Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

P&O Assignment 1_2


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

P&O Assignment 1_2

  3. 3. Critically Assess Organization Culture Organisation culture is defined as system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organisations (Robbins and Judge, 2013). Figure 1.0, Source:- Robbin,P.Stephens’ ‘Organizational Behavior’ (14th Ed.) (2012) Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt.Ltd. The big organisations frequently measured to have a leading philosophy and many subgroup while leading culture is well-defined as a culture which articulates essential standards that are common by a mainstream of organisation’s members (Robbins and Judge, 2013). Sub-culture are small cultures within the organisations characteristically defined by a division descriptions and topographical separation (Robbins and Judge, 2013). Fundamental principles are the main or foremost values that are acknowledged throughout the organization (Robbins and Judge, 2013). Innovation and Risk Taking. Attention to Detail. Outcome Orientation. People Orientation. Team Orientation. Aggresiveness. Stability
  4. 4. Solid culture is a culture in which the basic values are strongly detained and extensively mutual (Robbins and Judge, 2013). Hofstede’s Five Dimensions of Culture National Values has a superior influence on employees than does their organisations values (Robbins and Judge, 2013). Hofstede’s study on IBM employees to define modification in national principles indication to five dimensions of culture (Torrington et al, 2011). Figure 1.1, Source:- Individualism dimension of culture is definite as the amount to which people assume to look after themselves and their household only and the contrary of this dimension is collectivism in which people expect to have a extensive accountability to release because others in the group will be backing them (Torrinton et al., 2011). Power distance dimension of culture is the measure the degree to which the less associates of culture accept unsatisfactory circulation of power (Torrington et al., 2011). Uncertainty Avoidance dimension of culture is defined as the quantity to what degree an discrete from a social order keen to take hazard or not trusting future is unknown (Torrington et al., 2011). Masculinity denotes to the dispersal of characters between genders differs from one
  5. 5. society to another (Torrington et al, 2011). Long term orientation societies concerned towards upcoming prizes in specific perseverance, redeemable and familiarizing to varying conditions. Socialisation Model Socialisation Process Outcomes Figure 1.2, Source:- Robbins, Stephens P ‘Organizational Behavior’ (14th Ed.) (2012) Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt.Ltd. Socialisation is a process that benefits new employees to familiarize to the organisation’s beliefs (Robbins and Judge, 2013). Pre arrival period denotes to the period that each individual work out with a set of standards, approach and prospects about both the effort and organization (Robbins and Judge, 2013). Encounter is the period where new employee understands what the organization is like and meet the prospect that hopes and certainty may deviate (Robbins and Judge, 2013). Metamorphosis period in which new employee changes and regulate to the job, work set and organization (Robbins and Judge, 2013). Prearrival Encounter Metamorphosis Selection Criteria Top Management Productivity Socialisation Commitment Turnover Philosophy of Organisation’s Founder Organization Culture
  6. 6. Figure 1.3, Source:- Robbins Stephens.P ‘Organizational Behaviour’ (14thEd.) Dorlin Kinderslay (India) Pvt.Ltd. Figure 1.4, Source:- Robbins, Stephens. P ‘Organizational Behavior’ (14th Ed.) (2012) Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt.Ltd. Study of Organisational Climate at Taj Gateway, Taj Group Of Resorts and Palaces Researcher found 2 ex-employees of Taj Group, meanwhile his journey to explore more on the research undertaken, both of them shared their experience how the work climate exactly is at Taj Groups various properties across India are as under:- Am enjoying my work over here, we work as a team, but work gets too hectic while guest check season is at peak in those 3 to 4 months our group doesn’t allow us to take a leave.- Kushdev Singh Rathore, Taj Man Singh, (New Delhi). Strength High Low Performance Satisfaction Objective Factors Innovation and Risk Taking Attention to Detail Outcome Orientation People Orientation Team Orientation Aggressiveness Stability Organization Culture
  7. 7. Amazing experience to be part of Taj Group, we learn and explore a lot, every day our briefing is done where we come under one room and gives a shot of hip hip hurray. Inspite of saying I our organization taught to be as We as a team.- Aditi Maurya, Taj Gateway (Jodhpur). Analyse Inter-cultural differences in Leadership styles Transformation Leadership style Transformational Leadership style designates set of behaviours that alter supporters obligation and liveliness elsewhere least stages arranged by the organization (Muczyk and Holt, 2008). Transformational Leadership is measured to be founded on the idea of multi issue leadership which involves four modules. (Woerkom and Reuver, 2009). Figure 1.5, Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership Inspirational Motivation Intellectual Simulation Individualized consideration Idealized Influence
  8. 8. The first two constituents of transformational leadership are inspirational motivation and idealized influence (Woerkom and Reuver, 2009). Inspirational Motivation refers to managers encouraging groups by providing significance and contest in their work and Idealized Influence denotes to managers being esteemed, respected and trusted and supporters classifying with and wanting to match their leaders ( Woerkom and Reuver, 2009). The third and fourth constituent of transformational leadership style are intellectual simulation and individualized consideration (Woerkom and Reuver, 2009). Intellectual stimulation specifies managers inspiring their supporter’s determinations to be advanced and resourceful by query statement reframing difficulties and oncoming old circumstances in new customs (Woerkom and Reuver, 2009). Individual Considerations is the manager’s consideration to each individual’s need for accomplishment and evolution by stand-in as a trainer or mentor (Woerkom and Reuver, 2009). Figure 1.6, Source:- Bureaucratic Leadership The classic transformational leadership characteristics are well-known by conducting interviews of top executives and they embrace characteristics like courageous, believe in people, value driven, life-long learners, identify themselves as a change agents, futurists and having the skills to deal with complexities, obscurity and uncertainty. The company like Taj Resorts and Palaces are altering from old-styled bureaucratic style to professionally coped companies and due to change in leadership style to dynamic transformational leadership in companies like Taj Group are demonstrating exceptional enactment in recent years. Bureaucratic Leader Following rules, policies, and procedures meticulously
  9. 9. Analyse Strategic Human Resource Management TRAINING and DEVELOPMENT As Taj Resorts and Palaces is owned by TATA Group, therefore TATA manages the training and development at its training for all at its training centre located at Pune, Maharashtra, India. TATA Management Training Centre, Pune is the place which comprises of all training infrastructure for employees training and also there are some other Regional Training Institutes (RTI’s) as a part of training and development in Taj Resorts and Palaces, TATA Group (TMTC, 2014-Personal Visit by the Researcher). Figure 1.7, Training and Development Wing at Taj Group of Resorts and Palaces GT Induction Training Functional Training Management Development Programme Qualification Upgradation Guest Lecture Certification Programme Workshops, Seminar and Conferences Industry Academia Taj Group of Resorts and Palaces
  10. 10. The Training program experienced alterations in the year 2001 in Taj Group as before 2001 it is measured that training often not founded on wants analysis and no response system was there for evaluating worth of training. It is measured that training programs are not taken earnestly and absence of experience to the present world practices all these disadvantages lead to important alterations in Training process in Taj and TATA after 2001. (As told to Researcher by General Manager, Taj Gateway- Jodhpur) 2014. RECRUITMENT and SELECTION The Recruitment techniques charted by Taj Group comprise Internal Recruitment, Direct and Indirect Recruitment and Third Party methods (Lal, 2014). Internal Recruitment comprises promotions from one level to subsequently higher level and also comprises departmental promotes (Lal, 2014). The promotions at corporate level not related to the organisational prerequisite or succession planning till substantial changes happened in human resources system at TAJ Group (Hussain, 2011). A-1(Rs4700) to A-2(Rs 5100) 3 YEARS EXPERIENCE A-2(Rs5100)to A-3(Rs 5800) 6 YEARS EXPERIENCE A-3(Rs 5800)toA-4(Rs 6500) -do- A-4(Rs 6500)toS-1(Rs 10,220) -do- S-1(Rs 10,220)toS-2(Rs 11,400) 5 YEARS EXPERIENCE S-2(Rs 11,400)toS-3(Rs 13,070) -do- S-3(Rs 13,070)toS-4(Rs 15,200) -do- Figure- 1.8, Source:- (As provided in written form by Taj Gateway, Jodhpur to Researcher)
  11. 11. The Direct Recruitment comprises advertising vacancies in newspapers and exhibiting the same in online like Taj Group of Resorts & Palaces as well as on the online job portals. A written test following with a interview and a period of probation for one year or as management trainees for 9 to 12 months is the selection process being followed in Taj Group of Hotels, Resorts & Palaces. The third party recruitment in Taj Hotels primarily involves contractors and from various other job portals and classified job advertisement through print and digital media. Taj Hotels also do head hunts in campuses of leading educational institutions like Indian Hotel Management Institutes and from various premier ivy league institutes globally as well from India in order to recruit grounded on the requirements. The Recruitment procedure at Taj has undergone through various significant changes as until the year 2008 there was near halt on recruitment, attached with generous promotions have stuffed middle management and absent of movement linked long term HR planning (Hussain, 2011). COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT IN ONGC Compensation denotes to the set of rewards that organisations deliver to employees in return for their inclination to execute various jobs and responsibilities within the organisation (Deb, 2009). Compensation could be monetary and non-financial in environment and under financial compensation it is additional divided in to direct compensation (fixed and variable pay) and indirect compensation (benefits) (Deb, 2009). Compensation Management is a scheme of compensating people for the work they do in such a way that organization is able to appeal, retain and motivate them to execute well keeping in view organizational and market dynamics (Deb, 2009). Employer: The Taj Group of Hotels Salary Range by Job Job (Number Reporting) National Data (?) Rs 0 Rs 2.2M Rs 4.4M Rs 6.6M [-]Account Executive (2) Salary Rs 207,671 - Rs 554,993 Total Pay Rs 213,102 - Rs 547,048
  12. 12. [+]Assistant Sales Manager (2) Rs 256,289 - Rs 727,286 [+]Duty Manager (4) Rs 177,182 - Rs 522,931 [+]Executive Chef (4) Rs 258,675 - Rs 3,146,329 [+]Financial Controller (2) Rs 843,050 - Rs 3,459,033 [+]Food and Beverage Manager (2) Rs 285,094 - Rs 1,496,135 [+]Front Desk Agent (2) Rs 63,536 - Rs 192,706 [+]Front Office Supervisor (2) Rs 87,569 - Rs 312,835 [+]General Manager, Hotel (2) Rs 490,987 - Rs 6,525,575 [+]Housekeeping Manager (2) Rs 159,203 - Rs 753,645 [+]Housekeeping Supervisor (2) Rs 87,286 - Rs 304,699 [+]Human Resources (HR) Manager (3) Rs 491,888 - Rs 1,597,626 [+]Manager Trainee (3) Rs 114,724 - Rs 787,198
  13. 13. [+]Materials Manager / Coordinator (2) Rs 268,197 - Rs 1,421,365 [+]Project Engineer (2) Rs 135,769 - Rs 453,480 [+]Restaurant Assistant Manager (3) Rs 142,862 - Rs 495,795 [+]Restaurant Manager (6) Rs 272,455 - Rs 870,185 [+]Revenue Manager (2) Rs 354,220 - Rs 1,306,539 [+]Security Officer (2) Rs 122,647 - Rs 1,141,590 [+]Sous Chef (5) Rs 292,362 - Rs 1,001,181 Country: India | Currency: INR | Updated: 17 May 2015 | Individuals Reporting: 114 Figure-1.9,Source:- ( The pay scales received by each of its officers and employees with the system of compensation are overseen by the guidelines of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Government of INDIA and as per the Companies Act. Taj Group also provides Dearness Allowance, House Rent Allowance, perks and allowances, Medical Reimbursement, provident fund, gratuity, superannuation benefits etc are on condition as per the company’s rule from time to time. The reformed human resources procedure shows that compensation is directly related to individual performance (Hussain, 2011). Analyse Performance Evaluation The way companies looking at employee’s performance experienced notable modification particularly in INDIA (Singh et al., 2012). The characteristics like faithful, on time and not taking leave are no longer measured as attributes of good employee and value addition has become the sole standard for performance appraisal (Singh et al., 2012). The private sector
  14. 14. companies like Taj measured being still operating old performance management process and a survey on companies indicate a high degree of disappointment with the performance appraisal systems (Singh et al., 2012). The survey specifies the disappointment of performance appraisal system is mainly because of absenteeism of carefully organized and executed structure of appraisal people inclined to judge the work performance of others, with subordinates, naturally casually and subjectively which tends to create thoughtful, motivational, moral and lawful problems in the work place (Singh et al., 2012). The other drawback for performance appraisal system in companies like ONGC is even though they are well intended they are not executing it appropriately due to poor monitoring and shadow up (Singh et al., 2012). The online performance appraisal system called as “e-par” was implemented in Taj (Singh et al., 2012). The online PAR system benefits to speed up the HR processes like promotion, special assignments, and deputation out, rewards and incentives etc (Singh et al., 2012). Features of e-PAR system:  Uniform application across the company and standardized performance criterion with minimized subjectivity,  It is a system determined switch and monitoring apparatus allowing a single fact data seizing and verification thereby falling the cycle time,  review path of dealings are well preserved, at the same time all the data is available on line, PAR of all the employees were permitted in phases. It is grounded on Employee Self Service Portal SAMPARC, which delivers connectivity to all employees, designed on SAP platform.  The e-PAR system has to mechanisms, i.e. the performance appraisal and the potential appraisal (Singh et al., 2012). Prior method of performance appraisal e-PAR system No delivery to described goals at the start of year. KRAs/KPIs to be distinct at the start of appraisal year. Self appraisal by employee at the end of valuation year, grounded on achievements throughout the year. Self assessment created on attainments in contradiction of predefined KRAs/KPIs, equally set with Reporting Officer (Appraiser). No provision for mid-term review Compulsory mid-term review
  15. 15. Individual appraisal by controlling officer based on KRAs (volume of work, Quality of output, Timeliness of Job). Performance appraisal based on pre-defined KRAs (Quantitative & Timeliness). Impending Appraisal based on pre set attributes and behaviors Minor change by presence of punctuality. Present system to be trailed. Figure- 2.0, Source: Performance Management-Nurturing Performance Culture Figure 2.1, Source:- Performance Management-Nurturing Performance Culture Yes 95% No 5% Performance of Employee Yes No
  16. 16. Figure- 2.1, Source- Performance Management-Nurturing Performance Culture (As provided data by Taj to the Researcher) Figure:- 2.2, Source- Performance Management-Nurturing Performance Culture (As provided data by Taj to the Researcher) 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Training Requirement Traits- Training Needs Yes No To some extent T RA INING RE QUIRE ME NT 65% 35% TRAING REQUIREMENTS Yes No Column1
  17. 17. Figure:- 2.3, Source:- :Performance Management-Nurturing Performance Culture (As provided data by Taj to the Researcher) Figure:- 2.4, Source:- Performance Management-Nurturing Performance Culture (As provided data by Taj to the Researcher) 85% 15% 360 Degree Appraisal Yes No Yes 95 % Important tool for evaluating performance Yes No
  18. 18. Figure:- 2.5, Source:- Performance Management-Nurturing Performance Culture (As provided data by Taj to the Researcher) Analyse Conflict Resolution “Conflict is defined as a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affects something that first party cares about” (Robbins and Judge, 2013). Figure:- 2.6 Source:- 30% 70% Satisfaction with present PAS Yes No Causes:- 1. Poor Communication 2. Lack of Openness 3. Failure to respond to employee needs
  19. 19. Figure:- 2.6, Source:- Based on S. P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 59–89 Functional vs Dysfunctional conflicts Figure 2.7: Functional Conflict Figure 2.8: Dysfunctional Conflict Functional Conflict is a type of conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance while Dysfunctional Conflict is a type of conflict that hinders group performance (Robbins and Judge, 2013). Figure:- 2.9, Source:- Based on S. P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 59–89 Task Conflict  Conflicts on content and goals of the work Relationship Conflict  Conflicts based on interpersonal re.lationship Process Conflict  Conflict over how works get done Positive Negative
  20. 20. Figure:- 3.0, Source:-, The Conflict Process Model Taj Group maintains a record book with manual and online system which aims at educating senior executives on conflict resolution and other personality development creativities (Anand, 2010). The junior level and middle level management in Taj the focus is on mainly conflict management (Anand, 2010). The conflict management comprise coaching people skills also called as soft skills that are hard to observe, enumerate and measure (Anand, 2010). Soft skills are needed in work as people relate to each other for communicating, listening, cooperating as a team member, solving problems, contribute in meeting and conflict resolving (Anand, 2010). The Taj Group training clearly reflects the struggle Resolution Techniques used by the company and that comprises conflict determination techniques such as problem solving, communication and super ordinate goals that tips to a outcome of increased group performance (Anand, 2010). References 1. Anand, K., 2010. Value Addition in Manpower thru Training & Development. Presented at the 9th International Oil&Gas Conference and Exhibition, Petrotech, New Delhi, pp. 1–6. 2. Campbell, Lee, 1988. Self-Appraisal in Performance Evaluation: Development versus Evaluation. Academy of Management, 13, 302–314. 3. Deb, T., 2009. Compensation management : text & cases, 1st ed. Excel Books, New Delhi. 4. Fang, T., 2003. A Critique of Hofstede’s Fifth National Culture Dimension. Sage, 3, 347–368.
  21. 21. 5. Gill, R., Levine, N., Pitt, D., 1998. Leadership and Organizations for the new millinneum. Sage, 5, 46–59. 6. Hussain, T., 2011. Building a Culture of Performance in a Dynamic and Hyper Competitve Market Place (Human Resources), D&B HR SERIES-2011. Taj Group, New Delhi. 7. Ivancevich, J., 1983. Contrast Effects in Performance Evaluation and Reward Practices. Academy of Management, 26, 465–476. 8. Kolb, D., Putnam, L., 1992. The Multiple Faces of Conflict in Organizations. Wiley, 13, 311– 324. 9. Lal, J., 2014. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN ONGC (Human Resources). Taj Group, Dehradun. 10. Mirza, S., 2003. Organisational Behaviour, 1st ed. Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi. 11. Mohr, Young, Burgess, 2012. Employee turnover and operational performance: the moderating effect of group-oriented organisational culture. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 22, 216– 233. 12. Muczyk, J., Holt, D., 2008. Toward a Cultural Contingency Model of Leadership. Sage, 14, 277–286. 13. ONGC, 2013. Practices in Training & Development in ONGC (Training and Development). Taj Group, Dehradun. 14. PONDY, L., 1992. Reflections on organizational conflict. Wiley, 13, 257–261. 15. Robbins, S., Judge, T., 2013. Organizational behavior, 15th ed. Pearson Education, Harlow. 16. Rudani, R., 2013. Principles of Management, 1st ed. Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi. 17. Singh, R.., Kulshretha, A., Chaudhary, R., 2012. Performance Management-Nurturing Performance Culture (A Case Study of Ongc-Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd). International Journal of Arts Management Humanity,1, 30–44. 18. Torrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor, S., 2011. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, 6th ed. Pearson Education, London. 19. Tziner, A., 1984. A Fairer Examination of Rating Scales When Used for Performance Appraisal in a Real Organizational Setting. Wiley, 5, 103–112. 20. Warner, J., 2013. At Issue: What Is Pay? NACD Directorship, 1, 45–51.
  22. 22. 21. Woerkom, M., Reuver, R., 2009. Predicting excellent management performance in an intercultural context: a study of the influence of multicultural personality on transformational leadership and performance. Taylor Francis, 20, 2013–2029.
  23. 23. Critically assess Individual Personality and Attitudes as practiced in the organization Figure 1.0 Source:- To understand someone in the organisation, first we should know about his/her personality as, “Personality shape our Behaviors” (Robbins, 2012). Though we all know about the Big Five Personality Traits but, these are not the only traits that describe people other than these traits are Narcissism, locus of control and self monitoring skills. (Robbins, 2012) Critical analysis of MBTI and Big Five Model in an organization:-
  24. 24. Figure 1.1 (MBTI model) Source:- Figure 1.2 ( Big Five Model) Source:-
  25. 25. The MBTI may perhaps dearth strong supporting suggestion but, the Big five model detentions the characteristic differences among people. It delivers a comprehensive hypothetical outline to understand the personality of individuals in organization. Model of how big five traits influence OB criteria: Big five traits Emotional Stability Extraversion Openness Aggreableness Conscientiousness Why is it relevant? a) Less adverse thoughtful and negative emotions. b) Less hyper vigilant. a) Better interpersonal skills. b) Greater social dominance. c) More emotionally expressive. a) Increased learning. b) More creative. c) More flexible and autonomous. a) Better liked. b) More compliant and confirming. a) Greater effort and persistence. b) More drive and discipline. c) Better organised and planning. What does it affect? a) Higher job and life satisfaction. b) Lower stress levels. a) Higher performance. b) Enhanced leadership. c) Higher job and life satisfaction. a) Training performance. b) Enhanced leadership. c) More adaptable to change. a) Higher performance. b) Lower levels of deviant behavior. a) Higher performance. b) Enhanced leadership. c) Greater longevity. Figure 1.3(Robbins, 2012) “Exhibit 5.2” The research illustrates that, people working in an organisation must own abilities like; greater determination and obstinate, more driven and well-organized and to do planning to deliver higher performance, enriched leadership and countless endurance and thoroughness is one attribute that instructs these potentials.
  26. 26. Figure1.4 Every Individual should have positive attitude towards personal and professional to be happy and successful. Every individual has its own way of exploring the surroundings, place or proceedings. Every approach of discerning describes a being’s approach concerning the organisation and to his life. Decent attitude of a individual can take the organisation to the next level and a person with the wicked attitude can even run to substantial loss in the organisation. As, Attitudes reflect the feeling an individual has towards other individual/s say his co- worker, or a particular event. (Mukherjee, 2009) . An attitude of a individual can be constructive or destructive to the similar entity. For example:- One person who enjoys to hang out with groups not essential that another individual also adores it. Critical Analysis of Attitude in the organisation:- Figure: 1.5 Source:-
  27. 27. Through affirmative attitude a person can effortlessly manage the routine concerns of life. Positive attitude of a person aids a person to see the happier sideways of life and also comforts individual to positively reach ones goal. Positive attitude touches not only the person but also the being surroundings. Though, the personnel with wicked attitude can even tip to shut down of the organisation in which he/she is employed. The organisation should eradicate the employee with bad attitude before the one make the circumstances inferior. As, bad attitude is like an transferable disease that could be the reason for the collapse of the organisation. Evil attitude can be transformed but, this is upon the individual whether individual wants to reach the triumph or the one wants to sit back and wait for the organisation to fire the individual employee out out. 2. Critically analyze the Motivation Theories as practiced in the Organisation. Maslow hypothesized that within every human being; there exist a hierarchy of five needs. (Robbins, 2012) Figure1.6 Source:-, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory of Motivation
  28. 28. Critical analysis of Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model:- Abraham Maslow specified that human behavior is never pleased once one need is fulfilled then the individual pursues to fulfill the following one. One should constantly go stair by stair to grasp their objectives and then he/she can encounter the advanced level development desires and afterward that to the highest level i.e. Self Actualisation. Every single person acquires the ability to stretch to the self actualization level. However Maslow’s theory is implemented in most of the organizations but the foremost problem with Maslow’s theory is there is no method to measure that how gratified the employee is by his/her needs before he/she moves to the next level. Maslow’s model does not survey the rampant-collation of the needs. Critical analysis of Herzberg’s Theory:- Figure1.7 Source:- Herzberg’s Motivation Theory “Herzberg’s Theory is also called the Two-Factor theory of motivation, as he discusses two main classes of deficit and development needs.” (Udai Pareek, 2007)
  29. 29. Herzberg’s theory is very vital for all organisation as it is almost together hygiene and motivating factors but statically organisations refer to Maslow’s theory. For example, every employee would not appreciate this technique of motivating them by classifying their hygiene and motivating influences yet some hygiene factors works as a motivators to employees. Thus, Herzberg’s theory drives equivalent to Maslow’s theory constructing it easier to apply. Comparison between Maslow’s Need Theory and Herzberg’s Theory in Organisational Context:- Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Physiological Safety Hygiene Factors Love Esteem Motivators Self-Actualization Figure1.8 Source:- Comparison between Maslow’s and Herzberg’s Motivation Theory ( Mukherjee, 2009). Maslow’s Theory is completely grounded on the hierarchy of human needs. He studied about the five sets of human needs and employees’ satisfaction and how they are motivated. Whereas, Herzberg’s theory mentions to both hygiene and motivating aspects in his theory. In Herzberg’s theory, needs are not organized in the efficient order. Maslow’s theory is centered upon the human needs, it is modest and defined in a decent means. While, Herzberg’s theory defines that how motivating aspects can be used efficiently. Maslow’s theory is utmost appropriate in deprived and emerging nations. Furthermore; Maslow’s theory is implemented where money is the big motivating influence. While; Herzberg’s theory is appropriate in established and rich countries. In other words; Herzberg’s theory is used where money is not much a big factor. Though Maslow’s Need Theory has so many errors but stagnantly it is used in most of the organisations this is because it emphases on only one mechanism that is; the necessities of the people in the organisations and Herzberg’s theory concentrates on both needs in hygiene factors and because of that it is not able to please the human needs in the organisation absolutely. So, individual should shadow the thing that is able to satisfy the requirements of the society/emploees. According to the research in the Indian Company Taj Gateway;- They were following the same way the way Maslow showed the hierarchy of needs to satisfy their employees, with knowing a fact that organization can’t grow without fulfilling the needs and motivating their employees.
  30. 30. 3. Critically analyze Group and Team Behavior. “All happy teams are alike; each unhappy team is unhappy in its own way.”:- Leo Tolstoy “All happy teams are alike; each unhappy team is unhappy in its own way.”:- Leo Tolstoy Figure1.9 Source:- The essentials that a group should comprise of:- Figure2.0 Essentials of the Group interaction among members Same Goal Stability in the group Respecting your Group members
  31. 31. A group is well-defined as, “a collection of two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve a common objective.” (Mukherjee, 2009). A group can never thorough its duty flawlessly if the associates of a group are not cooperating with their group companions properly or they are not having a steady affiliation or if they do not esteem their group companions. So, one should always take care that there group should always have a constant environment and every associate of a group should esteem every single person in his/her group for attaining their goals lacking any problems. Five Stage Model of a Group:- Figure2.1 Source:- Five Stage Model According to the research in Indian Organisation, Taj Gateway;- The researcher has observed that this organisation follows these five stages of the group and virtually all the groups execute well in this organisation to accomplish their objectives at predetermined time period.
  32. 32. As per, in the first stage; FORMING, the group is formed and their emphasis is to attain their assignment and they start functioning accordingly. Now, the next stage is STORMING, in which clash among the members of a set starts. So, every associate in a particular group should attend to their leader to evade clash to influence their goals. Third stage is the NORMING stage. The motivated group who is really concentrating in attaining their assignment reaches in this stage. In this stage, every individual of the group have only one goal, that is; to achieve their mission on the given time period, and all the team members are determined to work for the accomplishment of the team. Next is the PERFORMING stage; in this company’s all groups are ambitious to take this company to the next level so, they are all attentive and accomplish their assignment very successfully in other words in this company team work is very decent and every member has respect for the other individual and are attentive at one object only. Now, last but not the least stage is ADJOURING; In this the company or a group has attained accomplishment in completion of their assignment and now every individual of the team is doing his/her work individually and efficiently. Areas Teams Groups Size Usually limited number of members Numbers of members may be medium or large Members Selection Very critically selected Random or Accidental Purpose Collective Performance Information sharing Skills Complementary Varied Synergy Always Positive Neutral or negative Accountability Individual and Mutual Individual Leadership Shared or Rotating Individual and fixed Perception Mutual knowledge and understanding Focus on leaders Script Dynamic Interaction Togetherness Figure2.2 Source:- Difference between groups and teams (Mukherjee, 2009) Critically analysis of a Team:- As per the figure 2.2, it can be easily said that team works more efficiently and effective way than a group. In a team, generally inadequate amount of members are judgmentally designated and as all members in a team are accepting and have a vibrant interface amongst them to achieve their goals. A good team will always possess progressive approach so, chances of conflict among the members in a team is much inferior than a group. A worthy team should always involve of:
  33. 33. Possessions, Leadership, Belief, Enactment, by these potentials only team is different from group. Figure2.3 Source:- According to the research in Indian Organisation, Taj Gateway;- The research illustrates that, in this company employees effort in a team to attain their objectives. The employees always have a optimistic attitude and levers the difficulties very easily which comes on their pathway. The employees in this company play a very vital role for it. 4. Critically analyze the Management of Change Figure2.4, Source:-
  34. 34. In present state, revolution is taking place universally and in the ecosphere whether it is operational in the banks or education institutions or in corporate organizations transformation is everywhere as new expertise are being developed every day. Many organisations are closed due to lack of acceptance in mutable world and technologies. Just as Dinosaurs vanished because they were not bendable enough to adjust the changing world like that only organisations are also fetching nonexistent who are not embracing these new technologies of this altering ecosphere. So, if an organisation wants to endure in this changing situation then the organisation has to accept these new tools and familiarize the variations. If organisations will not revolutionise themselves then they will not be able to deliver good quality of products and amenities that a customer is envisioning from the organisation, results, enormous amount of loss. Executing the change successfully in the organisation:- Alteration in the organisation can be interior or exterior one should know how to classify that alteration and how to come up with that modification. For e.g;- If Boad Of Directors of any organization has come up with new rules and regulations for the organization, all employees has to follow it, whether its in their favor or not. An organisation should always retain an eye on their opponents that which new expertise they are implementing or which new product they are going to launch or promote in the market which will setback their clients concerning their organisation and organisation should always be equipped for that revolution else their survival will be at minimal level. This current world thrill those organisations out of the market that are not elastic enough to adapt these changing trends. Significance of Leadership in Transformation:- Management should always show a key role in applying changes successfully and if they don’t change their leadership spots and elegance, this will result as thrown out of the competition as well as from the market. To overcome this change, administrators must have a master plans. The plans should tell about the matters because of which they need transformation. This can cause anxiety in employees but as a good leaders they should always encourage their employees and should always inspire them to familiarize with that change. Management should always strategise about the forthcoming according to the varying needs of the customers.
  35. 35. Figure2.5, Source:- The important elements of leadership Leader should always have a vibrant revelation about the upcoming that what variations can happen in the forthcoming and putting the effort consequently with their employees. He/she should be a charismatic player and should be a twofold coil learner to inspire their employees and to save his/her organisation from the altering realm. Three Stages in Change:- Figure2.6, Source:- Three Stages in Change “Kurt Lewin argued that successful change in organisations should follow three steps: unfreezing the status quo, movement to a desire end state, and refreezing the new change to make it permanent.” (Robbins, 2012). These stages of modification communicates about how concepts become old how they are revolutionized and how they are transformed according to the changed consequence and for the existence for the organisation one should trail these steps merely in order to be organized. Unfreezing Changing Refreezing The important elements of leadership Creating Vison Exhibitng Charisma Learning new things
  36. 36. According to research in Indian company Taj Gateway:- The company very well knows about the changing drifts of the today’s development and how to hold with that. The employees are well trained by their team leaders to face any type challenge or situation and how to respond during the time of that condition. The employees are also taught for handling the clients at the while the slump and to embrace their customers in that company only, they try their best to not to let their customer approaching any of their competitors. The company embraces all new expertise that comes to please their customers at any price. 5. Critically assessment Organizational Design Figure2.7, Source:- Leaders have an advantage in scheming the organisation. They have faith in organisation’s works in the way it is designed to work. If the organisation is not intended appropriately then the organisation can never extent to victory. As; Designing means holistic thinking about the organisation. (Stanford, 2009)
  37. 37. Figure2.7, Source:- Figure2.8, Organisizing Principles Out of these principles of organizing, Personal ability is the most significant feature because individuals are employed for the job and if the person is not accurate for that job then the goal of the organisation cannot be accomplished as that person will not be talented enough to achieve his assignment in the organisation. Five thumb rules for designing:- Figure 2.9, Five thumb rules for designing Design for a reason Before deciding a design develop various options Right time of design Things should be out of alignment Should forecast Objective Efficiency Management by Exception Authority and Unity of Command Personal Ability Principles of Organizing
  38. 38. Individuals must always reflect about the upcoming afore they start conniving the organization. As per, Designing for the future is better than designing for now. (Stanford, 2009). Designing an organization without convincing motive or goal is of no use. So, a person should constantly have a appropriate intention and a objective for designing an organization then only a person can attain triumph in designing a decent and organized organization. If a person is not objective leaning and do not forecast about the forthcoming for designing an organization then that organization is of no use. Nevertheless, if you achieve in designing a successful organization then you get the followings as reward as a whole organizational entity:-  A good client amenity.  Productivity of the organization rises. Such as, this world is altering every minute of the day in all senses, the individual should continuously rise his/her efficiency or reintroduce themselves rendering to the changing world or else this could tip to:-  Dearth of possession.  Emphasis on the client decreases due to lack of data. Organisational Design as practiced in the Organisation:- Virtually all the companies monitor some or the other organizational hierarchys and project that distributes the employees in the clusters or squads and co-ordinates them to accomplish the assignment in the organisation.
  39. 39. Figure 3.0 Mechanistic model is worthy for steady situation whereas; Organic model is worthy for unceasingly varying surroundings which comprises revolution of fresh expertise and altering drifts of the market and if change is not complete bestowing to the varying requirements of the customer then it can tip to hefty losses in the organisation. Critical Analysis of Organisational Design in the Organisation:- According to the research in the Indian Company Taj Gateway;- The organisation uses both kinds of model conferring to the situation in the organisation. Both the models are significant for nearly each organisation as; Mechanistic model is used when there is steady environment in the organisation and Organic model is used when there is continuous alteration in the organisation. This organisation is elastic enough to use these both models according to the situation in the organisation. The organisation is well designed and employees there are future oriented. Mechanistic Model Organic Model Two Types of Organizational Design
  40. 40. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Barling,J.I., 1977. An Empirical Test of Maslow’s Theory of Motivation in Industrial Setting. Psychology Africana, 17(2) 99-110. 2. Barrick, M.R., Mount, M.k., 1991. The Big Five Personality Dimensions and Job Performance. A Meta-Analysis. Personal Psychology, 44,1-27. 3. Berry, G.R., 2011 Enhancing Effectiveness on Virtual Teams. Business Communication,48(2),186-206. 4. Bockman, V.M.,1971. The Herzberg Controversy. Personnel Psychology,24(2),155- 189. 5. Burnes,B, 2004 Kurt Lewin and the Planned approach to change:A Reappraisal.Management Studios, 41(6),978-1002. 6. Carter,E.,2008. Successful Change Requires More Than Change Management Quality and Participation,20-23. 7. Courtright,J.A., Fairhurst, G.T.,Rogers, E.L., 1989. Interaction Patterns in Organic and Mechanistic Systems. Management Journal, 32(4), 773- 802. 8. Dennis,A.R., 1996. Information Exchange and use in Group Decision Making; You Can Lead a group to Information, but you can’t make it Think. MIS Quaterly, 22(4), 433. 9. Gardner,G., 1977. Is There a Valid Test of Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory? Occupation Psychology, 50(3)197-204. 10. Garfield,M.J., Dennis, A.R., 2012. Toward an Integrated Model of Group. Development: Disruption of Routines by Technology Induced Change Management Information Systems, 29{3},43-86. 11. Goodman, R.A., 1968. On the Operationality of Maslow Hierarchy Need. Industrial Relations, 6(1), 52-57. 12. Graham.W.K., 1969. Comparison of Job Attitude Components across Three Organisation Levels. Personnel Psychology, 22,33-40. 13. Grimes,A.J.,Klien, S.M.,Shull, F.A., 1972. Matrix Model: A Selective Empirical Test. 14. Guha,B.A., 2010. Motivators and Hygiene Factors of Generation X and Generation Y The Test of Two Factor Theory. Management, 121-131. 15. Katzenbach, J.R., Smith, D.K., 1993. The Discipline of Teams. Harvard Business Review, 111-120. 16. Kotter, J.P., 2007. Leading Change- Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Harvard Business Review, 96-103. 17. Levasseur, R.E., 2001 People Skills: Change Management Tools-Lewin’s Change Model. Interfaces, 31{4}, 71-73. 18. Maidani, E.A., 1991. Comparative Study of Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction among Public and Private Sectors. Public Personnel Management, 20(4),441-448.
  41. 41. 19. Major, D.A.,Turner, J.E., Fletcher, T.D., 2006. Linking Proactive Personality and the Big Five to Motivation to Learn and Development Activity. Applied Psychology, 91{4}, 927-935. 20. Milne, R.S., 1970. Mechanistic and Organic Models of Public Administration in Developing Countries. Administrative Science Quarterly, 57-67. 21. Peters,E., Slovic,P., 2007. Affective Asynchrony and the measurement of the affective attitude component. Cognition &Emotion, 21(2),300-329. 22. Pheysey,D.C., Payne., R.L.,Pugh, D.S., 1971, Influence of Structure at Organisational and Group Levels. Administrative Science Quarterly, 61-73. 23. Robbins, S.P.,Judge, I., 2013 Organisational Behaviour, PrenticeHall, Upper Saddle River, N.J. 24. Rulke,D.L.,Carlson,C.I, 1996. Member Selection Stratergy and Team Performances: Cognitive Integration vs Social Integration in Cross Functional Teams. Management Best paper proceedings,8(1),424-428. 25. Trigg,A.B.2004. Deriving The Engel Curve Pierre Bourdieu and the Social Critique of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Social Economy, 62{3}, 393-406. 26. Zhang, D.S.,Lowry, P.B., Zhou,L,Fu,x., 2007. The Impact of Individualism. Coolectivism, Social Presence and Group Diversity on Group Decision Making Under Majority Influence. Management Information Systems, 23(4), 53-80.