojf6 lhNnf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfof{nonfO{ :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu dftxtjf6 lemls :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno, lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] sfof{no dftxtdf /fvL ;f]sf] lhNNff k|fljlws sfof{no gfdfs/0f ul/Psf] . tTsfnLg :yfgLo lasf; dGqfnosf] dGqL:t/Lo ldlt )^#.!).!# sf] lg0f{oaf6 lhla; / lhNnf k|flalws sfof{noaLr clwsf/ / cGt;{DaGwaf/] kl/kq ePsf] . ;DdfgLt ;af]{Rr cbfntn] )^#.!).!# sf] kl/kq sfof{Gjog ug'{u/fpg' eGg] cfb]z . @= p2]Zo@= p2]Zo@= p2]Zo@= p2]Zo g]kfn ;/sf/jf6 ePsf lg0f{o jdf]lhd ljleGg ;/sf/L lgsfo tyf :yfgLo lgsfo;+u ;xsfo{ u/L Plss[t, ldl>t, jx'ljifo If]qdf sfo{ ug{ :yflkt o; lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{non] cfkmgf] sfo{ ;+rfng
  4. 4. 4 ubf{ ckgfpg' kg]{ sfo{ljlw ;':ki6 kf/L lgwf{/0f ug'{ o; lbUbz{g sf] d"n p2]Zo xf] . lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no g]kfn ;/sf/ :yfgLo ljsf; d+qfno, lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt cGtu{t :yflkt g]kfn ;/sf/sf] lhNnf :t/Lo sfo{fno xf] . o;sf] sfo{If]qleq lhNnfdf ;+rfng x'g] :yfgLo:t/sf ;+k"0f{ lsl;dsf ef}lts k"jf{wf/;+u ;DjlGwt sfo{x? kb{5g . g]kfn ;/sf/4f/f ;+rflnt :yfgLo :t/sf Ps} k|s[ltsf] ljleGg ef}lts k"jf{wf/;+u ;+jlGwt ;8s, vfg]kfgL, l;rfO{, emf]n'+u] k'n,u|fdL0f phf{,cfjf;, ejg tyf zx/L ljsf; nufotsf sfo{x?sf] Plss[t?kdf ldtJooLtfk"j{s tyf u'0f:t/Lo 9+udf ;+rfng ug]{ u/fpg] / :jfoQ zf;g P]g @)%% cg'?k ul7t :yfgLo lgsfox? -ljz]if u/L lhlj; tyf uf lj ; x?_jf6 th'{df ePsf :yfgLo lgsfosf k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fsf cfof]hgf jf sfo{x? lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] lgb]{zg / lgoGq0fdf ;d"bfo kl/rfng ub]{ ljs]lGb|t tj/df hg;xeflutf h'6fO{ u'0f:t/Lo, Jojl:yt Pj+ k]zfut?kn] :jfoQ zf;g P]g÷lgodfjNfL tyf k"0f{ lgIf]k0fsf] efjgf jdf]lhd k|fljlws ;]jf k|bfg u/L :yfgLo lgsfox?nfO{ ;'b[9Ls/0f Pj+ ;jnLs/0f ug]{ u/L ;+rfng tyf Joj:yfkg ug]{ u/fpg] p2]Zosf ;fy of] sfof{no :yfkgf ePsf] xf] . #= lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no#= lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no#= lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no#= lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no( District Technical Office, DTO) sf] sfo{If]qsf] sfo{If]qsf] sfo{If]qsf] sfo{If]q lhNnfdf x'g] ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f tyf ;+rfng;+u ;DjlGwt g]kfn ;/sf/, :yfgLo lgsfox? Pj+ ;/sf/sf cGo lgsfox?sf ;j} ;fj{hlgs sfo{x? o; sfof{nosf] sfo{If]q leq kb{5g . oL ;fj{hlgs sfo{x? of g]kfn ;/sf/sf ljifout ljefu cyjf :yfgLo lgsfox?4f/f ;+rfng x'g] u/]sf 5g . t;y{ o; sfof{nosf] sfo{If]q Plss[t, ldl>t Pj+ jx'kIfLo :j?ksf] 5 . b]xfosf k|s[ltsf ;fj{hlgs sfo{x? o; sfof{nojf6 ;+kflbt x'g]5g . l;rfO{, ejg tyf zx/L ljsf;, ;8s, vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; ljefux?sf ;fljssf lhNnf:t/Lo sfof{nojf6 ;+rflnt :yfgLo :t/sf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|d jf sfo{x? . g]kfn ;/sf/sf cGo ljefu jf sfof{nox? h:t}M s[lif, jg, :jf:yo, lzIff jf o:t} cGo ck|fljlws ;/sf/L sfof{no jf lgsfox?nfO{ k|fKt jh]6jf6 ;+rfng x'g] lhNnf:t/sf sfof{no ejg nufotsf ;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f sfo{x? . g]kfn ;/sf/sf lhNnfdf ;+rfng x'g] s]Gb|Lo:t/sf ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ljsf; ;DjGwL lhDd]jf/L jf clVtof/L kfPsf sfo{s|d jf sfo{x? . :yfgLo lgsfojf6 Joj:yfkg Pj+ ;+rfng ug{ tf]lsPsf :yfgLo lgsfosf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; ;DjGwL cfof]hgf jf sfo{x? . ;+ df tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno, jf dftxtsf ;/sf/L ;ldlt, k|lti7fg / :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu cGtu{t jf dftxt ;+rflnt lhNnfsf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgf jf sfo{x? . g]kfn ;/sf/n] tf]s]sf cGo k"jf{wf/ ;DjGwL sfo{x? . $ ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgf jf sfo{ jlu{s/0f$ ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgf jf sfo{ jlu{s/0f$ ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgf jf sfo{ jlu{s/0f$ ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgf jf sfo{ jlu{s/0f $=!$=!$=!$=! ;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f sfo{sf] juL{s/0f;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f sfo{sf] juL{s/0f;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f sfo{sf] juL{s/0f;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f sfo{sf] juL{s/0f $=!=! g]kfn ;/sf/sf] of]hgf cGtu{t s]Gb|:t/sf k"jf{wf/ sfo{x? $=!=@ g]kfn ;/sf/sf of]hgf cGtu{t lhNnf -:yfgLo_:t/sf k"jf{wf/ sfo{x? • :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno jf dftxtsf ;/sf/L lgsfo jf 8f]ln8f/ dftxtsf sfo{x?, • ;fj{hlgs sfo{ ;+rfng ug]{ cGo dGqfno jf ljefu dftxtsf sfo{x? • ;fj{hlgs sfo{ ;+rfng gug]{ cGo ck|fljlws dGqfno cGtu{t x'g] k"jf{wf/ sfo{x?, $=!=# :yfgLo lgsfosf] of]hgf cGtu{t :yfgLo:t/sf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{x?
  5. 5. 5 • :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ g]kfn ;/sf/jf6 pknJw u/fOg] cg'bfgjf6 ;+rfng x'g] k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{x?, • :yfgLo lgsfo ;DjGwL P]g lgod cg'?k :yfgLo lgsfosf] cfkmgf] :jcfh{gjf6 k|fKt /fhZjjf6 ;+rfng x'g] k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{x?, • :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] tf]s]sf] ljleGg >f]tjf6 k|fKt x'g] /fhZjsf] jf8kmf+8jf6 k|fKt /sdjf6 ;+rfng x'g] k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{x?, • :yfgLo lgsfon] ljlQo ;+:yfjf6 k|fKt ug]{ qm[0f jf cGo cg'bfgjf6 ;+rfng x'g] cfof]hgf jf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{x? $=@ ljleGg If]qsf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{sf] :yfgLo:t/ / s]Gb|:t/df juL{s/0fsf cfwf/x? ljifo If]qMljifo If]qMljifo If]qMljifo If]qM————vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ ;+jlGwvfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ ;+jlGwvfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ ;+jlGwvfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ ;+jlGw s]Gb|:t/ -ljefu jf l8lehgjf6 ;+rfng x'g]_ :yfgLo:t/÷lhNnf:t/ -lhNnf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfof{nojf6 ;+rfng x'g]_ !))) hg;+Vof eGbf j9LnfO{ vfg]kfgL ;]jfsf] ;'ljwf k'/ofpg] u|flel6 kmnf] l;:6dsf lgdf{0fflwg tyf gofF k|:tfljt cfof]hgfx? gu/kflnsf tyf gu/f]Gd'v :yfgx?df ;+rfng x'g] gofF cfof]hgx? kfgL tyf 9n k|zf]wg s]Gbx? klDkË l;:6dsf tyf cf]e/x]8 jf6/ 6+sLsf gofF cfof]hgfx? 9n lgsf; tyf 9n ;DjlGw cfof]hgfx? ;+kGg ;j} :yfgLo:t/sf vfg]kfgL cfof]hgfx? !))) eGbf 36L hg;+VofnfO{ vfg]kfgL ;]jfsf] ;'ljwf k'/ofpg] u|flel6 kmnf] l;:6dsf lgDg k|sf/sf cof]hgfx? • ljut cf=j=x?df z'? e} gjf} k+rjlif{o of]hgf cjlw leq ;+kGGf gx'g] cfof]hgfx? • ut jif{ z'? ePsf cfof]hgfx? • o; cf=j= b]lv z'? x'g] cfof]hgfx? u|fdL0f ;/;kmfO{ tyf ;;fgf 9n lgsf; ;+jlGw cfof]hgfx? :yfgLo lgsfo -lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt ,uflj;_ tyf ;d"bfo -pkef]Qmf ;ldlt_jf6 Joj:yfkg÷;+rfng x'g] cfof]hgfx? :ofnf] tyf 8Lk 6o"jj]nsf vfg]kfgL cfof]hgfx? ljefu jf l8lehgjf6 ;'lDkPsf cGo sfo{x? ljifo If]qMljifo If]qMljifo If]qMljifo If]qM———— l;rfO{l;rfO{l;rfO{l;rfO{ tyf gbL lgoGq0f ;+jlGwtyf gbL lgoGq0f ;+jlGwtyf gbL lgoGq0f ;+jlGwtyf gbL lgoGq0f ;+jlGw s]Gb|:t/ -ljefu jf l8lehgjf6 ;+rfng x'g]_ :yfgLo:t/÷lhNnf:t/ -lhNnf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfof{nojf6 ;+rfng x'g]_ lhNNff leq ;+rfng x'g] d´f}nf tyf 7"nf ;tx tyf e"ldut l;+rfO{ cfof]hgfx? 7"nf 7"nf gbL tyf vf]nfx?df ul/g] gbL lgoGq0f ;+jGwL cfof]hgfx? pRr k|ljlwo'Qm cfof]hgfx? kDk l;+rfO{ cfof]hgfx? lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf ;d'bfojf6 ;+rfng tyf Joj:yfkg x'g] cfof]hgf ;fgf l:frfO{ ljsf; cfof]hgfx? • kxf8df @% x]= eGbf sd • t/fO{df @)) x]= eGbf sd e"ldut l:f+rfO {-:ofnf] 6Ø"j j]n_ cfof]hgfx? ?= @% nfv eGbf sd nfut cg'dfg ePsf ;;fgf gbL lgoGq0f ;+jGwL cfof]hgfx? ljefu jf l8lehgjf6 ;'lDkPsf cGo sfo{x? ljifo If]qMljifo If]qMljifo If]qMljifo If]qM————zx/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f ;+jlGwzx/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f ;+jlGwzx/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f ;+jlGwzx/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f ;+jlGw s]Gb|:t/ -ljefu jf l8lehgjf6 ;+rfng x'g]_ :yfgLo:t/÷lhNnf:t/ -lhNnf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfof{nojf6 ;+rfng x'g]_ gu/ljsf; of]hgf, 6fpg NkflgË, j[xt cfjf; ejg lgdf{0f ;+jlGw cfof]hgfx? d+qfno÷ljefusf s]Gb|:t/sf sfof{no ejg lgdf{0f lhNnf leqsf lhNnf:t/Lo ;/sf/L tyf ;fj{hlgs ejg -ljBfno, x'nfs, x]Nykf]:6 cflb_ lgdf{0f ;+jlGw cfof]hgfx?
  6. 6. 6 tyf ;+rfng ;+jlGw cfof]hgfx? gu/kflnsf leqsf gu/ ljsf; ;+jlGw cfof]hgfx? Plss[t ljsf; cfof]hgf pkIf]q ljsf;, e"—pkof]u tyf ef}lts of]hgf ;fgf zx/ / gu/pGd'v zx/sf ef}lts ljsf; sfo{x? ejg ;+lxtfdf k/]sf ejgx? ljleGg If]qx?sf] ef}lts of]hgf u|fdL0f j:tL ljsf; ;+jlGw cfof]hgfx? gd"gf u|fdL0f ljsf; ;+jlGw cfof]hgx? gu/kflnsf / lhNnf ;b/d'sfd jfx]ssf If]qdf Jojl:yt ljsf; ;+jlGw cfof]hgfx? lhNnf:t/ tyf Onfsf:t/Lo ;/sf/L ;]jf s]Gb| ljsf; tyf dd{t ;+ef/ ;+jlGw sfo{x? lhNnf b//]6 to ug]{ l;df If]q lgwf{/0f Pj+ l;df :tDe dd{t ;DjGwL lhNnf :t/Lo sfo{x? ;/sf/L sfof{nox?sf] ;/sf/L k|of]hgsf] lgldQ d"NofFsg ug]{ sfo{ ljleGg lgsfojf6 lgdf{0f ul/g] s[lif ;]jf s]Gb|, lzIff, :j:Yo, ko{6g cflb h:tf :yfgLo txdf lgdf{0f ul/g] k"jf{wf/ ljsf; ;+jGwL cfof]hgfx? lhNnf:t/Lo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;DjGwL sfo{ ljefu jf l8lehgjf6 ;'lDkPsf cGo sfo{x? ljifo If]qljifo If]qljifo If]qljifo If]q———— ;8s tyf ´f]n'Ë] k'n ;+jlGw;8s tyf ´f]n'Ë] k'n ;+jlGw;8s tyf ´f]n'Ë] k'n ;+jlGw;8s tyf ´f]n'Ë] k'n ;+jlGw s]Gb|:t/ -ljefu jf l8lehgjf6 ;+rfng x'g]_ :yfgLo:t/÷lhNnf:t/ -lhNnf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfof{nojf6 ;+rfng x'g]_ /fhdfu{, ;xfos /fhdfu{,b'O{ lhNnfsf ;b/d'sfdnfO{ hf]8g] ;8s, ;fdl/s dxTjsf cGo ;8s cfof]hgfx? /fhdfu{, ;xfos /fhdfu{,b'O{ lhNnfsf ;b/d'sfdnfO{ hf]8g] ;8s, ;fdl/s dxTjsf cGo ;8ssf k'nx? 7"nf hn ljB't s]Gb|sf] nflu ofS;]; ;8s dxTjk"0f{ ko{6g tyf wfld{s s]Gb| hf]8g] 7"nf ;8s cfof]hgfx? lgHfL If]qjf6 ;+rfng x'g] /fhdfu{, ;xfos /fhdfu{,b'O{ lhNnfsf ;b/d'sfdnfO{ hf]8g] ;8s, ;fdl/s dxTjsf cGo ;8s cfof]hgfx? pRr tyf hl6n k|ljlwsf] cfjZostf kg]{ df]6/ rNg] k'nx? u|fdL0f tyf s[lif ;8s, 3f]8]6f],uf]/]6f] ;+jlGw cfof]hgf ´f]n'Ë] k'n, tf/ k'n, t'O{g lgdf{0f ;+jlGw cfof]hgfx? u|fdL0f ;8sdf kg]{ pRr tyf hl6n k|ljlw cfjZos gkg]{ k'n tyf sne6{ lgdf{0f ;+jlGw cfof]hgfx? lHfNnf ljsf; ;ldlt tyf uflj; jf6 ;+rfng x'g] ;+k"0f{ ;8s cfof]hgfx? ljefu jf l8lehgjf6 ;'lDkPsf cGo sfo{x? ljifo If]qM u|fdL0f ph{f ljsf; tyf ljB'tLs/0f ;+jlGwljifo If]qM u|fdL0f ph{f ljsf; tyf ljB'tLs/0f ;+jlGwljifo If]qM u|fdL0f ph{f ljsf; tyf ljB'tLs/0f ;+jlGwljifo If]qM u|fdL0f ph{f ljsf; tyf ljB'tLs/0f ;+jlGw s]Gb|:t/ -ljefu jf l8lehgjf6 ;+rfng x'g]_ :yfgLo:t/÷lhNnf:t/ -lhNnf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfof{nojf6 ;+rfng x'g]_ 7"nf, d´f}nf tyf ;fgf hn ljB't ljsf; tyf ljB'tLs/0f ;+jGwL cfof]hgfx? ;]G6|n u|L8jf6 ;+rfng x'g] ljB'tLs/0f ;+jGwL cfof]hgfx? lghL If]qjf6 ;+rfng x'g] ljB't s]Gb| tyf ljB'tLs/0f ;+jGwL cfof]hgfx? lHfNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf ;d'bfojf6 ;+rfng x'g] u|fdL0f n3' phf{ ;+jGwL cfof]hgfx? dfOs|f] xfO8|f] hn ljB't ;+jGwL cfof]hgfx? j}slNks phf{- jfof] Uof;, ;f}o{ phf{ cflb_ % :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf;;+u ;+j4÷;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox?sf] lhDd]jf/L% :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf;;+u ;+j4÷;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox?sf] lhDd]jf/L% :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf;;+u ;+j4÷;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox?sf] lhDd]jf/L% :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf;;+u ;+j4÷;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox?sf] lhDd]jf/L %=!%=!%=!%=! ;+ df tyf;+ df tyf;+ df tyf;+ df tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno:yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno:yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno:yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno
  7. 7. 7 ;+ df tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno cGtu{t ;+rfng x'g] ;Dk"0f{ u|fdL0f k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf sfo{x? :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu dfkm{t ;+rfng ug]{ u/fpg] egL g]kfn ;/sf/ -d+ k_jf6 ePsf] lg0f{odf pNn]v eP cg'?k :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno cGtu{t ;fljsdf 8f]ln8f/ dfkm{t ;+rflnt gePsf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; ;DjGwL ;Dk"0f{ sfo{x? ;d]t 8f]nL8f/ dftxt ;+rfng x'g]5 . :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno cGtu{t ;/sf/L cg'bfgdf ;+rfng x'g] u/L u7Lt ljleGg ljsf; ;ldlt, s]Gb|, k|lti7fgjf6 lhNnfdf ;+rfng x'g] sfo{x? ;d]t lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nojf6 ;+rfng ug]{ u/fOg] 5 . :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnosf s]Gb|:t/sf k"jf{wf/ cfof]hgfx? ;+ej eP;Dd lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no dftxt /xg] u/L jf cfof]hgf sfof{no :yfkgf u/L ;+rfng x'g]5 . g]kfn ;/sf/ :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnosf lhNnf:t/ jf s]Gb|:t/sf cfof]hgfx?sf] jflif{s sfo{qmdx? cfly{s k|zf;g P]g lgod jdf]lhd dGqfnosf ;lrjjf6 :jLs[t u/L sfof{Gjogsf nflu :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu dfkm{t lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt To; kl5 lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nox?df k7fOg] 5 . :yfgLo lgsfon] ;+rfng ug]{ of]hgfx?sf] nflu pknJw x'g] /sdsf] xsdf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno jf 8f]ln8f/ jf g]kfn ;/sf/jf6 Psd'i7 jf ;zt{÷lgzt{ cg'bfg -;J;L8L_sf] ?kdf l;w} :yfgLo lgsfox?nfO{ pknJw u/fO{g] 5 . %=@ :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu%=@ :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu%=@ :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu%=@ :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu----8f]nL8f/_8f]nL8f/_8f]nL8f/_8f]nL8f/_ :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno jf dftxtsf ljsf; ;ldlt , s]Gb| jf k|lti7fg cGtu{t ;+rfnLt ;Dk"0f{ ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ljsf; ;+j4 cfof]hgf jf sfo{s|dx?sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug]{ u/fpg] lhDd]jf/L o; ljefusf] /x]sf]n] o; ljefu cGtu{tsf ;Dk"0f{ sfo{x? lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nox? dfkm{t ;+rfng ug]{ u/fpg] Joj:yf ug]{5 . cGo ljifo If]q x]g]{ dGqfno jf ljefux?sf lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nonfO{ ;'lDkPsf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgfx?sf] s]Gb|:t/df ;dGjo ug'{ o; ljefusf] lhDd]jf/L x'g]5 . lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nonfO{ k|fKt x'g] clVtof/L jf lgb]{zg o; ljefu dfkm{t k|fKt x'g]5 . %=# lhNn%=# lhNn%=# lhNn%=# lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt÷cGo :yfgLo lgsfof ljsf; ;ldlt÷cGo :yfgLo lgsfof ljsf; ;ldlt÷cGo :yfgLo lgsfof ljsf; ;ldlt÷cGo :yfgLo lgsfo :yfgLo lgsfon] cfkmgf kl/ifb jf jf]8{jf6 :jLs[t jflk{s nIo ;lxtsf] :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|d k|efjsf/L?kdf ;+rfng ug{ u/fpg ;djlGwt lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nodf k7fpg] 5 . k|To]s cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf] r}fdfl;s leq :yfgLo lgsfon] :jLs[t cfof]hgfsf] jflif{s sfo{s|d, jh]6 tyf sfo{of]hgf ;lxt lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nodf sfof{Gjogsf nflu lgb]{zg k7fpg' kg]{5 . lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{non] To:tf sfo{x? tf]lsPsf] ;dodf u'0f:t/Lo9+udf ;+rfng u/L cfof]hgf ;DkGg ug]{5 . :yfgLo lgsfosf] sfo{s|d ;+rfng ug{ cfjZos k|zf;lgs, k|fljlws tyf ;'kl/j]If0f, ef}lts ;fwg / ;'ljwf jfktsf vr{sf nflu sfo{s|d jh]6sf] % k|ltzt Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/ -management overhead) /sd :yfgLo lgsfon] sfo{s|d ;+rfng ;'? ug{ cufj} lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nonfO{ pknJw u/fpg' kg]{5 . lhNnf ljsf; of]hgfsf] sfof{Gjog ;DjGwdf ;'kl/j]If0f, lgb]{zg, ;dLIff ug]{ lhDd]jf/L lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] x'g]5 . ;DjlGwt :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ cfjZos ;fGble{s ;xof]u k'/ofpg] st{Jo lhNnf:t/sf lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no nufotsf ;j} ;/sf/L sfof{nox?sf] x'g]5 . lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no ljz]iftM lhlj;x?sf] k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|dx? sfof{Ghog ug{ Joj:yfksLo, k|fljlws Pj+ k/fdz{ ;]jf pknJw u/fpg] c+usf] ?kdf sfo{ ug]{ ;/sf/L sfof{no ePsf] x'gfn] o;
  8. 8. 8 sfof{nojf6 k|efjsf/L?kdf sfo{ ;+rfng ug{ u/fpgsf nflu o; sfof{nonfO{ ef}lts ;fwg ;DkGg kf/L ;+:yfut ;xof]u k'/ofpg' lhlj;sf] lhDd]jf/L x'g]5 . %=$ lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no%=$ lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no%=$ lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no%=$ lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no ----l8l6cf]_l8l6cf]_l8l6cf]_l8l6cf]_ lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{non] lgDg sfo{x? ;+rfng ug'{ u/fpg' kb{5 • :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefujf6 k|fKt cfly{s clVtof/L, dGqfnojf6 :jLs[t jflif{s nIo cg'?ksf] sfo{s|d cg'?ksf sfo{x? . • ;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f ;+rfng ug]{ cGo ljefu jf lgsfosf :jLs[t jfli{fs sfo{s|d / clVtof/L jdf]lhdsf s]Gb|:t/ jf lhNnf:t/sf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{x? . • ;fj{hlgs sfo{ ;+rfng gug]{ ;/sf/L ljefu , ljsf; ;ldlt, k|lti7fgjf6 k|fKt clVtof/L / jflif{s sfo{s|d cg'?ksf sfo{x? . • :yfgLo lgsfojf6 :jLs[t jflif{s sfo{s|d cg'?ksf :yfgLo lgsfosf k"jf{wf/ of]hgfx? • :yfgLo ljsf; d+qfno, 8f]ln8f/ jf g]kfn ;/sf/n] tf]s]sf cGo k"jf{Wf/ sfo{x? :yfgLo lgsfox?nfO{ :yfgLo lgsfosf k"jf{wf/ cfof]hgf;+u ;+jlGwt of]hgf th{'df tyf l8hfO{g sfo{ ug]{ ljlzi6 k|fljlws sfof{no ePsf] x}l;otn] cfjZos k|fljlws k/fdz{ pknJw u/fO{ k|fljLws 6]jf k'/ofpg] o; sfof{nosf] dxTjk"0f{ lhDd]jf/L x'g]5 . o; sfof{non] Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/jfkt k|fKt /sdsf] jf8kmf8 :jLs[tL lhlj;jf6 lnP/ dfq vr{ ug'{ kg]{5 . sfo{s|d;+u ;+jlGwt lgsfox?sf] lgb]{zg cg'?k sfo{ ;+rfng ug'{ o; sfof{nosf] st{Jo x'g]5 . :yfgLo :t/sf] sfo{ ;+rfng :yfgLo lgsfox?sf] ;xdlt, ;dGjo, lgb]{zgdf ug'{ u/fpg' kg]{5 lhNnfl:yt cGo k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf sfof{nox?;+u lgs6 ;Dks{df /xL ;dGjofTds 9+un] sfo{ ;+rfng ug]{ sfo{gLlt o; sfof{non] clVtof/ ug]{5 . k"jf{wf/ sfo{ ;+rfng gug]{ cGo lhNnf:t/Lo ;/sf/L ckf|ljlws sfof{nox?nfO{ cfjZos OlGhlgol/+u ;]jf pknJw u/fpg lhNnfdf oxL Psdfq ;/sf/L sfof{no df}h'b ePsf] gftfn] o; sfof{non] cfjZos ;xof]u pknJw u/fpg] 5 . o;sf nflu ;]jfjfktsf] vr{sf] Joj:yf tf]lsP jdf]lhd ;DjlGwt lgsfon] o; sfof{nonfO{ pknJw u/fpg' kg]{5 . lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nosf] cGo sfo{If]q Pj+ ;+u7gsf] lj:t[t sfo{ljj/0f g]kfn ;/sf/n]] tf]s] jdf]lhd x'g]5 . %=%%=%%=%%=% g]kfng]kfng]kfng]kfn ;/sf/sf cGo ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ljefu jf lgsfox?;/sf/sf cGo ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ljefu jf lgsfox?;/sf/sf cGo ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ljefu jf lgsfox?;/sf/sf cGo ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ljefu jf lgsfox? g]kfn ;/sf/sf cGo dGqfno jf ljefu jf lgsfon] :yfgLo:t/ jf s]Gb|:t/sf k"jf{wf/ sfo{s|dx? lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no dfkm{t ;+rfng u/fpg clVtof/L k7fpbf :yfgLo ljsf; d+qfno, :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu dfkm{t k7fpg' kg]{5 . o;/L clVtof/L k7fpg] lgsfon] jflif{s ljlQo tyf ef}lts nIo ;lxtsf] :jLs[t jflif{s sfo{s|d ;+nUg ug]{5 . o:tf sfo{ ;+rfng ug]{ ;Gbe{df oL lgsfox?n] 8f]nL8f/;+u lnlvt ;dembf/L ug]{5 . oL lgsfox?n] l8l6cf] dfkm{t sfo{ ;+rfng u/fpg o;nfO{ Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/:j?k sfo{s|dsf] :jLs[t nfutsf] !) k|ltzt ;DDf /sd pknJw x'g] u/L jflif{s sfo{qmddf Joj:yf ug]{5g . ^= jflif{s^= jflif{s^= jflif{s^= jflif{s ----ef}lts tyf ljlQo nIo_ef}lts tyf ljlQo nIo_ef}lts tyf ljlQo nIo_ef}lts tyf ljlQo nIo_ sfo{s|d :jLs[lt k|s[ofsfo{s|d :jLs[lt k|s[ofsfo{s|d :jLs[lt k|s[ofsfo{s|d :jLs[lt k|s[of
  9. 9. 9 :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ cg'bfg:j?k pknJw u/fOg] :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno cGtu{t ljlgof]lht jfx]ssf /sdjf6 ;+rfng x'g] g]kfn ;/sf/sf ;Dk"0f{ :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgfx?sf] jflif{s sfo{s|d - ef}lts tyf ljlQo nIo_sf] :jLs[tL tf]lsP jdf]lhd x'g]5 . :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ cg'bfg:j?k pknJw u/fOg] /sdjf6 ;+rfnLt sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgfsf] jflif{s ef}lts tyf ljlQo nIo ;lxtsf] sfo{s|dsf] :jLs[lt ;DjlGwt :yfgLo lgsfosf] jf]8{n] ug]{5 . cGo dGqfno jf lgsfosf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgf sf] jflif{s sfo{s|d :jLs[lt tt tt dGqfnosf ;lrj jf lgsfosf jf]8{n] ug]{5 . o;/L :jLs[t sfo{s|d / clVtof/L k|fKt eP kZrft ;DjlGwt lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{non] tf]lsPsf] nIo / ;do;fl/0fL cg's"n of]hgf sfof{Gjog ug]{5 . &= sfo{s|d jh]6 /sd ;+rfng cfly{s sfo{ljlw&= sfo{s|d jh]6 /sd ;+rfng cfly{s sfo{ljlw&= sfo{s|d jh]6 /sd ;+rfng cfly{s sfo{ljlw&= sfo{s|d jh]6 /sd ;+rfng cfly{s sfo{ljlw &=! Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/ vr{&=! Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/ vr{&=! Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/ vr{&=! Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/ vr{ lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nosf] b}lgs lgoldt k|zf;lgs sfo{ ;+rfng ug{ cfjZos jflif{s jh]6 :yfgLo ljsf; d+qfnon] :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefunfO{ / ljefun] lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt dfkm{t lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nonfO{ clVtof/L pknJw u/fpg] 5 . o:df tnj, eQf, sfof{no ;+rfng vr{ , ;?jf tyf sfo{s|d e|d0f vr{, OGwg, kmlg{r/ tyf ;]jf jfkt h:tf vr{x? kb{5g . :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefusf] lgoldt lhDd]jf/L leqsf g]kfng]kfng]kfng]kfn ;/sf/sf k"jf{wf/;/sf/sf k"jf{wf/;/sf/sf k"jf{wf/;/sf/sf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgfljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgfljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgfljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgf ;+rfng ug{sf nflu jh]6 sfo{s|dsf ljleGg lzif{sdf g} cfjZos /sd ljlgof]hg x'g]5g . 8f]nL8f/sf] lgoldt lhDd]jf/L leq gk/]sfsf cGo ;/sf/L dGqfno, ljefu, ;ldlt, s]Gb|sf cfof]hgf jf sfo{s|d ;+rfng ug{sf nflu tL lgsfox?n] Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/ jfkt jflif{s ljlgof]lht jh]6sf] % k|ltzt /sd Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/ sfo{s|d lzif{sdf 5'6ofO{ lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nonfO{ sfo{s|d jh]6 pknJw u/fpg] Joj:yf x'g]5 . :yfgLo lgsfosf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgf ;+rfng ug{ Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/ vr{ jfktsf] /sd sfo{s|dsf] jflif{s nfutsf] % k|ltzt /sd ;DjlGwt :yfgLo lgsfox?n] lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nonfO{ pknJw u/fpg] 5 . &=@ k"jf{wf/ sfo{s|d jh]6 k|jfx / vr{sf]] clVto&=@ k"jf{wf/ sfo{s|d jh]6 k|jfx / vr{sf]] clVto&=@ k"jf{wf/ sfo{s|d jh]6 k|jfx / vr{sf]] clVto&=@ k"jf{wf/ sfo{s|d jh]6 k|jfx / vr{sf]] clVtof/Lf/Lf/Lf/L :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefusf] lgoldt lhDd]jf/L leq k/]sf :yfgLo lgsfo cg'bfg lzif{sdf ljlgof]lht gePsf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ljsf; cfof]hgf jf sfo{s|d lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no dfkm{t u/fpg jh]6sf] ;Dk"0f{ lhDd]jf/L 8f]ln8f/n] ;DjlGwt lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nonfO{ k7fpg] 5 . 8f]ln8f/sf] lgoldt lhDd]jf/L leq gk/]sf cGo ljefu jf lgsfo cGtu{tsf g]kfng]kfng]kfng]kfn ;/sf/ ljsf;;/sf/ ljsf;;/sf/ ljsf;;/sf/ ljsf; cfof]hgf jf sfo{s|dx?cfof]hgf jf sfo{s|dx?cfof]hgf jf sfo{s|dx?cfof]hgf jf sfo{s|dx?sf] jh]6 tyf clVtof/L 8f]ln8f/ dfkm{t lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nonfO{ pknJw u/fOg]5 . tL cfof]hgfsf jflif{s :jLs[t sfo{s|dsf] ;DjlGwt lzif{sx?df ;+rfng vr{ ;dfj]z gePsf] eP Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/ lzif{ssf sfo{qmdsf] k|s[lt x]/L !) k|ltzt ;Dd /sdsf] Joj:yf x'g]5 . :yfgLo lgsfosf cfof]hgf:yfgLo lgsfosf cfof]hgf:yfgLo lgsfosf cfof]hgf:yfgLo lgsfosf cfof]hgf jf sfo{s|dx?sf] Joj:yfkg tyf ;+rfngsf nflu cfjZos Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/ vr{ jflif{s nfutsf] % k| z /sd lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nonflu ;DjlGwt lgsfon] pknJw u/fpg] 5 . sfo{s|d vr{ jfktsf] nfut vr{ ;DjlGwt lgsfox?n] lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nonfO{ cfjZostf cg';f/ :jLs[t jflif{s ljlQo sfo{of]hgfsf] ;do;fl/0fL jdf]lhd pknJw u/fpg] 5g .
  10. 10. 10 lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{non] Joj:yfkg ug'{ kg]{ egL g]kfn ;/sf/ n] tf]s]sf cGo ljsf; sfo{sd tyf cfof]hgf ;+rfngsf nflu cfjZos sfo{s|d tyf ;+rfng vr{ 8f]ln8f/ dfkm{t ;DjlGwt lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nonfO{ k|fKt x'g]5 . &=# sfo{s|d ;+rfngdf k|rng ug'{ kg]{ cfly{s lgodx?&=# sfo{s|d ;+rfngdf k|rng ug'{ kg]{ cfly{s lgodx?&=# sfo{s|d ;+rfngdf k|rng ug'{ kg]{ cfly{s lgodx?&=# sfo{s|d ;+rfngdf k|rng ug'{ kg]{ cfly{s lgodx? g]kfn ;/sf/sf cfof]hgf jf sfo{sd ;+rfng ubf{ cfly{s sfo{ljlw P]g @)%^ / cfly{s k|zf;g ;DjlGw lgodx? @)%^ jf ;+;f]lwt ;+:s/0fx? tyf g]kfn ;/sf/jf6 :jLs[t ;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f lgb]{lzsf @)%* jf ;+;f]lwt ;+:s/0fsf] k|rng ug'{ kg]{5 . o:tf sfo{s|dx?sf] cfGtl/s tyf clGtd n]vf kl/If0f u/fpg] lhDd]jf/L ;d]t lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nosf] x'g]5 . :yfgLo lgsfosf cfof]hgf jf sfo{s|d ;+rfng ubf{ k|rlntt :yfgLo lgsfo cfly{s lgodfjnL tyf g]kfn ;/sf/jf6 :jLs[t ;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f lgb]{lzsf @)%* k|rng ug'{ kg]{5 . o:tf sfo{s|dx?sf] cfGtl/s n]vf kl/If0f lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nosf] / clGtd n]vf kl/If0f ;DjlGwt :yfgLo lgsfosf] lhDd]jf/L x'g]5 . cGo ;/sf/L lgsfox?M ljsf; ;ldlt, k|lti7fg jf s]Gb|;+u ;+jlGwt cfof]hgfsf nflu tt tt lgsfosf ;DjlGwt cfly{s lgodfjnL eP ;f]xL , ;f] geP g]kfn ;/sf/sf] k|rlnt cfly{s k|zf;g ;DjlGw lgodx? k|of]u ug'{ kg]{5 . o:yf sfo{s|dx?sf] k|f/lDes n]vf kl/If0f lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{non] / clGtd n]vf kl/If0f ;DjlGwt lgsfox?n] u/fpg] 5 . *=cg'udg tyf ;dLIff Joj:yf*=cg'udg tyf ;dLIff Joj:yf*=cg'udg tyf ;dLIff Joj:yf*=cg'udg tyf ;dLIff Joj:yf lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no sf] rf}dfl;s tyf jflif{s k|ult k|ltj]bg lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{non] ;DjlGwt lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt / 8f]ln8f/df lgoldt k7fpg]5 / ;f] sf] ;dLIff lhlj;df ul/g]5 . ;fy} ;dLIffsf] cg'udg 8f]ln8f/jf6 klg ul/g]5 . g]kfn ;/sf/sf cGo ljefu jf dGqfno jf lgsfosf s]Gb|:t/sf k"jf{wf/ of]hgfx? sfof{Gjogsf] rf}dfl;s tyf jflif{s k|ult k|ltj]bg ;DjlGwt ljifosf ljefu jf lgsfo, 8f]ln8f/ / lhlj;df k7fOg]5 . 8f]ln8f/ / ;DjlGwt ljifosf ljefu jf lgsfodf ;f] sf] ;dLIff x'g]5 . 8f]ln8f/ jfx]s cGo ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ljefusf lhNNff:t/sf k"jf{wf/ cfof]hgfx?sf] sfof{Gjog k|ult k|ltj]bg ;DjlGwt ljefu, 8f]ln8f/ / lh lj ; df k7fOg]5 . ;f] sf] 8f]ln8f/, lhlj; tyf ;DjlGwt ljifosf ljefudf ;dLIff ul/g]5 . :yfgLo lgsfox?sf] of]hgfsf] sfof{Gjogsf] rf}dfl;s -jf dfu eP jdf]lhdsf_ tyf jflif{s k|ult k|ltj]bg ;DjlGwt :yfgLo lgsfo / 8f]ln8f/df lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{non] k7fpg]5 . lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{non] ToxFfjf6 ;Dkflbt ljsf; tyf Joj:yfkg sfo{x?sf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg ;DjlGwt lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt / 8f]nL8f/df k7fpg]5 . ;DjlGwt lgsfodf ;dLIff eO{ k|fKt ;'emfj / k|lts[of k|fKt u/] kl5 lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{non] cfkmgf] sfo{ ;Dkfbg k|s[ofdf cfjZos ;'wf/ jf kl/dfh{g ug]{5 . ;DjlGwt lhlj;sf ;lrjn] ;d]t lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no jf6 eP u/]sf sfo{ ;+kfbgnfO{ cg'udg tyf ;dLIff u/L cfkmgf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnosf ;lrj / 8f]ln8f/sf dxflgb]{zs ;dIf k7fpg]5 . o;/L k|fKt k|ltj]bg ;d]tnfO{ cWoog u/L :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnosf ;lrj / 8f]ln8f/sf dxflgb]{zsjf6 ;DjlGwt lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no sf sd{rf/Lx?sf] sfo{ ;+kfbg d"Nof+sg x'g]5 / cfjZos ;'wf/ jf kl/dfh{gsf nflu lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nodf lgb]{zg k7fOg] 5 .
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. 12 *=! sfo{qmd Pj+ ;+rfng ah]6 /sd k|jfx rf6{*=! sfo{qmd Pj+ ;+rfng ah]6 /sd k|jfx rf6{*=! sfo{qmd Pj+ ;+rfng ah]6 /sd k|jfx rf6{*=! sfo{qmd Pj+ ;+rfng ah]6 /sd k|jfx rf6{ b'O{ tlkm{ ;dGjo Ps tlkm{ /sd k|jfx ÷clVtof/L Ps tlkm{ /sd k|jfx jh]6 /sd pknJwL b'O{ tlkm{ /sd k|jfx ÷clVtof/L :yfgLo ljsf; d+qfno cGo d+qfno :yfgLo ljsf; d+qfno cGt{utsf ljsf; ;ldlt, k|lti7fg, s]Gb| :yfgLo lgsfo -lhlj;, uflj;, gu/kflnsf_ :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no cGo d+qfno, ljefusf lhNnf sfof{no tyf l8lehgx? g]kfn ;/sf/sf cGo ljefux? :yfgLo lgsfosf:yfgLo lgsfosf:yfgLo lgsfosf:yfgLo lgsfosf sfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmd g]kfng]kfng]kfng]kfn ;/sf/sf];/sf/sf];/sf/sf];/sf/sf] ;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f sfo{;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f sfo{;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f sfo{;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f sfo{ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ljsf; ;ldlt , k|lti7fg, s]Gb| sfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmd sfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmd ;dGjo÷;dembf/L;dGjo÷;dembf/L;dGjo÷;dembf/L;dGjo÷;dembf/L ;dGjo;dGjo;dGjo;dGjo ;dGjo÷;dembf/ L sfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmd sfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmd sfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmdsfo{qmd
  13. 13. 13 *=@ sfo{ ;+kfbg k|ltj]bg k|jfx tyf k|zf;lgs lgoGq0f Pj+ ;'kl/j]If0f rf6{*=@ sfo{ ;+kfbg k|ltj]bg k|jfx tyf k|zf;lgs lgoGq0f Pj+ ;'kl/j]If0f rf6{*=@ sfo{ ;+kfbg k|ltj]bg k|jfx tyf k|zf;lgs lgoGq0f Pj+ ;'kl/j]If0f rf6{*=@ sfo{ ;+kfbg k|ltj]bg k|jfx tyf k|zf;lgs lgoGq0f Pj+ ;'kl/j]If0f rf6{ k|ult k|ltj]bg sd{rf/Lx?sf] lgoGq0f tyf hjfkmb]lxtf b'O{ tkmL{ ;dGjo :yfgLo ljsf; d+qfno cGo d+qfno :yfgLo ljsf; d+qfno cGt{utsf ljsf; ;ldlt, k|lti7fg, s]Gb| :yfgLo lgsfo -lhlj;, uflj;, gu/kflnsf_ :yfglo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no cGo d+qfno, ljefusf lhNnf sfof{no tyf l8lehgx? g]kfn ;/sf/sf cGo ljefux? g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ljsf; ;ldlt , k|lti7fg, s]Gb|
  14. 14. 14 (= ljlQo Pj+ k|zf;lgs ;'kl/j]If0f tyf lgoGq0f(= ljlQo Pj+ k|zf;lgs ;'kl/j]If0f tyf lgoGq0f(= ljlQo Pj+ k|zf;lgs ;'kl/j]If0f tyf lgoGq0f(= ljlQo Pj+ k|zf;lgs ;'kl/j]If0f tyf lgoGq0f (=! ljlQo k|ltj]bgsf kmd]{6x?(=! ljlQo k|ltj]bgsf kmd]{6x?(=! ljlQo k|ltj]bgsf kmd]{6x?(=! ljlQo k|ltj]bgsf kmd]{6x? g]kfn ;/sf/sf of]hgfx?sf] nflu g]kfn ;/sf/sf cfly{s k|zf;g ;DjGwL lgod sfg"gx? / dxfn]vf lgoGqssf] sfof{non] lgb]{zg u/] jdf]lhdsf ljlQo n]vf k|0ffnLsf] Joj:yf cg'?ksf kmd]{6x?sf] k|of]u x'g]5 . bft[;+:yf ;+nUg cfof]hgfx?df bft[;+:yfn] tf]s]sf] ljz]if kmd]{6x? klg k|of]u x'g]5g . :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ k"0f{{ lgIf]lkt ePsf] cj:yfdf :yfgLo lgsfosf cfly{s lgodx? cg'?k n]vf k|0ffnLsf] kmd]{6x? k|of]u x'g]5g . (=@ sd{rf/Lsf] Joj:yf(=@ sd{rf/Lsf] Joj:yf(=@ sd{rf/Lsf] Joj:yf(=@ sd{rf/Lsf] Joj:yf lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no dftxt lgDg lsl;dsf sd{rf/L x'g]5g lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nosf ;fwf/0f b/jGbLsf lghfdlt :yfoL tyf c:yfoL sd{rf/Lx? lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no cGtu{t ;+rflnt >L % sf] ;/sf/sf lhNNff jf s]Gb|:t/sf cfof]hgfsf c:yfoL sd{rf/Lx? :yfgLo lgsfojf6 lgo'Qm :yfoL tyf c:yfoL k|fljlws sd{rf/Lx? (=# sd{rf/L kl/rfng tyf lgoGq0f(=# sd{rf/L kl/rfng tyf lgoGq0f(=# sd{rf/L kl/rfng tyf lgoGq0f(=# sd{rf/L kl/rfng tyf lgoGq0f lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nosf k|d"vn] cfkmgf dftxtsf ;j} lsl;dsf sd{rf/LnfO{ kl/rfng u/L sfo{;+kfbg ug]{5 . lhNnfdf lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no dfkm{t sfof{Gjog x'g] k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{s|d jf cfof]hgfsf lgldQ lgo'Qm ;j} k|sf/sf k|fljlws jf ck|fljlws sd{rf/Lx? lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no dftxt /xL sfdsfh ug{ v6fO{g]5g . dftxtsf sd{rf/Lx?sf] sfo{ ;+kfbg d'Nof+sg ug]{ u/fpg] lhDd]jf/L lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nosf k|d"vsf] x'g]5 . lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nosf] k|d'vsf] sfo{;+kfbg d"Nof+sg 8f]nL8f/sf] dxflgb]{zsjf6 ug]{ u/fpg] Joj:yf x'g]5 . lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nosf lghfdlt tyf ljsf; cfof]hgfsf sd{rf/Lx?sf] k'g/fjnf]sg sfo{;+kfbg d"Nof+sg ug]{ Joj:yf ljefuLo k|d'vn] ldnfpg] 5 . :yfgLo lgsfo;+u ;Dj4 ;j} lsl;dsf k|fljlws sd{rf/Lsf] k'g/fjnf]sg sfo{;+kfbg d"Nof+sg ;DjlGwt :yfgLo lgsfosf ;lrjn] ug]{5g . lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no cGtu{t ;+rflnt ljleGg sfo{s|dx?sf] xsdf tt tt sfo{s|dsf] jh]6 pknJw u/fpg] lgsfox? k|lt lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no hjfkmb]xL x'g' kb{5 . lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nonfO ;'?df ePem}+ lhNnf k"jf{wf/ lasf; sfof{nolhNnf k"jf{wf/ lasf; sfof{nolhNnf k"jf{wf/ lasf; sfof{nolhNnf k"jf{wf/ lasf; sfof{no gfdfs/0f u/L lhNnf lasf; ;ldltsf k"jf{wf/ lasf; ;DaGwL lgIf]lkt sfo{s|d ;+rfng ul/lbg] laifout sfof{nosf] sfd;d]t ug]{u/L :yfgLo k"[jf{wf/ lasf; tyf s[lif;8s laefu dftxt /fVg] . g]kfn ;/sf/g]kfn ;/sf/g]kfn ;/sf/g]kfn ;/sf/ ;+3Lodfdnf tyf :yfgLo lasf; dGqfno;+3Lodfdnf tyf :yfgLo lasf; dGqfno;+3Lodfdnf tyf :yfgLo lasf; dGqfno;+3Lodfdnf tyf :yfgLo lasf; dGqfno :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ lasf; tyf:yfgLo k"jf{wf/ lasf; tyf:yfgLo k"jf{wf/ lasf; tyf:yfgLo k"jf{wf/ lasf; tyf s[lif;8s laefus[lif;8s laefus[lif;8s laefus[lif;8s laefu lhNnf k"[jf{wf/ lasf; sfof{nolhNnf k"[jf{wf/ lasf; sfof{nolhNnf k"[jf{wf/ lasf; sfof{nolhNnf k"[jf{wf/ lasf; sfof{no !)= Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/ vr{sf] jfF8kmfF8 tyf :jLs[lt Joj:yf!)= Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/ vr{sf] jfF8kmfF8 tyf :jLs[lt Joj:yf!)= Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/ vr{sf] jfF8kmfF8 tyf :jLs[lt Joj:yf!)= Joj:yfkg lz/f]ef/ vr{sf] jfF8kmfF8 tyf :jLs[lt Joj:yf lz/f]ef/ vr{ jfkt k|fKt /sd lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{nosf] Ifdtf ljsf;, ef}lts k"jf{wf/ Pj+ ;fwg, lgdf{0f pks/0f, ;+:yfut ;'b[l9s/0f tyf ;jnLs/0f, lgdf{0f Joj:yfkg, c:yfoL sd{rf/L egf{, k/fdz{ ;]jf, cfof]hgf
  15. 15. 15 ;+rfng , ef}lts tyf ljlQo Joj:yfkg cg'udg tyf ;dLIff k|0ffnLnfO{ Jojl:ylts/0f nufot o:t} cGo If]qdf vr{ ug{ ;lsg] 5 . cfly{s jif{ leq vr{ x'g g;s]sf]÷gePsf] lz/f]ef/ jfkt k|fKt /sd lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{non] ;+jlGwt :yfgLo lgsfosf] tf]lsPsf] vftfdf hDdf ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg' kg]{5 .

×