E waste programme

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Samadhan foundation in collaboration with AB Sustainablearth organised a one day awareness cum enterprise development programme on electronic waste at MSME extension centre, CP.
E-waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams in developed as well as in
developing countries. The amount of generated e-waste per year grows rapidly. Life
span of computers has dropped from seven years in 1990s to just two years or less
today. Mobile phones have a lifespan of even less than two years. There is a pressing
need to address e-waste management challenge. The presence of valuable recyclable
components offers business, entrepreneurial and employment generation potential in
this industry. Currently, only about 5.7 percent of e-waste is recycled. Also it is
important to have a long-term solution to the rising levels of obsolete mobile phones, refrigerators, televisions and other e-products.

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E waste programme

  1. 1. 2012 Towards efficient e-waste management Executive Programme in E- Waste Enterprise Development An introductory progroamme on – E-waste management: Sensitization, awareness and enterprise development Organized by Samadhan Foundation 20 July 2012 at MSME Development Institute Extension Centre, Govt. of India, Connaught Circus, New Delhi Partner organizations: ALL INDIA KABADI MAZDOOR MAHASANGH HRA E-WASTE PVT. LTD. MANESAR INDUSTRIAL WELFARE ASSOCIATION E-WASTE HARIT RECYCLER WELFARE ASSOCIATION AB SUSTAINABLEARTH Samadhand Foundation 20 July 2012 http://samadhanfoundation.com
  2. 2. 2 | Towards Efficient E-Waste Management Towards Efficient E-Waste Management Executive Programme In E- Waste Enterprise Development Organized by Samadhan Foundation http://samadhanfoundation.com A report of the programme prepared by Samadhan FoundationTeam membersBhavesh JhaAmar SinghSamadhan FoundationChairmanMr. John PhiliposeDirectorDr. P. KoshyContact: 91-9953871432Samadhan.foundation.india@gmail.com© Samadhan Foundation, 2012
  3. 3. 3 | Towards Efficient E-Waste Management Towards Efficient E-Waste Management Executive Programme In E- Waste Enterprise Development PageE- Waste an introduction 4E- waste enterprise development: need of the hour 4Waste as a resource 5Unhindered Supply of e-waste a major 5challenge faced by organized e-waste companiesHighlights 6Health impact 6E-waste as a resource and business potentials 7E-waste as a resource and business potentials 7Policy issues: E-waste handling and management rules 2011 7Suggestions and concerns 8Annexure 1: Programme Schedule 9Annexure 2: Background paper 10
  4. 4. 4 | Towards Efficient E-Waste Management E-Waste Management Executive Programme In E- Waste Enterprise Development Organized by Samadhan Foundation http://samadhanfoundation.comDate: July 20, 2012Venue: MSME Development Institute, Ministry of MSME, Government of India,Connaught Circus, New DelhiE- Waste: an introductionE-waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams in developed as well as indeveloping countries. The amount of generated e-waste per year grows rapidly. Lifespan of computers has dropped from seven years in 1990s to just two years or lesstoday. Mobile phones have a lifespan of even less than two years. There is a pressingneed to address e-waste management challenge. The presence of valuable recyclablecomponents offers business, entrepreneurial and employment generation potential inthis industry. Currently, only about 5.7 percent of e-waste is recycled. Also it isimportant to have a long-term solution to the rising levels of obsolete mobile phones,refrigerators, televisions and other e-products.E- waste enterprise development: need of the hourIn this context, Samadhan Foundation organized an executive programme on E- WasteEnterprise Development. Twenty participants representing various industries,associations, NGOs, Informal Waste management companies, students, and probableentrepreneurs benefited from the programme. A number of informal e-waste recyclersalso participated in the programme, which was also aimed at awareness creation,enhancing management proficiency and business development skills.Waste as a resourceThe programme was inaugurated by Mr. John Philipose, Chairman of SamadhanFoundation, known for his concern in waste management, environment & ecology, whois Senior Painter, Sculptor Artist and Museum Designer. In his inaugural address, Mr.Philipose called for a vigilant attitude with regard to waste resource management,particularly electronic and electrical waste. He said unnecessary waste creation can be
  5. 5. 5 | Towards Efficient E-Waste Managementcontrolled through some modification in our approach. Through different examples hebrought the issue in focus. While talking about general waste, he pointed out that usingfountain pen or refillable ink pen for writing has almost become non-existing practicethese days but it can reduce a lot of wastage, as today we discard a pen after a while,causing avoidable waste creation. What we see as waste is not waste and it is aresource, he added.There were four presentations. Mr. Ramesh Sharma, CEO,Green Vortex a E-wastemanagement company; Mr. Sashi Bhushan Pandit of All India Kabadiwala MazdoorSangh & Director of HRA Pvt Ltd, Mr. Bhavesh Jha and Amar Singh Yadav madevarious presentations.Unhindered Supply of e-waste a major challenge faced by organized e-wastecompaniesMr. Ramesh Sharma, CEO,Green Vortex, an E- waste management company locatednear Delhi, spoke on E-waste enterprise management and technology related aspects.He highlighted different techniques and trends in recycling industry and internationalbest practices and scenario. He also talked about some of the problems with regard torunning an e- waste management company from his personal experience. According tohim, Small sized e-waste management companies face problems of finance anddifficulties in getting unhindered supply of e-waste. However, he noted that the scenariois changing due to more awareness and policy compulsions.Mr. Sashi Bhushan Pandit talked about Policies and its impact on informal recyclers andhighlighted various initiatives by informal recyclers to face the challenge in the event ofpolicy changes and competition. He also shared some of the problems that theyencountered while dealing with the regulators and various departments. He shared thework done by All India Kabadiwala Mazdoor Sangh in getting license for informalrecyclers and shared that business model, which is a participatory business model,where ownership and entrepreneurship potential is ensured for each member of theunorganized sector waste picker community in Delhi.Mr. Ramesh Sharma highlighted the need for developing an understanding and need forpartnership between informal e-waste collectors and organized e-waste recyclingindustry.Speakers highlighted that with technology advancement and modern machines used inorganized sector, 70 to 80 percent of valuable items can be recovered. Whereas,informal sector recovers just half. In the discussions, Mr. Pandit and Mr. Sharma talkedmore about technology used in informal and formal sectors.
  6. 6. 6 | Towards Efficient E-Waste ManagementDr. P. Koshy, Director, Samadhan Foundation, talked briefly about various issuesrelated to waste management and particularly e-waste management. E-wastemanagement has entrepreneurial and business potential and youth entrepreneurs canventure into this segment. Jobs can be created. As the world economy and our localeconomies are going through a recessionary phase, venturing into opportunities in e-waste management is very important, he said. Government must support and promotee-waste entrepreneurs. He also said that informal sector e-waste recyclers cancontribute a lot in job creation and strengthening e-waste management industry in India.For that proper support need to be provided to them in terms of technology, finance andprofessional management training.Mr. Bhavesh Jha presented a market and industry analysis. Mr. Jha said only 5.7percent of collected e-waste is being recycled and added that growing electronicindustry provides a lot of market and business potential for entrepreneurs. Mr. AmarSingh made a presentation of various hazardous components in e-wastes as well as E-waste handling and management rules 2011.Highlights from presentationsIndia is the second largest e-waste generator in Asia and it generates 350,000 matricton per year. Also through illegal route, 50, 000 Matric ton waste per year. Electronicwaste accounts for 70 percent of the overall toxic waste currently found in landfills. Andit is to be noted that only about 5.7 percent of e-waste is being recycled. Further, Indiais expected to have an 11% share in the global consumer electronic market by 2015 asper an estimate by TATA Strategic management Group, which calls for concerted effortto strengthen our e-waste management capability.Indias output of e-waste has jumped by eight times in the past seven years according toa report by ministry of environment and forest. (MOEF’ 2012 Report). There are 36,165hazardous waste generating industries in the country. 6.2 million tonnes of hazardouswaste is generated by them every year, according to CPCB ReportHealth impact & hazards70% of the collected e-waste ends up in unreported and largely unknown destinations.Inappropriate methods often used by the informal sector to recover valuable materials,have heavy impacts on human health. Harmful emissions of hazardous substances andenvironmental hazard mainly come from: the product itself (if landfilled): Lead in circuit boards or cathode ray tube (CRT) glass, mercury in liquid crystal display (LCD) backlights
  7. 7. 7 | Towards Efficient E-Waste Management substandard processes: Dioxin formation during burning of halogenated plastics or use of smelting processes without suitable off-gas treatment reagents used in the recycling process: cyanide and other strong leaching acids, nitrogen oxides (NOx) gas from leaching processes and mercury from amalgamation E-waste as a resource and business potentials Sustainable management of e-waste can combat poverty and generate green jobs through recycling, collection and processing of e-waste - and this would also safeguard the environment and human health from the hazards posed by rising levels of waste electronics. E-Waste would also serve as a valuable source of secondary raw materials and the recovery and recycling of e-waste can reduce pressure on scarce natural resources and contribute to emissions reductions. One tonne of obsolete mobile phones contains more gold than one tonne of ore and the picture is similar for other precious substances. There are recyclers and other industrial sectors who are interested in taking advantage of such opportunities, which can in turn create green jobs and support sustainable development. Policy issues: E-waste handling and management rules 2011 ‘E-WASTE HANDLING AND MANAGEMENT RULES-2011’ have become effective from 1st MAY 2012. Rules would be applicable to every producer, consumer and bulk consumer involved in manufacture, sale, purchase and processing of electronic equipment or components. Under these rules the producers and the bulk consumers have to recycle the E-waste or help in channelizing the e-waste to only the AUTHORISED RECYCLERS. Some suggestions and issues raised by participants: 1. Managing e-waste, and other kinds of waste, is essential for the transition to a low-carbon, resource-efficient Green Economy, all the speakers emphasized. 2. Formal and informal sector recyclers should work together as this would benefit both the parties. 3. Informal sector can use the recycling facilities and infrastructure of formal and organized sector. 4. Technology adoption and modernization is needed for informal sector enterprises to get benefited from this sector. 5. Informal sector needs financial and technological assistance to compete in the emerging scenario
  8. 8. 8 | Towards Efficient E-Waste Management 6. Banks should be ready to fund informal sector so that they would be financially empowered to get required technology 7. Agencies and government should help informal sector in availing best technology from developed world. 8. SME e-waste recyclers in the organized sector also finding it difficult to get e- waste and are faced with declining profit margin 9. Government should consider incentives and financing schemes for entrepreneurs so that more youth entrepreneurs could be attracted in to this sector 10. Training programme and capacity building efforts are required 11. Informal sector needs managerial and modern management training as well as training and capacity development assistance in all aspects. Annexure: 1: Programme Schedule
  9. 9. 9 | Towards Efficient E-Waste Management Executive Programe in E- Waste Enterprise DevelopmentAn introductory progroamme on – E-waste management: Sensitization, awareness and enterprise development Organized by Samadhan Foundation 20 July 2012 MSME Development Institute Extension Centre, Govt. of India,New Delhi, Connaught Circus ( Opp: L-Block,Near Minto Bridge, Connaught Circus, Road - New Delhi – 110001( Opp: Haldirams- near Shankar Market ) Timing Topics Delivered by 10:00 – 10:30 Inaugural keynote address Mr. John Philipose 10:30 - 11:00 Electronic waste: an introduction Mr. Amar Singh Yadav 11:00 - 11:30 Market Review Mr. Bhavesh Jha 11:30 - 12:00 Presentation by Toxics Link/ Mr. Ramesh Sharma 12:30 - 13:15 E-waste enterprise: Technology and management issues 13:15 - 14:00 Lunch break14: 00 – 14: 45 Policies and its impact on informal recyclers Mr. Sashi Bhushan Pandit 14:30 - 15:15 E-waste rules 2011 Mr. Amar Singh Yadav 15:15 - 16:00 Business Opportunities:marketing & business Ramesh Sharma/ Amar development singh/Pandit 16:00 - 16:30 Experience of a waste management Mr. Aditya Sharma., enterprise Jaipur 16:30 - 16:45 Concluding session Dr. P. Koshy 16:45 Certificate distribution
  10. 10. 10 | Towards Efficient E-Waste ManagementAnnexure 2: Background paper E-wasteE-waste is a popular, informal name for electronic products nearing the end of their"useful life." Computers, televisions, VCRs, stereos, copiers, and fax machines arecommon electronic products. Many of these products can be reused, refurbished, orrecycled. Unfortunately, electronic discards is one of the fastest growing segments ofour nations waste stream.The latest report released by the United Nations predicts that by 2020 e-waste from oldcomputers in South Africa and China will have jumped by 200–400 % and by 500 % inIndia compared to 2007 levels. It also states that by 2020 e-waste from discardedmobile phones will be about 7 times higher than 2007 in China and 18 times higher inIndia. The report also cites that in the United States more than 150 million mobiles andpagers were sold in 2008, up from 90 million five years before, and globally more than1 billion mobile phones were sold in 2007, up from 896 million in 2006. The UN reportalso estimates that countries like Senegal and Uganda can expect e-waste flows frompersonal computers alone to increase 4 to 8-fold by 2020.India, one of the two largest markets for mobile phones in the world along with China,faces a mounting problem — how to get rid of the discarded mobiles.For, by the year2020, the size of the discarded mobile-mound will grow by 18 times from the 2007 level,says a United Nations Environment Programme study.The study, ‘Recycling from e-waste to resources,’ was released at a combined meetingof the bodies of UN Conventions on hazardous chemical wastes, organized by theUNEP, at Bali on February 22. It warns developing countries, especially fast growingeconomies like India, China, Brazil and South Africa, that if efforts are not made torecycle the abandoned electronic equipment, they will be in for big environmentaltrouble.Apart from mobile phones, old computers, TVs and refrigerators added to the e-wastemountain in these countries. For instance, computer e-waste in India will have risen byfive times in 2020 from the 2007 level. Discarded refrigerators will double or even triple.
  11. 11. 11 | Towards Efficient E-Waste ManagementThe report estimates that India’s current e-waste generation is: 2.75 lakh tonnes fromTVs, over one lakh tonnes from refrigerators, 56,300 tonnes from personal computers,1,700 tonnes from mobiles and 4,700 from printers. However, China’s problem from e-waste is much more than that of India. It now generates five lakh tonnes of refrigeratorwaste and three lakh tonnes of PC waste. Apart from the e-waste generated bydomestic consumption, India, China and other developing countries also have toconfront the legal and illegal dumping of e-waste by western countries, mainly theUnited States which is, as of now, not bound by international agreements on hazardouswastes as it has refused to sign such treaties.The UNEP report also notes that global e-waste generation is growing by 40 milliontonnes a year. In 2007, more than one billion mobiles were sold in the world and thesales are set to jump in the coming years, particularly in developing countries which arehome to large populations.BANGALORE, INDIA: As per MAIT-GTZ e-Waste Assessment Study 2007, Indiagenerated 3,80,000 tonnes of e-waste, in 2007, (Bangalore alone contributed around5,000 tonnes (PC and mobile phones only) into the heap), which accounts for 1040tonnes per day!Though, no fresh studies have been conducted post this study, MAIT projectionssuggest that by the end of the year 2008, e-waste generated would be 4,56,000 tonnesbased on 20 percent growth rate in ICT sector. Moreover, India will generate 4.7 lakhtonnes of e-waste by 2011, as per the same study.If you thought the list ends here and all we have to bear is the brunt of our own doings,then you got it wrong. As per studies (MAIT-GTZ report 2007), India received around50,000 tonnes of e-waste through imports alone in 2007. The menace doesn’t endhere. Much more was imported in the guise of charity and reuse from the West, and asper sources 85 percent of such imports were from the US and UK alone!“However, these figures are conservative, as it includes only three segments ofelectronic products namely PC, mobile phones and TV, which constitute a mere 30percent of the total electronic products put in the market. Therefore, total e-waste
  12. 12. 12 | Towards Efficient E-Waste Managementgenerated in India would be three times more than what the studies project!,” sourcesfrom Greenpeace aver.So let’s put it in figures. As per studies, India generated around 4 lakh tonnes of e-waste in 2008. But if the hidden elements are to be taken into account, India must havegenerated around 12 lakh tonnes of the scrap, which is enormous. Adding to the lot arethe charity imports. So the figures would be much more than we could even assume.E-waste: Where to find them?Many of us must have given off electronic stuff to scrap dealers, or simply dumpedthem into municipality vans, since we couldn’t figure what else to do with them. Thescene is no different elsewhere in India.Awareness levels in terms of what to be done with electronic/electrical wastes is verylow at all levels, in India. Even at the corporate level the scene is no different. TheMAIT-GTZ study found that 94 percent of the organizations studied did not have anypolicy on disposal of obsolete products.E-Wastes are hazardous. Why?E-waste is hazardous because most of these equipments contain toxic chemicals zinc, lead, cadmiummercury, hexavalent chromium, halogen compounds, BFR, PVC, arsenic compounds, ferrous and non-ferrous metals (such as aluminium, copper), plastic, glass, wood and ply wood, printed circuit boards, andprecious metals (such as silver, gold, platinum, palladium) etc., which if not handled properly can behazardous to health and environment.E-waste when disposed of in landfills or is incinerated, toxicchemicals in the products tend to slowly contaminate the surrounding environment and have a dire impacton the communities in the area.If burned or incinerated, heavy metals like mercury, lead and cadmium are released into the air, pollutingthe food chain. Moreover these seep into the ground water beds polluting it and also into aquatic floor,where fishes are particularly prone to mercury poisoning. In addition, brominated flame-retardants (BFR) and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) that are present in mostmobiles and IT equipment available in the market, when burnt, release highly poisonous furans, dioxinsand neuro toxins.Source: GreenPeaceOf the total e-waste, only about forty percent finds its way into the recycling streamwhile the rest sixty percent remain in warehouses/storehouses due to poor/inefficient
  13. 13. 13 | Towards Efficient E-Waste Managementcollection system or else routed to backyard recyclers. The scenario hasnt changedmuch even after two years down the line.So, it can be found anywhere, even inside the godown of your office, in the backyardsof a landfill or even in the locality where you reside.People take it for granted that thesescraps will be taken care of and recycled, which is true to a certain extend. “In India,some of these components are recycled and cannibalised (i.e extracting workingcomponents for further manufacturing). However, components with non-reusable ornon-recyclable toxic chemicals such as lead, mercury, PVC, BFR etc. are dumped inopen,” Sources from Greenpeace aver Current Scenario of E-waste in IndiaMumbai 11,000 tonsDelhi 9,750 tonsBangalore 4,650 tonsChennai 4,100 tonsCalicut 4,025 tonsAhmedabad 3,250 tonsHyderabad 2,800 tons Pune 2,584 tons Surat 1,836 tonsHazardous Components of E-WasteAmericium: one of the radioactive sources, known to be carcinogenic.Mercury: Mainly found in fluorescent tubes applications), tilt switches (mechanicaldoorbells, and flat screen monitors. It causes health effects such as; sensoryimpairment, dermatitis, memory loss, and muscle weakness. Environmental effects inanimals include death, reduced fertility, slower growth and development.Sulphur: Found in lead-acid batteries. Health effects include liver damage, kidneydamage, heart damage, and eye and throat irritation. When released in to theenvironment, it can create sulphuric acid.
  14. 14. 14 | Towards Efficient E-Waste ManagementBFRs (Brominated flame retardants): Used as flame retardants in plastics in mostelectronics includes PBBs, OctaBDE, PentaBDE. Health effects include impaireddevelopment of the nervous system, thyroid problems. Environmental effects: similareffects as in animals as humans. PBBs were banned from 1973-1977 on. PCBs werebanned during the 1980s.Cadmium: Found in light-sensitive resistors, corrosion alloys for marine and aviationenvironments and cadmium batteries. When not properly recycled it can leach into thesoil, harming microorganisms and disrupting the soil ecosystem. Exposure is caused byproximity to hazardous waste sites and factories and workers in the metal refiningindustry. The inhalation of cadmium can cause severe damage to the lungs and is alsoknown to cause kidney damage.Lead: Found in CRT monitor glass, lead-acid batteries formulations of PVC. A typical15-inch cathode ray tube may contain 1.5 pounds of lead but other CRTs have beenestimated as having up to 8 pounds of lead.Beryllium oxide: Commonly used as filler in some thermal interface materials such asthermal grease used on CPUs and power transistors,magnetrons, Xceramic windows,heat transfer fins in vacuum tubes lasers.E-Waste Toxins and Affected Body PartsComponents Constituents Affected body partsPrinted circuit boards Lead and cadmium Berillium Nervous system, kidney, leverMotherboards Lead oxide, barium and Lungs, skinCathode ray tubes (CRTs) Mercury Heart, lever, musclesSwitches and flat-screen monitors Cadmium Brain, skinComputer batteries Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Kidney, leverCapacitors and transformers Brominated flame-retardant casings ----- cablePrinted circuit boards, Plastic Polyvinyl chloride -------Cable insulation/coating Plastic housing Bromine Immune system
  15. 15. 15 | Towards Efficient E-Waste ManagementCFL industry puts consumers at risk with very high levels of Mercury"Toxics In That Glow: Mercury in Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) inIndia" reveals the potential threat associated with these bulbs. The study, whichanalyzed twenty-two samples of CFLs of well-known brands sold in India for theirmercury content, exposes somewhat disturbing trend in mercury dosing practice by themanufacturers. The average mercury content per unit CFL has been found to be21.21mg, much higher than the internationally known standards – ranging four to sixtimes the CFL sold in many developed countries. Fifty percent of the samples analyzedwere found to have high average mercury content ranging between 12.24mg and39.64mg across different wattages. The average mercury content in 5, 8, 11, 15 and 20watts (across studied brands) samples are 22.2mg, 7.8mg (the least), 31.5mg 18.8mgand 17.7mg respectively.In some cases the mercury content per watt has been found to be as high as 4.39mg.The disturbing trend is in most brands the mercury content is high in lower watt lamps,possibly to capture greater market share as mercury increases the lumen (light) output.It is also worrying to note that most multinational brands, having operations across theglobe follow different regulatory norms in different countries including India, rather adubious stand.Mercury is a neurotoxin and highly toxic heavy metal known to impact vital organs suchas lever and cause developmental and neurological problems; particularly dangerous topregnant women and children. Some of their compounds are capable of crossing theplacental barrier causing irreparable damage to the unborn / newborn babies. Higherlevel of mercury dosing in CFLs enhances the chances of mercury contamination andtoxicity. Used and discarded CFL(s) are usually dumped with general waste, thinningout mercury in the environment. Currently, with India having no management system orinfrastructure in place to manage the used-up and/ or discarded CFLs, there is a highchance of mercury running into the waste stream and the food chain through theseenergy saving lamps, the study says. The report argues that this exposure pathwaywould greatly impact the health of waste workers and local inhabitant and equally affectthe environment and wildlife.
  16. 16. 16 | Towards Efficient E-Waste ManagementRavi Agarwal (Director, Toxics Link) says: "The Indian CFL industry is exploiting thenew market opened up by the climate change crisis; however they are creating a toxiccrisis alongside. Instead of following the best practices in the world, they are putting theIndian consumer at risk through high level of mercury, even while the Governmentprocrastinates on mandating a CFL collection and recycling system. Business interestsare bypassing serious health concerns."Health and environmental concerns have prompted the governments across the globeto take measures in order to contain mercury dosing. In the US, lighting manufacturermembers of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) have voluntarilycapped the amount of mercury used in CFLs in 2007 and lowered the cap again in2010. Currently the U.S cap is 4mg/ CFL for units up to 25 watts and 5mg/CFL for unitsover 25 watts. In EU, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (ROHS) law mandatesthe cap to 5mg/CFL.India presents a bleak scenario in the entire life cycle starting from mercury dosing toend of life management of mercury and CFLs. What adds to the grim reality is the factthat despite the potential dangers and serious health afflictions, the country lacks anyregulatory framework to standardize and limit mercury dosing in India, which is quietrandom. There is no infrastructure to deal with collection, recycling and disposal ofused-up and discarded lamps.This is despite the fact that India has a strong manufacturing base having potential tomanufacture 400-500 million pieces annually. India also imports about 1/3rd CFL tubes.The study recommends three-pronged action to contain the mercury menace throughCFLs: Standard: The government needs to come out with maximum mercury limit standard in CFL owing to the various health and environmental hazards. It is technically feasible to achieve 2-3 mg/CFLs in India, have the standards set accordingly. The standard should be made mandatory with effective monitoring strategy; Consistent Practice: Since most multinational players in the organized sector have the means to move towards safer regimes, they must immediately
  17. 17. 17 | Towards Efficient E-Waste Management standardize their production process as followed by them in other parts of the world; End-of-life management: The end-of-life management must be the joint responsibility of the manufacturers, regulatory agencies and the executive bodies. Consumers, too, have a responsibility for the proper disposal of broken and used-up lamps. For recycling etc. the best-suited technology must be decided based on a collective dialogue among various stakeholders.Conclusion -Electronic-waste (E-waste) is a critical issue India is facing today, with rapidtechnological advancement and growing obsolescence rate of electronics and electricalgoods. The country is saddled with huge generation of this toxic waste, estimated to bemore than 8 million tonnes. E-waste Management and Handling Rules, notified in May2011 and which comes into force on May 1st, 2012 is a huge step in this direction. Therules were notified in advance and provided a lead time of one year to all stakeholdersto put systems in place for an effective compliance to the Rules.The E- waste Management and Handling Rules put the onus of e-waste managementon Manufacturers or the brands through the principle of Extended ProducerResponsibility (EPR). Companies like Samsung, LG, Nokia, HCL, HP, Videocon andmany more have to ensure that they have a proper take back system and provide theopportunity to consumers to recycle E-waste. The new Rules also look at the life cycleapproach, and restrict the use of hazardous substance in Electronics, thoughmechanism for effective implementation and monitoring of such substances in EEE hasnot been clearly articulated and informed.

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