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Training Report on PLC & SCADA

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This is a brief report on plc and scada...
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Training Report on PLC & SCADA

  1. 1. CONTENTS S.NO. TOPIC PAGE NO. 1 INTRODUCTION 6 2 AUTOMATION 7 3 PLC(PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER) 9 4 PROGRAMMING IN PLC 11 5 COMPONENTS OF PLC 12 6 MICROLOGIX 1000 15 7 COMMUNICATION OF PLC WITH PC 18 8 TIMERS AND COUNTERS 23 9 COMPARE FUNCTIONS 27 10 INTRODUCTION TO SCADA 31 11 SCADA PROGRAMMING 33 12 RELAYS 36 13 CONTACTORS 37 14 HMI 38 15 REFERENCES 40
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Control engineering has evolved over time. In the past humans were the main method for controlling a system. More recently electricity has been used for control and early electrical control was based on relays. These relays allow power to be switched on and off without a mechanical switch. It is common to use relays to make simple logical control decisions. The development of low cost computer has brought the most recent revolution, the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The advent of the PLC began in the 1970s, and has become the most common choice for manufacturing controls. PLCs have been gaining popularity on the factory floor and will probably remain predominant for some time to come. Most of this is because of the advantages they offer. • Cost effective for controlling complex systems. • Flexible and can be reapplied to control other systems quickly and easily. • Computational abilities allow more sophisticated control. • Trouble shooting aids make programming easier and reduce downtime. • Reliable components make these likely to operate for years before failure. The term SCADA stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. A SCADA system is a common process automation system which is used to gather data from sensors and instruments located at remote sites and to transmit and display this data at a central site for either control or monitoring purposes. The collected data is usually viewed on one or more SCADA Host computers located at the central or master site. 2
  3. 3. AUTOMATION Automation or automatic control is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching in telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated. The biggest benefit of automation is that it saves labor however, it is also used to save energy and materials and to improve quality, accuracy and precision. The term automation, inspired by the earlier word automatic (coming from automaton), was not widely used before 1947, when General Motors established the automation department. It was during this time that industry was rapidly adopting feedback controllers, which were introduced in the 1930s. Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, electronic and computers, usually in combination. Complicated systems, such as modern factories, airplanes and ships typically use all these combined techniques . History of Automation:-In the ancient times people worked by hand. They made every tasks, every works without any help. Later they began to do some simple (and later more complicated ) machines, eg. water wheels for lifting water from channels, mills (water and wind mills ) for milling corns, etc. They began to use animals to give their force, their power to get work machines, vehicles, etc In the XIXth century the machines were able to do many tasks. Steam engines gave the mechanical energy to machines, but the man had to control every machine. Control consists of some activities: • observe the phenomena (speed of machine, pressure of steam, temperature of water, etc.), • compute (decide) the needed activity (growing or reducing the amount of fuel ), • set the appropriate device (modify the setting of fuel valves ). 3
  4. 4. Advantages of Automation:- The main advantages of automation are:- • Increased through output or productivity. • Improved quality or increased predictability of quality. • Improved robustness (consistency), of processes or product. • Increased consistency of output. • Reduced direct human labor costs and expenses. Disadvantages of Automation:- The main disadvantages of automation are:- • Causing unemployment and poverty by replacing human labor. • Security Threats/Vulnerability: An automated system may have a limited level of intelligence, and is therefore more susceptible to committing errors outside of its immediate scope of knowledge (e.g., it is typically unable to apply the rules of simple logic to general propositions). • Unpredictable/excessive development costs: The research and development cost of automating a process may exceed the cost saved by the automation itself. • High initial cost: The automation of a new product or plant typically requires a very large initial investment in comparison with the unit cost of the product, although the cost of automation may be spread among many products and over time. Parts of Automation:- 1. Hardware Control- • PLC/DCS 2. Software Control- • SCADA 3. Field Instruments- 4
  5. 5. • Motors, Sensors, Lamp, valves etc. 5
  6. 6. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC):- A Programmable Logic Controller is an industrial computer control system that continuously monitors the state of input devices and makes decisions based upon a custom program to control the state of output devices. Almost any production line, machine function, or process can be greatly enhanced using this type of control system. However, the biggest benefit in using a PLC is the ability to change and replicate the operation or process while collecting and communicating vital information. Another advantage of a PLC system is that it is modular. That is, you can mix and match the types of Input and Output devices to best suit your application Figure 1 PLC(ALLEN BRADLEY) A Programmable Logic Controller, PLC or Programmable Controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed-up or non-volatile memory. 6
  7. 7. Figure 2 Interface between Input and Output to process the desired logic. TYPES OF PLC:- 1. Compact type 2. Modular type 1. Compact type:- a) Slots are not available b) I/O cannot be varied c) Also compact in its size 2. Modular type:- a) Slots are available b) I/O can be varied 7
  8. 8. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE USED IN A PLC The Ladder Logic is the most commonly used PLC programming language. Ladder Diagram (LD) Traditional ladder logic is graphical programming language. Initially programmed with simple contacts that simulated the opening and closing of relays, Ladder Logic programming has been expanded to include such functions as counters, timers, shift registers, and math operations. ADDRESSING FOR INPUT AND OUTPUT:- FILE TYPE: FILE NO.:SLOT NO. *WORD NO./BIT No. i.e. For Input:-I:0.0/0,I:0.0/1 and so on…. For Output:-O0:0.0/0,O0:0.0/1 and so on… SYMBOLS USED IN LADDER LOGIC PROGRAMMING:- 8 Normally Open Pushbutton Normally Closed Pushbutton Normally Open switch Normally Closed switch Normally Open contact Normally closed contact
  9. 9. COMPONENTS OF A PLC:- 1. Power Supply:- Provides the voltage needed to run the primary PLC components 24vDC, 220vAC, and 110ac 2. Communication:- The wiring diagram shows the inputs and outputs connected irectly (hard wired) to the PLC. The devices shown are on/off or digital in nature but the signal to the PLC is analog. Many commonly used devices conform to a 4-20 mA standard whereby signals of 4mA and 20mA form respectively the minimum and maximum values of an analog signal. With analog devices, a separate cable needs to be run between the end device and the control system because only a single analog signal can be represented on the circuit. The 4-20 mA standard is slowly being replaced by network or fieldbus communications. Fieldbus is a multi-drop digital two-way communication link between intelligent devices. Fieldbus allows the connection of a number of sensors all located in the same area to the same cable. Fieldbus comes in many varieties depending on the manufacturer and application. Examples include ASibus, Profibus, Devicenet and Modbus. A more recent trend is the development of Industrial Ethernet which has the capacity to transport large quantities of data not only for process control but also to integrate the process with management information systems. 3. Input Modules:- a)Provides signal conversion and isolation between the internal logic- b)level signals inside the PLC and the field’s high level signal. c)The I/O interface section of a PLC connects it to external field devices. d)The main purpose of the I/O interface is to condition the various signals received from or sent to the external input and output devices. e)Input modules converts’ signals from discrete or analog input devices to logic levels acceptable to PLC’s processor. 9
  10. 10. 3.1 Discrete Input:- A discrete input also referred as digital input is an input that is either ON or OFF is connected to the PLC digital input. In the ON condition it is referred to as logic 1 or logic high and in the OFF condition may be referred to as logic o or logic low. It can be toggle switch, push button etc. 3.2Analog input:- An analog input is an input signal that has a continuous signal. Typical inputs may vary from 0 to 20mA, 4 to 20mAor 0 to10V. Below, a level transmitter monitors the level of liquid in the tank. Depending on the level Tx, the signal to the PLC can either increase or decrease as the level increases or decreases. e.g. temperature and pressure related instruments etc. 4.Output Modules:- Output modules converts signal from the processor to levels capable of driving the connected discrete or analog output devices. 4.1Analog Output:- An analog output is an output signal that has a continuous signal. Typical outputs may vary from 0 to 20mA, 4 to 20mAor 0 to10V. 4.2Digital Output:- A discrete output is either in an ON or OFF condition. Solenoids, contactors coils, lamps are example of devices connected to the Discrete or digital outputs. Below, the lamp can be turned ON or OFF by the PLC output it is connected to. 5.Processor:- 10
  11. 11. The processor module contains the PLC’s microprocessor, its supporting circuitry, and its memory system.The main function of the microprocessor is to analyze data coming from field sensors through input modules, make decisions based on the user’s defined control program and return signal back through output modules to the field devices. Field sensors: switches, flow, level, pressure, temp. transmitters, etc. Field output devices: motors, valves, solenoids, lamps, or audible devices. 11
  12. 12. INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES INPUTS Switches and Pushbuttons – Sensing Devices Limit Switches Photoelectric Sensors Proximity Sensors – Condition Sensors – Encoders Pressure Switches Level Switches Temperature Switches Vacuum Switches Float Switches OUTPUTS – Valves – Motor Starters – Solenoids – Actuators – – Horns and Alarms – Stack lights – Control Relays – Counter / Totalizer – Pumps – Printers – Fans 12
  13. 13. MICROLOGIX 1000 Hardware Overview:- The MicroLogix 1000 programmable controller is a packaged controller containing a power supply, input circuits, output circuits, and a processor. The controller is available in 10 I/O, 16 I/O and 32 I/O configurations, as well as an analog version with 20 discrete I/O and 5 analog I/O. The catalog number for the controller is composed of the following: Figure 3 Figure 4 13
  14. 14. Benefits:- • Compact design— Let’s the MicroLogix 1000 controller thrive in limited panel space. • Choice of communication networks— An RS-232-C communication port is configurable for: DF1 protocol for direct connection to a programming device or operator interface; DH-485 networking through a 1761-NET- AIC converter; DeviceNet networking through a 1761-NET-DNI interface; EtherNet/IP networking through a 1761-NET-ENI interface; or for half-duplex slave protocol in SCADA applications. • Simple programming with your choice of programming device— You can program these controllers in familiar ladder logic with MicroLogix 1000 A.I. Series Software® , PLC 500 A. I. Series Programming Software, RSLogix 500™ Windows Programming Software, or the MicroLogix Hand-Held Programmer (1761- HHP-B30). This symbolic programming language is based on relay ladder wiring diagrams that simplify the creation and troubleshooting of your control program. • Comprehensive instruction set— Over 65 instructions including simple bit, timer, and counter instructions, as well as instructions for powerful applications like sequencers, high-speed counter, and shift registers. • Fast— Execution time for a typical 500-instruction program is only 1.56 ms. • Choice of languages— Software and documentation are available in 5 languages. The hand-held programmer has 6 languages built in. 14
  15. 15. PROGRAMMING OF PLC PLC programs are typically written in a special application on a personal computer, then downloaded by a direct-connection cable or over a network to the PLC. The program is stored in the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile flash memory. Often, a single PLC can be programmed to replace thousands of relays. In Allen Bradley PLC’s the logic used for the programming is ladder logic. Ladder logic is a programming language that represents a program by a graphical diagram based on the circuit diagrams of relay-based logic hardware. It is primarily used to develop software for Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) used in industrial control applications. The name is based on the observation that programs in this language resemble ladders, with two vertical rails and a series of horizontal rungs between them. Ladder logic is widely used to program PLCs, where sequential control of a process or manufacturing operation is required. Ladder logic is useful for simple but critical control systems, or for reworking old hardwired relay circuits. As programmable logic controllers became more sophisticated it has also been used in very complex automation systems. Figure 5 Simple ladder logic If a path can be traced between the left side of the rung and the output, through asserted (true or "closed") contacts, the rung is true and the output coil storage bit is asserted (1) or true. If no path can be traced, then the output is false (0) and the "coil" by analogy to 15
  16. 16. electromechanical relays is considered "de-energized.Ladder logic has contacts that make or break circuits to control coils. Each coil or contact corresponds to the status of a single bit in the programmable controller's memory. Unlike electromechanical relays, a ladder program can refer any number of times to the status of a single bit, equivalent to a relay with an indefinitely large number of contacts. So-called "contacts" may refer to physical ("hard") inputs to the programmable controller from physical devices such as pushbuttons and limit switches via an integrated or external input module, or may represent the status of internal storage bits which may be generated elsewhere in the program. Each rung of ladder language typically has one coil at the far right. Some manufacturers may allow more than one output coil on a rung. --( )-- a regular coil, energized whenever its rung is closed --()-- a "not" coil, energized whenever its rung is open --[ ]-- A regular contact, closed whenever its corresponding coil is energized --[]-- A "not" contact, open whenever its corresponding coil is energized The "coil" (output of a rung) may represent a physical output which operates some device connected to the programmable controller, or may represent an internal storage bit for use els Example-:- ------[ ]--------------[ ]----------------O--- Key Switch 1 Key Switch 2 Motor “This is a logical AND.” COMMUNICATION OF PLC WITH PC:- To make communication of PLC with PC following steps are noted down: 1) Connect PC and PLC via RS232 comport or Ethernet. 2) Then click on RS Linx icon, a window will appear as shown in fig below 16
  17. 17. Figure 6 2) RS Linx classic window 3) In this window add drivers i.e. whether it is RS232 comport or Ethernet and configure the drivers and closes the window. 4) Then click on icon RS who on the RS Linx classic window, another window will appear as shown in fig 3.5.3.4. 5) After opening the RS who window click on AB DF1-1 DH-485, the PLC is running is shown on the window. Then close this window and double click on RS Logix 500 starter. 17
  18. 18. Figure 7 Fig RS Who window 6) When we double click on RS Logix 500 starter a window will appear as shown in fig . Figure 8 RS Logix 500 window 18
  19. 19. PLC INSTRUCTIONS:- There are various instructions which are useful for making ladder logic for PLC programming. These are as follows: 4.1) XIC (Examine if closed): Use the XIC instruction in your ladder program to determine if a bit is ON. When the instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is on (1), then the instruction is evaluated as true. When the instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is off (0), then the instruction is evaluated as false. XIC (Examine if closed): Examples of devices that turn on or off include: • A push button wired to an input (addressed as I:0/4). • An output wired to a pilot light (addressed as O:0/2). • A timer controlling a light (addressed as T4:3/DN). 4.2) XIO (Examine if open): Use the XIO instruction in your ladder program to determine if a bit is OFF. When the instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is off (0), then the instruction is evaluated as true. When the instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is on (1), then the instruction is evaluated as false. 19 I/P O/P 0 0 1 1
  20. 20. Examples of devices that turn on or off include: • Motor overload normally closed (N.C.) wired to an input (I:0/10). • An output wired to a pilot light (addressed as O:0/4). • A timer controlling a light (addressed as T4:3/DN). 4.3) Output Energize (OTE): Use the OTE instruction in your ladder program to turn on a bit when rung conditions are evaluated as true. An example of a device that turns on or off is an output wired to a pilot light (addressed as O:0/4). OTE instructions are reset when: • The SLC enters or returns to the REM Run or REM Test mode or Power is restored. • The OTE is programmed within an inactive or false Master Control Reset (MCR) zone. 20 I/P O/P 0 1 1 0
  21. 21. Timers: Timers are used to perform the timing operations. Time base is the minimum value of time in second that can be taken by the timer. Preset value is the total number of the seconds for which the timing operation has to be done Accumulator starts increasing the time in seconds upto the preset value. Upto the preset value of the accumulator the enable bit of timer is high & the timer runs. When accumulator reaches the preset value then the timer stops and the done bit of the timer becomes high. The timer has following bits and these bits are useful in the operation of timer: EN- Enable- This bit will high when the input is given to the timer  TT - Timer timing bit - This bit will be high during the timing process. It remains high till accumulator value becomes equal to preset value  DN – Done – This bit will be high when the timing process is ended. It set to high when the accumulator value becomes equal to preset value. In Micrologix 1000 and 1100 PLC there are three types of timers i.e. TYPES OF TIMERS USED:- 4.5.1 TON Timer 4.5.2 T-OFF Timer 4.5.3 Retentive timer ON (RTO) TON Timer: Use the TON instruction to turn an output on or off after the timer has been on for a preset time interval. The TON instruction begins to count time-base intervals when rung conditions become true. As long as rung conditions remain true, the timer adjusts its accumulated value (ACC) each evaluation until it reaches the preset value (PRE). The accumulated value is reset when rung conditions go false, regardless of whether the timer has timed out 21
  22. 22. T-OFF Timer: Use the TOF instruction to turn an output on or off after its rung has been off for a preset time interval. The TOF instruction begins to count timebase intervals when the rung makes a true- to-false transition. As long as rung conditions remain false, the timer increments its accumulated value (ACC) based on the timebase for each scan until it reaches the preset value (PRE). The accumulated value is reset when rung conditions go true regardless of whether the timer has timed out. T-OFF timer Retentive Timer (RTO): Use the RTO instruction to turn an output on or off after its timer has been on for a preset time interval. The RTO instruction is a retentive instruction that begins to count timebase intervals when rung conditions become true. The RTO instruction retains its accumulated value when any of the following occurs: • Rung conditions become false. • You change processor operation from the REM Run or REM Test mode to the REM Program mode • The processor loses power (provided that battery backup is maintained) • A fault occurs 22
  23. 23. When you return the processor to the REM Run or REM Test mode and/or rung conditions go true, timing continues from the retained accumulated value. By retaining its accumulated value, retentive timers measure the cumulative period during which rung conditions are true. A Retentive Timer (RTO) COUNTERS Counters are used to count the number of operations. Its function is same as the timer accepts that the timer counts the number of seconds and the counter counts the number of operations or pulses. At each operation the value of the accumulator increases and when the value of the accumulator comes to the preset value of the counter then the counter stops. Counter bits:  TT - Timer timing bit - This bit will be high during the counting process. It remains high till accumulator value becomes equal to preset value  DN – Done – This bit will be high when the counting process is ended. It set to high when the accumulator value becomes equal to preset value. 23
  24. 24. Counter UP (CTU):- The CTU is an instruction that counts false-to-true rung transitions. Rung transitions can be caused by events occurring in the program (from internal logic or by external field devices) such as parts traveling past a detector or actuating a limit switch. When rung conditions for a CTU instruction have made a false-to-true transition, the accumulated value is incremented by one count, provided that the rung containing the CTU instruction is evaluated between these transitions. The ability of the counter to detect false-to-true transitions depends on the speed (frequency) of the incoming signal. The accumulated value is retained when the rung conditions again become false. The accumulated count is retained until cleared by a reset (RES) instruction that has the same address as the counter reset. Counter UP (CTU) Counter Down (CTD):- The CTD is an instruction that counts false-to-true rung transitions. Rung transitions can be caused by events occurring in the program such as parts traveling past a detector or actuating a limit switch. When rung conditions for a CTD instruction have made a false-to-true transition, the accumulated value is decremented by one count, provided that the rung containing the CTD instruction is evaluated between these transitions. The accumulated counts are retained when the rung conditions again become false. The accumulated count is retained until cleared by a reset (RES) instruction that has the same address as the counter reset. 24
  25. 25. Counter Down (CTU) COMMANDS FOR COMPARISON:- EQU (equal to):- Equal to This input instruction is true when source A becomes equal to source B. The EQU instruction compares two user specified values if values are equal, it allows rung continuity. The rung goes true and output energies. GEQ (greater than equal to) Fig 4.8) Greater than Equal to This instruction compares two values and will be high when the counted value becomes equal to or greater than the fixed value and will energize everything that is connected next to it. 25
  26. 26. LEQ(less than equal to) Fig 4.9) Less than Equal to This instruction compares two values and will be high when the counted value becomes equal to or less than the fixed value and will energize everything that is connected next to it. GRT (greater than) Fig 4.10) Greater Than Use of the GRT instruction to test whether one value (source A) is greater than another (source B). If the value at source A is greater than the value at source B, the instruction is logically true. If the value at source A is less than or equal to the value at source B, the instruction is logically false. Source A must be an address. Source B can either be a program constant or an address. Negative integers are stored in two’s complement form. 26
  27. 27. 4.11) LES (less than) Fig 4.11) Less than Use of the LES instruction is to test whether one value (source A) is less than another (source B). If source A is less than the value at source B, the instruction is logically true. If the value at source A is greater than or equal to the value at source B, the instruction is logically false. Source A must be an address. Source B can either be a program constant or an address. Negative integers are stored in two’s complement form. 4.12) LIM (Limit):- Fig4.12) Limit Use the LIM instruction to test for values within or outside a specified range, depending on how you set the limits. 27
  28. 28. 4.14) RES (Reset): Fig 4.14) Reset Use a RES instruction to reset a timer or counter. When the RES instruction is enabled, it resets the Timer ON Delay (TON), Retentive Timer (RTO), Count UP (CTU), or Count Down (CTD) instruction having the same address as the RES instruction. When resetting a counter, if the RES instruction is enabled and the counter rung is enabled, the CU or CD bit is reset. If the counter preset value is negative, the RES instruction sets the accumulated value to zero. This in turn causes the done bit to be set by a count down or count up instruction. 28
  29. 29. SCADA SCADA stands for supervisory control and data acquisition. It generally refers to an industrial control system a computer system monitoring and controlling a process. SCADA stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. As the name indicates, it is not a full control system, but rather focuses on the supervisory level. As such, it is a purely software package that is positioned on top of hardware to which it is interfaced, in general via Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), or other commercial hardware modules. SCADA systems are used not only in industrial processes: e.g. steel making, power generation (conventional and nuclear) and distribution, chemistry, but also in some experimental facilities such as nuclear fusion. The size of such plants range from a few1000 to several 10 thousands input/output (I/O) channels. However, SCADA systems evolve rapidly and are now penetrating the market of plants with a number of I/O Channels of several 100 K: we know of two cases of near to 1 M I/O channels currently under development. Leading SCADA companies Invensys Wonder ware : In touch Siemens: WinCC Allen Bradley: RS View 32 Industrial process includes those of manufacturing production, power generation, fabrication, and refining, and may run in continuous, batch, repetitive, or discrete modes. Infrastructure processes may be public or private, and include water treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, oil land gas pipelines, electrical power transmission and distribution, and large communication system. Facility processes occur both in public facilities an private ones, including building, airports, ships, and space stations. 29
  30. 30. Types of SCADA 1. D+R+N ( Development +Run + Networking) 2. R+N ( Run +Networking ) 3. Factory focus Features of SCADA 1. Dynamic process Graphic 2. Alarm summery 3. Alarm history 4. Real time trend 5. Historical time trend 6. Security (Application Security) 7. Data base connectivity 8. Device connectivity 9. Scripts 10. Recipe management 30
  31. 31. Systems concepts The term SCADA usually refers to centralized systems which monitor and control entire sites, or complexes of systems spread out over large areas (anything between an industrial plant and a country). Most control actions are performed automatically by remote terminal units ("RTUs") or by programmable logic controllers ("PLCs"). Host control functions are usually restricted to basic overriding or supervisory level intervention. For example, a PLC may control the flow of cooling water through part of an industrial process, but the SCADA system may allow operators to change the set points for the flow,and enable alarm conditions, such as loss of flow and high temperature, to be displayed and recorded. The feedback control loop passes through the RTU or PLC, while the SCADA system monitors the overall performance of the loop. Application of SCADA  Industrial automation  Electric power generation, transmission an distribution.  Water management  Manufacturing SCADA Programming The SCADA system used by us is SCADA Intouch Wonder. This SCADA system is created by WonderWare. It has variety of commands, tool library and many other features required for programming. It is an integrated, component-based software for monitoring and controlling automation machines and processes. • Open its graphic displays as OLE containers for ActiveX® controls — with thousands of third-party ActiveX controls to choose from, you can drop ready-made solutions right into your projects • Develop an object model to expose portions of its core functionality, allowing it to interoperate easily with other component-based software products • Support OPC standards as both a server and a client for fast, reliable communications with a wide variety of hardware devices 31
  32. 32. • Support interfacing with PLC ,excel and other tools also. Benefits of Intouch • Interact with other Rockwell Software products • Share data with Microsoft products • Enjoy preferred compatibility with Rockwell Automation products • Maximize your hardware investments with OPC • Update projects online Programming with Intouch 1. Double click on “intouch” icon and a window will appear named Intouch Application Manager’. 2. Create a ‘New’ application. Figure 9 3. Then give a specific name to it. 32
  33. 33. 4. Now open that application. 5. A window is appeared as:- Figure 10 6. Select windows properties and click OK 7. At the right most corner of this software the project window will appear. In this window there are all the options related to our project in the SCADA. Like system, graphics, alarms,buttons , datalogs, logic & control etc. 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. RELAYS A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. In the original form, the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts. It was invented by Joseph Henry in 1835 Figure 11 35
  36. 36. CONTACTORS When a relay is used to switch a large amount of electrical power through its contacts, it is designated by a special name: contactor. Contactors typically have multiple contacts, and those contacts are usually (but not always) normally-open, so that power to the load is shut off when the coil is de-energized. Perhaps the most common industrial use for contactors is the control of electric motors. The top three contacts switch the respective phases of the incoming 3-phase AC power, typically at least 480 Volts for motors 1 horsepower or greater. The lowest contact is an "auxiliary" contact which has a current rating much lower than that of the large motor power contacts, but is actuated by the same armature as the power contacts. The auxiliary contact is often used in a relay logic circuit, or for some other part of the motor control scheme, typically switching 120 Volt AC power instead of the motor voltage. One contactor may have several auxiliary contacts, either normally-open or normally-closed, if required. • A contactor is a large relay, usually used to switch current to an electric motor or other high power load. • Large electric motors can be protected from over current damage through the use of overload heaters and overload contacts. If the series-connected heaters get too hot from excessive current, the normally-closed overload contact will open, de-energizing the contactor sending power to the motor. Figure12 CONTACTORS 36
  37. 37. HMI (HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE) The user interface (also known as human computer interface or man-machine interface (MMI)) is the aggregate of means by which people—the users—interact with the system—a particular machine, device, computer program or other complex tool. The user interface provides means of: • Input, allowing the users to manipulate a system • Output, allowing the system to indicate the effects of the users' manipulation. • Steps to interface HMI with PLC:- • Create a new application • Select the type of HMi(here we are using PV 300 Micro with DF1) • Give application name and then click “OK” • A window similar to the HMI(hardware) is displayed as:3 37
  38. 38. Figure13 • Here on the top there are various tools available for the HMI programming. The steps are:- 38
  39. 39. OPEN A NEW APPLICATION Applications are created with default file names that you can change when saving the application. The default file name is PVcApplication1. The number automatically increments as you create new applications. • Click the Create & Edit button in the Panel View Explorer Startup window Review areas of screen. This is where you will spend most of your time Different toolbars 1. Navigation tabs Provides access to the different functional areas of an application 2. Application toolbar Provides common tools that are available to all views of the application. Drag your mouse over each tool 3. Cursor controls Hides or shows the Controls or Properties panel to increase the workspace area 4. Screen list Contains a list of screens in the application including the alarm banner and diagnostics banner 5. Screen workspace Contains objects that you drag to the screen from the object palette. 6. Object palette Contains panels of objects that you can drag to the screen workspace. Click the cursor on a tab to open or close a panel of objects. The palette can occupy 25, 50 or 75% of the Controls panel. Right-click on the object palette heading to resize it. The object palette and screen list are resized accordingly 7. Properties panel Contains panels of properties to configure the appearance, navigation, common properties, or connection tags of a selected object. Panels vary for each object. Click the cursor on a tab to open orclose a panel You can also change the screen properties by clicking a blank area of a screen. Screen properties include name, description, grid spacing. 39
  40. 40. REFERENCES • www.googleimages.com(Fig:-1,2,3,4,5) • Slideshare.com(Fig:-6,7,8) • www.seminarprojects.com(Fig:-13) • www.youtube.com • www.mccombs-wall.com • Programmable Logic Controllers, W.Bolton, Elsevier- Newnes, 2009 • http://www.plcs.net/chapters/history2.htm • http://www.scribd.com(Fig:-9,10) • http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-human-machine- interface.htm • www.wikipedia.com(Fig:-11,12) 40

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