Garbhadana and Its modern applicability- FINAL.pdf
& its Modern Applicability
Dr. Bhavana. G
1st Year PG Scholar
Dept. of Prasuti Tantra & Stree Roga
Dr. Papiya. Jana
Dept. of Prasuti Tantra & Stree Roga
CONTENTS - The following points need to be discussed under the wide
spectrum of Garbhadana
1)Suitable age of conception.
2)Based on recent studies, impact of age on conception.
3)Suitable postures during coitus for conception.
4)Factors essential for conception गभोर्त्पादक सामग्री
6) Role of क्षेत्र in outcome of conception
7) अम्बु - its contribution in attaining conception .
8) बीज - its significant role in conception. Its Modern applicability.
9) Role of पञ्च महाभूत and ित्रदोष in Garbhadana
10) Importance of वायु in Garbhadana
11) मनो गुणा - Psychological compatibility of the couples initiating Garbhadana.
12) Role of राजस्वलाचायर् based on ayurvedic texts & its contribution in Garbhadana.
13) Contraindicative conditions and adverse effects.
14) गभर्धान िविध – Ahara vihara & Behavioral changes
15) पुत्रेिष्ट यज्ञा and संयोग िविध explained in our classics.
13) Artificial Reproductive techniques of Garbhadana when conception fails
Ø Ovulation Induction
Ø IVF - Vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET),
gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), zygote intrafallopian
transfer (ZIFT), and frozen embryo transfer (FET).
16) Code of Practice, Ethical consideration & Legal issues
q Garbhadana is the ritual which is followed through ages in order to achieve healthy conception and
in todays modern world, couple seek conception usually after 25 years of age and have 1 or 2
children and most of them end up suffering from infertility.
q One of the cause of infertility being iatrogenic with everything from toxins in the environment to
high levels of stress being suspected as possible causes, Hence solutions are needed to strengthen the
reproductive capacity of women who wish to conceive. Garbhadana is one such solution.
q Women's fertility peaks in the early 20s and drops considerably after 35 years. Women's fertility
concerns are also on the rise, and the world wide general fertility rate is lower than ever before.
q In this way, it is understood that fertility is equally spiritual and emotional as it is physical. The
regimen followed during pre pregnancy period to achieve conception is called “Garbhadana Vidhi”.
Specific guidelines have been laid in Ayurveda for Pre conception care.
q Conception or fertilization means the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism, and there are
various modern technologies which are using the same methods in vitro. The success rate of such
technologies is 50% and less. But this has got its own disadvantages and side effects. Moreover, all
couples cannot afford that and here as an Ayurvedic practitioner we can advice the patient to follow
the Garbhadhana vidhis.
• Garbhadana samskara was described for the first time in Grhya sutras.
• Later Dharma shastras & smritis added certain rules & regulations like time &
days for conception keeping astrological considerations in mind .
• All the shastras anonymously agree that ( Rutukala ) is the most important factor
when a woman is physically prepared to conceive .
Acc to Acharya Charaka
Acharya Charaka explains about the upliftment of human race by getting
!"यस% &जा a baby meant for social & self ( spiritual) welfare.
स्त्रीपुंसयोर व्यापन्न शुक्रशोिणत गभार्शययोः श्रेयसीं प्रजा िमच्छतोस्तदथार्िभिनवृर्ित्तकरं कमोर्पदेक्ष्यामः||३||
पुरुषस्यानुपहतरेतसः िस्त्रयश्चाप्रदृष्टयोिनशोिणतगभार्शयाया यदा भवित संसगर्ः ऋतुकाले यदा चानयोः
तथैवयुक्तयो संसगेर् तु शुक्रशोिणत संसगर्मन्तगर्भार्शयगतं जीवोऽवक्रामित सत्वसंप्रयोगात् गभोर्ऽिभिनवर्तर्ते।
When the man with shuddha sukra and a women with apradushta yoni,
artva, and garbhashaya cohabit during the period of Rutu (period of fertilization), the jiva
along with satva descends into the combination of sukra and sonita and lodge inside the
According to Acharya Sushrutha,
तत्र स्त्रीपुंसयोः संयोगे तेजः शरीरखायुरुदीरयित, तत्स्तेजोिनलसिन्नपाताच्छु क्र
ं च्युतं योिनमिभप्रितपद्यते
संसृज्यते च आतर्वेन ततोऽिग्नषोम संयोगात संसज्यमानो गभार्शयमनुप्रितपद्यते …….नामिभरिभदीयते दैव
संयोगादक्षयो ऽव्ययोऽिचन्त्यो भूतात्मना सहान्वक्षं सत्वरजस्तमोिभदेर्वासुरैरपरैश्च भावैवार्युनाऽिभप्रेयर्माणो
Ø During copulation when man and women come together vayu augments the teja in
the body, this combination of teja and anila cause the ejaculation of sukra in to yoni
which then combines with artava.
Ø This combination of agni (artava), soma (sukra) then moves upwards into the
garbhasaya. In the garbhasaya it combines with bhutatma.
Suitable age of conception
पञ्च िवं शित वषार्य षोडश
Male - 25 years
Female - 16 years
They are fully mature, hence they
should attempt for conception
A very young or very old
woman should not be
Man – 21 years
Female – 12 years
As the partners are full of valor &
vigor at this age , the born child
will also poess the same qualities .
”Veeryavantham sutam soothe”
पञ्चिवं शे ततो वषेर् पुमान्नारी तु
समत्वागतवीयौर् तौ जानीयात्
ु शलो िभषक
B.S Sha. 3/1
इह समानगोत्रं वै रुतुस्नातं िस्त्रयं वजेर्त्।
मेधािद नामरोगं सा पुत्रमेव प्रसूयते ||
Women should be of different
gotra only then an intelligent
and a healthy son is born.
प्राप्तवीयर्ं वीयार्िऩ्वतं अपत्यम्
A woman < 16 years is
impregnated by the male <25
years then it will lead to IUD
or fetus may not live long or
will have weak organs , ill
health deformed body parts .
As well as same applies to
A male < 25 years
impregnates a woman
<16 years it would result
either in IUD or short
lived fetus deficient in
strength , health & sense
If a woman <16 years is
impregnated , Due to immaturity of
reproductive organs the woman
will either not conceive or the
resulting garbha will be diseased or
short lived or ill health & will have
§ Delayed childbearing is currently a major challenge in reproductive
medicine as increased age has an important impact on successful
conception, both in natural and in assisted reproduction.
§ Delayed child bearing is more common among women and men with
§ When a woman is younger than 30, she has an 85% chance to conceive
within 1 year.
Impact of age on fertility
Development of a
and for difficulties in
finding the right partner.
AT age 39
At the age of 40
(44%) chance to
At Age 35
in first 12
This is due to effect of aging on the ovary & eggs.
Normal & Abnormal postures of coitus & their effects
Acc to (C.S.Sha.8/6)
POSTURE DOSHA EFFECTS
उत्थान (lying on back)
(Normal posture )
Tridosha यथा स्थानमवितष्टिन्त दोष
ऩ्युब्जां(prone) वायु aggravates योनीपीडयित
दिक्षणपा्श्वार्(Right side) कफ aggravates िपडयित गभार्शय
वाम पाश्वर्(left side) िपत्त aggravates िवदहित रक़्त्ं शुक़्र्ं
According to Sushrutha & Dalhana tika
Sushrutha describes 4 factors essential for conception
• Rtu( rutu kala )
• Kshetra ( Garbhashaya)
• Ambu (Nourishment)
• Bija ( Shukra & Artava)
Acharya Kashyapa has given importance to Rtukala & Bija.
SUSHRUTA Equates = “Germination of seed” with achievement of “conception”
As how sprout comes out by the aggregate action of rutu (season), ksetra (soil), ambu
(water), and bija (seed), the conception occurs by the combined action of all these
गभोर्त्पादक सामग्री Factors essential for conception
ध्रुवं चतुणार्ं सािनध्यात् गभर्स्यात् िविधपूवर्कम्।
ऋतुक्षेत्रांबुबीजानां सामग़्र्य़ादङगुरो यथा॥ (सु.शा.2/33)
ऋतुरङ्गनाया रजःसमयः, क्षेत्रं गभार्शयः, अम्बु पुनराहारपाकजो व्यापीरसधातुः, बीजं स्त्री
े ||३३|| (Su.S. Sha 2/33- Dalhana Tika )
• RITHU- अङ्गनाय रजः समय
• KSHETRA- गभार्शय
• AMBU- पुन आहार पाकजो रस धातु
• BEEJA- स्त्रीपुंसयोःआतर्व शुक्र
• MARGA- अपत्त्यमागर्
• HRIDHI- दोषानिधिष्टते असंतप्ते,
Ashtanga Hridaya - added 3 other factors
§ मागर् ( Disease free Tubes and Passage)
§ ह्रिद - ( A sound mind )
§ वात - (unvitiated vata in formation of fetus)
ऋत# कला – Fertile Period
ऋतुस्तु द्वादशरात्रं भवित दृष्टातर्वः; अदृष्टातर्वाऽप्यस्तीत्येक
े भाषन्ते ||६|| Su.Sha 3/6
The rutu is that period in which raja (female gamete) is expelled. The period rutu is of
twelve days, it is counted by considering first sixteen days of menstrual cycle, among
them first three and sixteenth day must be excluded.
§ The timing of sexual intercourse in relation to fertile period or ovulation strongly
influences the chance of conception, although the actual number of fertile days in a
women's menstrual cycle is uncertain.
§ As our acharyas stated , theoretical period of fertile days based on estimates of the
survival of sperm and eggs.
§ A multicentered study by the WHO estimated that there are 10 presumable fertile days
per cycle, on the basis of the characteristics of the cervical mucus.
§ Whereas Ayurvedic texts have defined rutukala up to 12 to 16 days .
िनयतं िदवसेऽतीते सङ्कु चत्यम्बुजं यथा | ऋतौ व्यतीते नायार्स्तु योिनः संिव्रयते तथा ||९|| Su.S.Sha 3/9
There is a beautiful reference explaining how to understand the end of Ritu kala –
A/c Su.S.Sha 3/9 & A.H.Sh 1//22
पद्मं सङ्कोचमायाित िदनेऽतीते यथा, तथा||२१||
ऋतावतीते योिनः, सा शुक्र
ं नातः प्रतीच्छित|
िववृतािववृतमुखत्वं िह योनेगर्भर्ग्रहणाग्रहणहेतुः|
तच्च वायोः िक्रयावतः कालसहायस्यायत्तिमत्याह मासेनोपिचतं रक्तं धमनीभ्यामृतौ पुनः||२२||A.H.Sh 1//22
Just like a lotus flower which closes after sunset ; similarly the cervical opening
closes after rutukala , hence its hostile to sperm entry .
However, According to Dalhana –
The duration of Rutu kala can be anywhere between 12 days to 16 days.
Ø While taking 16 days into consideration , the first 3 days of menstruation & last 1 day
if excluded due to yoni sankocha , it is 12 days
Ø Whereas Acharya Vagbhata opines that rutukala can persist anytime in the month.
1. Menstrual Dates
A quick and simple way to find out ovulation is to keep track of menstrual cycle of
2. Basal Body Temperature (BBT)
BBT is the temperature of the body under resting conditions. BBT should be measured
each morning .Writing down the temperature each day is helpful as a test of ovulation
because the BBT increases after ovulation. It is usually low, fluctuating between 97
and 98 degrees Fahrenheit. Just before ovulation, the BBT falls to its lowest level and
then rises by 0.4 to 0.8 degrees about 2-4 days after ovulation.
3. Ovulation Predictor Kits/ LH kits
These kits can be found at the local drug store and can be useful for testing
ovulation. The kits work by measuring Luteinizing Hormone (LH), which is produced
just before ovulation. Most of the kits are designed like home pregnancy tests, and
use urine to measure LH.
Ovulation usually occurs 14-24 hours after the test turns positive. The most fertile
day is the day the test turns positive.
Methods to test ovulation
Acc to Su.S.Sha 3/7-8
पीनप्रसन्नवदनां प्रिक्लन्नात्ममुखिद्वजाम् | नरकामां िप्रयकथां स्रस्तक
ु क्ष्यिक्षमूधर्जाम् ||७||
ु चश्रोिणनाभ्यूरुजघनिस्फचाम् | हषौर्त्सुक्यपरां चािप िवद्यादृतुमतीिमित 
Acc to C.S.Sha 4/7
गते पुराणे रजिस नवे चाविस्थते शुद्धस्नातां िस्त्रयम व्यापन्नयोिन शोिणत गभार्शया
Charaka says that after the completion of previous menstrual bleeding and beginning of
the new menstrual cycle, the women after taking the bath , possessing healthy yoni,
garbhashaya & shonita ( healthy reproductive system & ovum ) is termed as ruthumathi.
ØWoman in rithukala is healthy, bright ,happy, sexually excited due to hormonal
ØRuthu and its specific importance in conception denotes ovulatory time including
proliferative phase under the influence of FSH, ESTROGEN & LH.
Ø30 DAYS or 1 month is required for completion of Ruthu chakra.
Ø3 phases of ruthuchakra -
2. Rithu kala
3. Ruthuvyatita kaala
The woman in fertile period is advised to take jeevaniya drugs and contra indicated for
kshara karma & nasya karma.
Sushrutha & Vagbhata 12 days
Kashyapa & Bhavamishra § Brahmana- 12 days ( Probably based on
the nourishment basis)
§ Kshatriya – 11-10 days
§ Vaishya- 8-10 days
§ Kshudra – 6-9 days
Phases of menstrual
Duration Condition of
3-5 days Menstrual bleeding Vata
12 or 16 Days Establishment of
Optimum chances of
9-13 days Presence of purana
rajas, constriction of
yoni and hence less
िस्त्रणं गभार्शयो अष्टम इित (Su.s.Sha 5/7)
Garbhashaya is the 8th Ashyaa in the stree
िपत्त पक्वाशयोमर्ध्ये गभार्शया यत्र गभर्िस्तष्ठा ित (Su.s.Sha 5/39) ( A.S.Sha 5/46)
The garbhashaya is situated between pittashaya & pakwashaya where garbha grows.
तस्यास्तृतीये त्वावतेर् गभर्शय्या प्रितिष्ठता ||४३| Su.S.Sha 5/43
The garbhashaya is situated in 3rd avarta.
यथा रोिहतमत्स्यस्य मुखं भवित रूपतः तत्संस्थानां तथारूपां गभर्शय्यां िवदुबुर्धाः ॥ ( Su.S.Sha5/44 and
B.P Pu 3/32)
Dalhana says that it is hollow inside just like mouth of rohita fish .
स्त्रीणान्तु विस्तपाश्वर्गतो गभार्शयः सिन्नक
ृ ष्टः ॥ ( Su.S.Chi 7/33)
The Uterus is above the urinary bladder.
ACHARYAS DEFINITIONS REFERANCE
Kshetra denotes our body in general Vyasa Acharya
DALHANA TIKA To be very specific in Prasooti tantra , kshetra in
stri sharira is garbhashaya
MANUSMRITI Kshetra refered to woman ; Bija refered to man.
Manu has compared woman to a field , where a
seed sown sprouts yielding vrihi dhanya; like
wise, shukra implanted in garbhashaya leads to a
CHAKRAPANI क्षेत्रिमव क्क्षेत्रिमव क्षेत्रं, तत्र शुक्ररूपबीजप्ररोहणात्’
या स्त्री प्रहिषर् णी तत् क्षेत्रम्
Cha.S.C 2/1/4, Chakra.
CHARAKA Shudda Shukra – Shonita and a healthy uterus can
produce a heathy progeny
BHELA Ø Sukrushta kshetra (Decidua) I:e, endometrium
which is well prepared for conception.
Ø Bija when embedded in well prepared,
unvitiated, healthy uterine cavity results in
pregnancy, like the paddy or barley sown in
well ploughed field sprouts readily .
The embryo is initially fertilized in the fallopian tube and must evade the immune
system, grow and move into the Healthy uterus before interacting with the
endometrium for implantation. The process of implantation is divided into 4 key steps:
The immune system & Uterus plays a role in each step of the embryo's development
through the delivery of a live healthy foetus.
A perfect relationship between the uterus and the embryo is mediated by a tightly
controlled interaction between the embryo and the endometrium which is required for
successful implantation. Any factors affecting this communication, such as altered
microbiome may lead to poor reproductive outcomes.
Eg - Chronic endometritis - including Gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus fecalis
Immunological Role of the Maternal Uterine Microbiome in Pregnancy
Current theories suggest that NLD (non-lactobacillus dominant) microbiota may trigger an
inflammatory response in the endometrium that affects the success of embryo
implantation, as inflammatory mediators are closely regulated during the
adhesion of the blastocyst to the epithelial endometrial wall.
Endometritis has been hypothesized to alter the endometrium through increased
inflammation and progesterone resistance which can affect implantation, increase
risk of miscarriage, poor pregnancy outcomes including pregnancy induce
hypertension and preterm birth . It would appear that increased inflammation at
the endometrial level regardless of the cause may affect implantation and
Hence, Kshetra Plays a very important role in conception.
अप#यम&ग/यो)न Birth canal / Fallopian tubes
ं धारयत्येिभदोर्षैयोर्िनरुपद्रुता| तस्माद्गभर्ं न गृह्णाित स्त्री गच्छत्यामयान् बहून्||३८||
गुल्माशर्ःप्रदरादींश्च वाताद्यैश्चाितपीडनम्|३९| (C.S.Chi.30/38)
When Yoni is afflicted with the vata dosha, the women is unable to retain the
Sukra as a result she does not conceive and remain infertile and becomes
vulnerable to diseases like Gulma, Arsha and Pradara.
'प्रिवष्टमात्रं बीजं िह रक्तेन पिरवेष्ट्यते’ (K.Sha. Asamanagotriya 1:2)
Kashyapa indicates about implantation – Here he refers Beeja to the fertilized ovum, which
soon after entering into uterine cavity is encircled by Rakta.
• Fertilization is defined as the union of two
gametes. During fertilization, sperm and egg fuse
to form a diploid zygote to initiate prenatal
development. In mammals, fertilization involves
multiple ordered steps, including the acrosome
reaction, zona pellucida penetration, sperm–egg
attachment, and membrane fusion.
Ambu- Nutrition / Nourishment
ØFrom rasavaha srotas of mother the nutrition is passed to
the fetus via garbhanadi. By circulation of these potent
nutrients the fetus grows.
ØConception to conspicuousness of the body parts the fetus
is nourished by उपस्नेहा & उपस्वेदः through the dhamani
which travel obliquely throughout the body.
The gametes are nourished by rasa ( ahara rasa) which
provides mahabhuta also.
SUSHRUTHA • ति#मन् सव)शरीरावयवदोषधात3मलाशयान3सा5रिण र7 िज9ासा|
• अ;ब3 प3नराहारापाकाजो @यापी रसधात3॥
Rasa is predominately Ap mahabhuta, hence this factor is
Qualities of rasadhatu are द्रव, सर,मन्द ,िस्नग्ध,मृदु,िपिच्छल by
which it causes the functions of प्रीणनम्, स्नेहन, रक्त पुिष्ट, धारणम्
and तुिष्ट thus helps in fetal nourishment.
Ambu is the rasa dhatu derived
as the end product of food
digestion with reference to
implanted ovum & zygote.
Growth of the fetus is the result of ahara rasa
of mother because the rasavaha srothas of
mother are connected to nabhi nadi of garbha
through which potent nutrients are circulated
to fetus .
Clinical Importance – The blood, intercellular
fluid of endometrium & secretions of endometrial
glands with required nutrients without any
abnormality is helpful for growing fetus .
Appropriate in utero growth is essential for offspring development and is a critical contributor to
long-term health. Foetal growth is largely dictated by the availability of nutrients in maternal
circulation and the ability of these nutrients to be transported into foetal circulation via the placenta.
Uterine milk- Uterine milk is secreted in the uterus for embryo nutrition in several elasmobranch
species and may contribute to rapid embryonic growth.
अम्बुपुनराहारपाकजो व्यापी रसधातुः।
Uterine Glands Provide Histotrophic Nutrition for the Human Fetus during the
First Trimester of Pregnancy.
Two principal pathways have evolved to transfer nutrients from the mother to her
These are termed as
• Histotrophic is an extracellular material
derived from the endometrium and the
uterine glands that accumulates in the space
between the maternal and fetal tissues. It is
phagocytosed initially by the trophectoderm
of the blastocyst, and later by the trophoblast
of the placenta or the endoderm of the yolk
• By contrast, hemotrophic nutrition is the
exchange of blood-borne materials between
the maternal and fetal circulations. This is
facilitated by the extensive and intimate
apposition of the maternal and fetal tissues
that occurs within the placenta
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 87, Issue 6, 1 June 2002, Pages 2954–2959
Before implantation, nutrition of the mammalian conceptus is therefore
essentially histotrophic. Once the placenta is established, hemotrophic nutrition
becomes predominant, although the two pathways may coexist for much of
gestation in certain species.
• Beeja considered as male & female gametes
• Mother & father by providing gametes can be
claimed as chief contributors for te formation of
• Stree Bija –
• Human Ovum is the largest cell of the
body & have specific name for its
• Cytoplasm – ooplasm / yolk/vittelus
• Nucleus- Germinal vesicle
• Nucleolus – Geminal Spot
• Cell membrane – Vitelline membrane
• Coverings – Outer- Corona radiata,
Inner – Zona pelucida
• Fertile life of ovum – 12-24 hours
• Time of Ovulation – Day 14, After
initiation of menstrual cycle.
• Purusha beeja – Sperm
• Sperm has 2 parts – Head & Tail
• Head - Consists condensed
nucleus & acrosomal cap
• Tail - Divided in 4 zone –
Neck, middle piece,
principle piece & end piece
• Estimated fertile life of sperm =
The days of coitus for having a
male and female child
DAYS CHILD CAUSE OF BIRTH
,8th ,10th,12th day
MALE CHILD IN yugma ratri,”
Alpi bhavati artavam”
ODD DAYS-5th ,7th
,9th ,11th day
FEMALE CHILD IN Ayugma
The child conceived on successive days of
rutukala has long life, good health and
fortune, power of supremacy, energy,
complexion and better specific motor or
sensory organs. In further delay all these
qualities gradually decline. (Su.Sha.2/29)
Role of Panchabhuta, &Tridoshas in Garbhadana
गभर्स्तु खल्वन्तिरक्षवाय्विग्नतोयभूिमिवकारचेतनािधष्ठानभूत । (च.शा 4/6 )
The garbha is formed by the collective action of five mahabhuta, and it serves as asraya
(shelter) for atma.
गभ+,य च.व0र चत34वधा0न भ7ता0न माता0पत:स;भवा0न आहारजा>या.मक@ता0न चAव सव+,य सव+िण
भवि>त DE ॥ (च.शा 2/26)
There are four set of panchamahabhuta involve in the formation and development of
garbha, first set is from sukra, second from artava, third from atma, and fourth set is
from ahara. All these four factors namely sukra, artavą, atma. and ahara carry
panchmahabhuta, except akasha, which omnipresent.
शुक्र शोिणत संयोगे योभवेशेष उत्कटः ।
ृ ितजार्यते तेन तस्या में लक्षणं श्रृणु। (सु.शा 4/63)
Whichever the dosha that is predominant at the time of union of sukra and sonita, the
prakrti of person get formed from that dosha.
Thus it can be stated that the tridosha at their normalcy offer the formation and
development of healthy garbha, where are abnormal doshas are responsible for
abnormality in garbha.
Role of Panchamahabhutas in organogenesis
तं चेतनाविस्थतं वायुिवर् भजित, तेज एन पचित, आपः क्लेदयिन्त, पृिथवी संहिन्त, आकाशं िववधर्यित ।
In a live garbha, vāyu divides, teja metabolizes, jala moistens, prthvi solidifies and
akasa increases the size.
Dalhana clarifies that it is because of chetana, the garbha remains alive and stable till
Term and without chetana the garbha would putrify or degenerate.
§ Vāyu is responsible for division of dosa, dhātu, mala and division of all body parts.
§ Teja gives shape providing human features, color, complexion owing to its metabolic
§ Jala renders moistening quality to the garbha counteracting the dryness/absorption
caused by vayu and tejas.
§ Prthvi solidifies/stabilizes giving shape to the embryo.
§ Akasa increases the size by adhmäpana inflation of srotases running in all direction
(up, down, oblique) which have been created by splitting or division done by vayu and
Importance of Vata
ACHARYAS DEFINITIONS REFERANCES
Sushrutha Ø Vayu molds the shape of the embryo’s and indicates
continuity of life . वायुस्तन्त्रयन्त्रधरः...कतार् गभार्क
आयुषोऽनुवृित्त प्रत्ययभूतो भवत्यक
Ø Cell division ( Conjugation & disjunction ) is brought about
by vayu. (वायुिवर् भजित)
Ø Garbha grows due to rasa & proliferates due to vayu.
Ø From agnistana situated at umbilicus the vayu casuses
distension, pitta driven by vayu opens up the srotas in all
directions & gradually grows .
ØVayu plays a very important role , from maturation of gametes, fertilization to foetal
ØMaturation & ejaculation of semen per se function takes place.
ØVayu is responsible for cell division and formation of cellular structure called
ØFetal nourishment, growth and development is carried by vata . 42
ACHARYAS OPINIONS REFERANCES
VAGBHATTA • Most essential factor for conception
• In Which ever type of a son woman desires, she must
think of people of that pace or race and follow the diet
• सौम्नस्यं गभर्धारणं श्रेष्ठतम.....
SUSHRUHA • Which ever type of diet , behavior & conducts followed
by the couple at the time of coitus/fertilization the born
child will be so.
• With all the garbha sambhava samagri the born child
will possess beauty, satwa, longevity and will be
beneficial to his or her parents. (एवं जाता रूपवन्तः
सत्त्ववन्तिश्चरायुषः। भवन्त्यवृणस्य मोक्तारः सत्पुत्राः पुित्रणे िहताः ॥
• The mental state of the parents during conceotion,
mental state of mother during pregnancy & the deeds of
previous life of an embryo or desires of garbha in
previous life decides the mental state of the progeny .
Su.Sam Sha 2/46
Hridi/Hridaya – Psychological compitability of the couple
Queen Satyavati requests her son, Ved Vyasa, to cohabit with her widowed daughter-in-
law, Ambika, and Ambalika, to sire progeny. As history states, Ambika closes her eyes at
the sight of the bearded Ved Vyasa, and a blind son, Dhritarashtra, was born. The other
daughter-in-law, Ambalika, turns pale upon seeing Ved Vyasa, and a son with pallid
complexion, Pandu, is the result. The next time, Ambalika sends a confident palace maid in
her place, and a perfectly healthy son, Vidura, is the result of this contact.
Whether environmental factors have a role to play in intrauterine development is an
important debate in the medical circle today. The birth of sons with varied limitations,
linked to maternal “psychosocial” environment at the time of conception, is perhaps the
first recorded case of maternal psychological impact on the progeny .
Kalra B, Baruah MP, Kalra S. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2016 May-Jun;20(3):404-7. doi: 10.4103/2230-
8210.180004. PMID: 27186562; PMCID: PMC4855973.
Purva Samyoga Vidhi
अथाJKतौ Mीप3;सौ O"ह,PदाRयाम3पपाS, वमन0वTचनाRयU स;शोWय, XYण &क@0तमापादKत्|
स;श3[ौ चा,थापनान3वासनाRयाम3पाचTत्; उपाचT]च मध3रौषधस;,क@ताRयU घ:त`ीराRयU प3aष;
, िMय; त3 तAलमाषाRयाम्||४|| C.Sha.8/4
Ø The Couple must follow Bhramacharya for 1 month and undergo
snehana & Sweda followed by VAMANA, VIRECHANA & BASTI before
Ø Here psychological make up plays a very important role as
SOUMANASYAM is the best instrument for achieving pregnancy .
Ø Depression, negative emotions, stress & strain may hinder the
Adhah shayayini- sleeping
Ajarjabhojana patra- eating
in unbreakable vessels
Darbha samstara shayini-
sleeping on bed made of
Havishya bhojini- intake of
payo yukta yavanna,saghrita
saali anna for karshana and
samrakshana – avoid seeing
her husband for this 3 days
Kalyana kamini- thinking
only of auspicious things
Observing rajaswalacharya before garbhadana
ततः पुष्पात् प्रभृित ित्ररात्रमासीत ब्रह्मचािरण्यधःशाियनी, पािणभ्याम
न्नमजजर्रपात्राद्भुञ्जाना , न च कािञ्चन्मृजामापद्येत| Ch.Sa.Sha.
ऋतौ प्रथमिदवसात् प्रभृित ब्रह्मचािरणीिदवास्वप्नाञ्जनाश्रुपातस्नानानुले
सान् पिरहरेत् |
भर्संस्तरशाियनीं करतलशरावपणार्न्यतमभोिजनीं हिवष्यं, त्र्यहं चभतुर्ः सं
रक्षेत् | Su.Sa.Sha 2/25
Effect on progeny
1st day No progeny/intra uterine death ,death immediately after delivery.
Ayush ( life span)of husband also deteriorate
“vata garbham achakshate viphalam vata pushpamivodbhavaan”
2nd day Abortion,within few days after delivery
“sramsate chyavate va”(ka.sha 5/5)
3rd day Short lived,defective body parts
“Sootikasane mriyate, na va deerghayu bhavati ,heenangascha jayate”
4th day Normal ,healthy ,mature baby
“sampoornangho deerghayuscha bhavati”
(su sa 2/31)
Effect of intercourse observed in rajakala on
Contraindicative Conditions for coitus in woman
There are certain physical & physiological conditions where coitus is contraindicated
in woman .
Su.S.Sha 10/56) and Su.S.Chi. 24/110-111, 113-117, 119,123 ( C.S.Sha. 8/6)
ØVery old woman & man afflicted with chronic
ØShould cohabit on 3rd day in all ritus & on 15th
day in summer season
Ø Excessive food intake, fasting, thirst, fear,
dejection, grief, anger, desire for another man,
excessive desire for intercourse all these factors
in woman during coitus prevents conception and
produces a deformed child .
ØMan should avoid indulging in excessive coitus
ØAvoid coitus with rajaswalacharya ,uninterested
female, unhygienic unloving, elderly, higher
status woman, diseased , pregnant woman ,
woman with deficient body parts , jealous, who
has yoni doshas and of same gotra Avoid
cohabitation during twilights, festive days, early
morning, midnight, midday, improper place,
open place, embarrassing place & in unhygenic /
uncomfortable environment .
Ø One should avoid indulging in woman / man
who is too young or too old, who is suffering
from chronic disease/ disorders.
Ø Vagbhatta – Opines same as Acharya Charaka
(B.P. Pu. 3/26) B.S.Su. 7/5-7
Ø Advices to avoid coitus with rajaswala, diseased,
suffering from yoni roga, aged, uninterested &
unhygienic, garbhini, deficient body parts,
hatred & of same gotra .
Ø Advices that coitus with elderly woman, satwa
hina woman, diseased, unhygienic, deformed
body parts, different caste, infections in yoni
should be avoided as it will lead to destruction
of strength, health, longevity and teja
Ø Thus one should indulge in ritu kala with a
healthy female .
Lets corelate –
Considering all the contra indications & specifications regarding impregnation advices
a/c to various acharyas can be corelated as –
üEarly pregnancies increases the risk of NTD’s IUGR, Preterm birth & Still birth
üLate pregnancies increases the risk of downs syndrome , eclampsia, macrosomia &
üChronic diseases like hypertension and diabetes, increases the maternal & perinatal
mortality & morbidity.
üBala kshaya causes IUGR & missed abortions
üThe concept of Atulyagotra stree, was to discourage consanguineous marriages in
those days, the same is being adviced till date by the medical community to avoid
hereditary/genetic defects, as the chance of recessive traits becoming dominant is
quite high .
üAccording to Indian Parliament “child marriage prohibition act – 1978 – legalized
age for marriage is 21 and 18 years for male & female respectively .
üIn Revised - The prohibition of Child Marriage (Amendment) Bill 2006- the bill
amends to increase the minimum age of marriage in females to 21 years .
üFrom the day of onset of menstruation female should follow brahmacharya for 3rd or
4th day she should take bath with washing her head also, & wear white garments then
enter the place of god & should offer oblation with rice & ghritha
üTo get male child even days of ritukala should be selected & for female child odd
day of ritukala should be selected. Even days the quantity of arthava is less & on odd
days quantity of arthava increase thus leading to birth of male or female child
üBorn child acquires similar characters of that type of diet, behavior & conduct
followed by couple at time of intercourse.
Ahara & Vihara (C.Sha 8/4)
üShould have food containing Ghritha, rice
üGHRITHA – Pitta anilharam rasa
sukhra ojasam hitam- With these
property ghritha increases the quality of
üAll these having madhura rasa & sheeta
virya property which promotes the
production of shukra dhatu
üShould consume the food containing of
tila & masha.
üTila & masha are ushna virya which
increases the quality & quantity of arthava
üSoumanasya & Kalyana kamana – She should remain with peaceful mind &
positive thoughts, relatives & husband have tender words & behavior with her .
üAnyony – Abhikamat – Psychological intimacy of couples.
üWhite color clothing – Unique vibration of each color could have specific effect
on the psyche, white probably indicates tranquility pacification & sattva guna
üTime - An appropriate auspicious period of night facilitate Garbhadana
तd ॠि.वक् प3्dीयिमिf 0नव+gत।0स[्मUसौदना वातiनौ
श3kा त3 नम,कारYव कlयmत्॥(cha.sa.8/13)
Putreshti yajna will be done for fulfillment of
desired sex of the baby by the couple by
stabilizing Prajapati to yoni of the woman and
reciting hymns and oblation should be given
with charu mixed with milk and ghrita which is
already treated with mantras by the method
indicated in vedas.
The water pot already sanctioned with mantra
is given to woman for use. They should take
left over ghee and then participate in
स"जात हष()थ+, च अन+क1ल3व5ग7ध" 9वा9तीण<म् स+ख"शयन" उपकDEय मनोG" 3हत"
अशनमिशIवा नाIयािशतौ दिLण पाMन प+मानारोOत् वामपाMन Pी॥( च.शा.8/7)
The couple having feeling of carnal relation, should avoiding over eating and only
consume desirous beneficial food , should go to comfortable cot which is spread
with soft mattress and sprinkled with pleasant fragrance.
The man should go to the bed by keeping his right leg while the woman with her
left leg. After coition they should irrigate genitals with cold water.
त" म$"% &य($जीत् "अ.हर.स आय(र.स सव4तः &.त6ा.स धाता
9वआ दधात( ;<वच4स भव इ.त॥ (च.स%.शा.8/7)
Mantra chikitsa is unique to ayurveda and great
importance has been laid upon enchanting specific
mantras on specific occasions. The mantra to be
enchanted before coitus is; “O garbha you are like sun,
you are my longevity, my prestige by all means. Dhata
and Vidhata (God of creation) should protect you; you
should have Brahma in you”
MANTRA TO BE CHANTED
When conception fails naturally…
Artificial techniques of Garbhadana
There are few references in our mythology that indicate artificial techniques of
The Indian epic, the Mahabharata, is an encyclopaedic coverage of ancient history.
The Epilogue to the Mahabharata exclaims with pride (18:56-33).
“Whatever is here, may be found elsewhere; what is not ,cannot be found anywhere
Induction of Ovulation
Other means of assisted reproductive technology (ART) have been described in the epic. The King
Brihadratha, who had infertility, was given a mango by the sage Kaushik, to give to his queen. Brihadratha
divided the mango into two, giving one-half to each of his two queens. Each queen gave birth to a “half-
child” As the products of conception were presumed still-born, they were disposed of in the garbage. A
rakshasi who came by, search for food, found that the two halves merged to create a living child, who was
named Jarasandha. This child grew up to be strong, but harsh, king, who remained undefeated until Bhima
tore his body into two halves and threw them in opposing directions.
This episode suggests administration of an oral agent for induction of ovulation, similar to those used in
gynaecological practice. 61
In vitro Fertilization
Gandhari's story did not end with a “still
birth.” As the legend goes, the “fetus” was
divided into a hundred pieces, which were
put in jars to which ghee (clarified butter)
was added, and incubated. Finally, 101
children were born, one by one.
This narrative is strongly reminiscent of in
vitro fertilization (IVF), with the multiple
pregnancies that commonly occur with it.[
In Gandhari's case, however, the
description mirrors an extra-uterine
gestation, a scientific feat that future
researchers may be able to achieve.
ART procedures involve surgical removal of eggs known as egg retrieval.
IVF is the most common ART procedure.
Assisted reproductive technology
comprises a group of procedures
that have in common - the handling
of oocytes & sperms outside the
body in the lab. The gametes or
embryos are replaced into the
uterine cavity to establish
These procedures , although benefited
many infertile couples (20-40 %
pregnancies), are stressful & very
expensive with complications such as
OHSS , multiple pregnancies ,
abortions & ectopic pregnancies.
Assisted Reproductive Technology
There are no absolute contraindications to the procedure of IVF.
Ø However, it should not be performed in women who have a significant risk of
morbidity and mortality of pregnancy if IVF were successful.
Ø Some examples of these high-risk conditions include but are not limited to
Marfan syndrome, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 3 or 4 heart
failure, Eisenmenger syndrome, severe valvular stenosis, pulmonary
hypertension, or coarctation of the aorta.
Ø For women with these significant medical issues who desire a biological child,
they can undergo IVF with oocyte aspiration, fertilization with their partner’s
sperm, but the embryos will be transferred to a gestational carrier.
Ovulation induction is to alleviate infertility due to anovulation in females of
reproductive age. This activity reviews the ovulation potential of a reproductive
female and assisted ovulation in anovulatory females.
After Medications for 5 days
From 5th day of the menstrual
cycle (5Th- 10Th day) .
The woman is asked for a
repeated follicular study day
after day to evaluate Follicle
size and on the day when the
corpus luteum ruptures the
couple is instructed to have
sexual intercourse .
Success rate 40%. 66
IUI – Intrauterine insemination
Ø Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is an
assisted conception technique that
involves the deposition of a
processed semen sample in the upper
uterine cavity, overcoming natural
barriers to sperm ascent in the
female reproductive tract.
Ø It is a cost-effective, non invasive
first-line therapy for selected
patients with functionally normal
tubes, and infertility due to a cervical
factor, anovulation, moderate male
factor, unexplained factors,
immunological factor, and
ejaculatory disorders .
ØClinical pregnancy rates per cycle
ranging from 10 to 20%.
Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)-
Ø This involves Ovarian stimulation & egg
retrieval followed by laparoscopically
guided transfer of a mixture of two ova &
sperms into each of fallopian tubes –Low
Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)-
Ø This involves the laparoscopic transfer of
day 1 fertilized eggs (zygotes) into fallopian
tubes – Low Success rates
IVF - Vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET)
This involves ovulation induction , oocyte retrieval & fertilization of the
oocytes in the laboratory ; embryos are then cultures for 3-5 days followed by
transfer of selected fertilized oocytes transfered cervically under USG
guidance into uterine cavity.
ICSI – Intracytoplasmic sperm Injection
Ø This Technique was developed in early 1990’s
Ø It aims at helping couples with severe male factor infertility
Ø One sperm is directly injected into each mature egg prior to intrauterine transfer of
the fertilized eggs.
Ø This method yields 50—70% successful fertilization rates .
THE EMBRYO TRANSFER
Ø The fertilized eggs are monitored and embryos are formed .
Ø These embryos are further preserved (freezed) or transferred into intrauterine
cavity . This process is called as Embryo Transfer (ET)
Ø The remaining embryos are frozen . Later when the couple are ready , these
frozen embryos are thawed and transferred into intrauterine cavity . This is
termed as frozen embryo transfer (FET)
What day is the embryo transfer is
Reasons for cancelling ET
Deciding the No. of
Embryos to transfer based
Ø Retrieval of immature oocytes from unstimulated ovaries, followed by in vitro
maturation (IVM) was originally proposed in order to avoid side effects of
Ø The target is to eliminate or significantly reduce the risk of ovarian
hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome
(PCOS), drug cost and burden on patients.
Ø This technology was also suggested in treatment of normo-ovulatory women,
fertility preservation or infrequent conditions such as failure of oocytes to mature
or repeated development of poor quality embryos.
An Embryoscop is a new type of incubator that allows the embryologist to monitor
embryo cell divisions while the embryos are still in the incubator. The incubator has a
built-in camera that can take pictures of the embryos at timed intervals.
Requirements for a Sperm Donor
ü The individual must be free of HIV and hepatitis B and C infections, hypertension, diabetes, sexually
transmitted diseases, and identifiable and common genetic disorders such as thalassemia.
ü The age of the donor - 18-39 yrs
ü An analysis must be carried out on the semen of the individual, and the semen must be found to be
normal according to WHO method manual for semen analysis, if intended to be used for ART.
ü The blood group and the Rh status of the individual must be determined and placed on record.
ü 4.Other relevant information in respect of the donor, such as height, weight, age, educational
qualifications, profession, colour of the skin and the eyes, record of major diseases including any
psychiatric disorder, and the family background in respect of history of any familial disorder, must be
recorded in an appropriate proforma.
ü SOURCE – SEMEN BANKS
Requirements for an Oocyte Donor
ü The individual must be free of HIV and hepatitis B and C infections, hypertension, diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases,
and identifiable and common genetic disorders such as thalassemia.
ü The blood group and the Rh status of the individual must be determined and placed on record.
ü Other relevant information in respect of the donor, such as height, weight, age, educational qualifications, profession, colour
of the skin and the eyes, and the family background in respect of history of any familial disorder, must be recorded in an
ü The age of the donor must not be less than 18 or more than 35 years.
ü She should have minimum of 2 healthy born children
ü SOURCE- OOCYTE BANKS 82
IVF –Donor Oocyte
OOCYTE RETRIEVAL PROCESS &
RECIPIENT PREP UP
ENDOMETRIAL PREP IN RECIPIENT
ORDER OF OOCYTE RETRIEVAL & RECIPIENT ENDOMETRIAL PREPARATION
• One option that women who wish to
postpone pregnancy have is to freeze
their eggs & sperms (oocyte/sperm
banking) -at least for those who can
• If eggs are frozen before the age of
35, women have a 30–40% chance to
conceive when there are 10 eggs
• However, research points out that
women interested in elective egg
freezing is often at the end of their
reproductive life spans (late 30 s to
early 40 s).
• Same is done with Male Sperms.
• Oocyte & Sperm Cryo-preservation
– is done in case of Ca Patients.
Egg & Sperm preservation
Ø Surrogacy is an important method of assisted reproductive technology wherein a
woman carries pregnancy for another couple.
Ø Surrogacy in India has had its own journey from India becoming popular as a
surrogacy centre since 2002 to the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016, which would
restrict the option of surrogacy for many. Surrogacy is an important medical service
for all those couples who would otherwise not have been able to produce a child.
Ø The word “surrogate” is rooted in Latin “Subrogare” (to substitute), which means
“appointed to act in the place of.” It means a substitute, especially a person
deputizing for another in a specific role, so the surrogate mother implies a woman
who becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child with the intention of giving away
this child to another person or couple, commonly referred to as the “intended” or
Code of practice,
Ethical considerations & Legal issues
Code of Practice
This Code of Practice deals with all aspects of the treatment provided and the
research done at registered clinics. Those areas which most affect the doctors,
scientists and patients and are a part of this code are summarized below .
Staff: A ‘person responsible’ shall take full responsibility for ensuring that the staff
of the registered unit is sufficiently qualified
Facilities: These must cover the standards expected in respect of provision of
clinical, laboratory and counselling care
Confidentiality: Any information about clients and donors must be kept confidential
Information to patient: All relevant information must be given to the patient before
a treatment is given.
Consent: No treatment should be given without the written consent of the couple to all
the possible stages of that treatment, including the possible freezing of supernumerary
embryos. A standard consent form recommended by the accreditation authority should
be used by all ART clinics. Specific consent must be obtained from couples who have
their gametes or embryos frozen, in regard to what should be done with them if he/she
dies, or becomes incapable of varying or revoking his or her consent.
Counselling: People seeking registered treatment must be given a suitable opportunity
to receive proper counselling about the various implications of the treatment.
Use of gametes and embryos: No more than three oocytes or embryos may be placed in
a woman in any one cycle, regardless of the procedure/ s used, excepting under
exceptional circumstances (such as elderly women, poor implantation, adenomiosis, or
poor embryo quality) which should be recorded.
Storage and handling of gametes and embryos: The ‘highest possible standards’ in the
storage and handling of gametes and embryos in respect of their security, and in regard
to their recording and identification, should be followed.
Information and Counselling to be given to Patients
üThe basis, limitations and possible outcome of the treatment proposed, variations
in its effectiveness over time, including the success rates with the recommended
treatments obtained in the clinic as well as around the world (this data should be
available as a document with references, and updated every 6 – 12 months).
üThe possible side-effects (e.g. of the drug used) and the risks of treatment to the
women and the resulting child, including (where relevant) the risks associated
with multiple pregnancy.
üPossible disruption of the patient’s domestic life which the treatment may cause.
üThe techniques involved, including (where relevant) the possible deterioration of
gametes or embryos associated with storage, and possible pain and discomfort.
üThe cost (with suitable break-up) to the patient of the treatment proposed and of
an alternative treatment, if any (there must be no other “hidden costs”).
üTo make the couple aware, if relevant, that a child born through ART has a right to
seek information (including a copy of the DNA fingerprint, if available) about his
genetic parent/surrogate mother on reaching 18 years .
üA third party donor of sperm or oocytes must be informed that the offspring will not
know his/her identity.
üThere would be no bar to the use of ART by a single women who wishes to have a
child, and no ART clinic may refuse to offer its services to the above, provided other
criteria mentioned in this document are satisfied. The child thus born will have all the
legal rights on the woman or the man.
üA third-party donor and a surrogate mother must relinquish in writing all parental
rights concerning the offspring and vice versa.
üNo ART procedure shall be done without the spouse’s consent.
üGametes produced by a person under the age of 21 shall not be used. The accepted
age for a sperm donor shall be between 21 and 45 years and for the donor woman
between 18 and 35 years.
üNo ART clinic shall offer to provide a couple with a child of the desired sex.
üUse of sperm donated by a relative or a known friend of either the wife or the
husband shall not be permitted. It will be the responsibility of the ART clinic to obtain
sperm from appropriate banks; neither the clinic nor the couple shall have the right to
know the donor identity and address however, shall have the right to have the fullest
possible information from the semen bank on the donor such as height, weight, skin
colour, educational qualification, profession, family background, freedom from any
known diseases or carrier status (such as hepatitis B or AIDS), ethnic origin, and the
DNA fingerprint (if possible), before accepting the donor semen.
üTransfer of human embryo into a human male or into any animal belonging to any
other species, must never be done and is prohibited.
Garbhadhana vidhi plays a very important role in imparting the knowledge for the
couple who are wanting to conceive. As stated , Age is a single biggest factor
affecting a woman’s chance to conceive . The other important factors ritu, kshetra
ambu, beeja plays a vital role in conception, implantation, and nourishment of a
healthy fetus just like how a appropriate season , healthy soil , water nourishment &
potent seeds give out a good harvest .
Garbhadhana aims at both the couples to follow certain deictics and regimens and
also to follow good conduct. This targets them to follow the rituals
preconceptionally. Being healthy before pregnancy can help improve the chances of
conception. It can also help prevent pregnancy complication. After all the main aim
is to bring a Shreyasi Praja to the society.
In Ayurvedic texts, Garbhadhan has been explained in detail giving due consideration
to the physiology of the female and male reproductive system thus they have clearly
mentioned about the age of conception, time of conception, and also included the
pshychological factors related to conception.
Age of conception refers to the fertility period where there will be presence of
optimum healthy sperm and ovum and based on modern lifestyle and culture the age of
marriage is getting extended which has lead to preservation of ovum and sperm for
future use of fertility.
There are medicines used for ovulation induction and the use of which has its own
complications and side effects. The assisted reproductive technologies are performed
secondary to infertility.
In patients with tubal factor infertility , IVF directly bypasses the fallopian tubes . In
other infertility etiology's in which IVF is employed, include male factor infertility ,
diminished ovarian reserve, ovarian failure and ovulatory disfunction.
Garbhadana vidhis helps in improving both male & female factors which can be a
cause for non-conception.
To purify the individual who is yet to be born, the parents of that individual are
strengthened and blessed with the help of rituals of the Garbhadana Samsakara .
“Pregnancy Should Be By Choice, Not By Chance” This statement holds true for
having a safe pregnancy and healthy progeny. Due to competitive life, the advance
generation desire only one child and willing that their child should be physically,
mentally & intellectually stronger than them.
Following Garbhadana vidhi can provide global solution in several ways to achieve
conception for those couples seeking for a healthy child. This ensures in preventing
various problems related to mother & foetus. Also provide preventive approach &
promotive health care for the couples.