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Coastal districts of India by B.pptx

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Coastal districts of India by B.pptx

  1. 1. Coastal districts of India By B. Bhaskar FRM
  2. 2. Introduction • Coastline of India is about 8129km in 9 maritime states and addition to coastal UTs • A total of nearly 90 coastal districts as per most recent state wise and UT wise districts • India recognizes an es mated 3,231 valid species of freshwater and marine shes, of which the total diversity of marine species comprise 75.6% (2,443 species) (Gopi & Mishra 2015). • For conservation of fishing resources, adopting uniform fishing ban during April 15th - May 31st on the east coast and June 15th to July 31st on the west coast besides making the fishermen aware of the importance of Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishery.
  3. 3. Gujarat • Gujarat has the longest coastline in India which lies in the Kathiawar region of the state and is 1,600 km long. Area of the continental shelf: 372,424 km2 • Total Land Area: 3,287,263 km2 • Rocky Coast: 11% • Gujarat fishery presently dominated by fishes like ribbonfishes (Trchiurus lepturus), Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus), croakers, carangids, threadfin breams, lizardfishes, tuna (Euthynnus affinis, Thunnus tonggol, Katsuwonus pelamis, Thunnus albacores and Sarda orientalis), seerfish, pomfrets. Gujarat 1.Ahmedabad 2.Amreli 3.Anand 4.Bharuch 5.Bhavnagar 6.Jamnagar 7.Junagadh 8.Kachchh 9.Navsari 10.Porbandar 11.Devbhumi Dwaraka 12.Surat 13.Girsomnath 14.Valsad 15. Morbi
  4. 4. MAHARASHTRA • Maharashtra is bestowed with a coastline of 720 km spread over 7 coastal districts, viz. Thane, Palghar, Mumbai city, Mumbai suburban, Raigad, Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg along the Arabian sea with rich marine fishery resources. • There are 25 fishing zones in the seven districts with 173 fish landing centres. The total marine fish production from the state during 2018–19 was 4.6 MT valued at `6298 crores (DOF, Government of Maharashtra). • The state offers huge potential for the sustainable utilization of the marine bioresources for fisheries, mariculture, coastal aquaculture and post -harvest development and exports. • Maharashtra falls under the NorthWest coast which contributes the highest (32.8%) in the total catch during 2019–20. • The major share is contributed by pelagic resources (39%), followed by crustaceans (31%), demersal comprising 22% and molluscs (7%). • The prominent species/groupwise landings include non- penaeid shrimp (21%), penaeid shrimp (9%), Bombay duck and croakers (8.2%), Indian mackeral (6.9%), threadfin breams (5.9%), squids (5.1%), ribbon fishes (4.1%), golden anchovy (4%), horse mackerel (3.5%), cuttle fish (2.1%), silver pomfret (2.0%). • The trawl fishing accounted for 55%, set bagnet (SBN/Dolnet) 23%, purse seines (15%) and gillnet (7%) (CMFRI Annual Report 2019). MAHARASHTRA 1.Palghar 2.Mumbai Sub-urban 3.Mumbai 4.Raigarh 5.Ratnagiri 6.Sindhudurg 7.Thane
  5. 5. GOA • Goa is bestowed with a coastline of 104 km with numerous bays and headlands. • The continental shelf area of Goa extends to 10,000 km2 of about 100 fathoms depths. • The current annual average marine and inland fish production is estimated at 86 027 and 3669 tonnes, respectively. • Goa shares nearly 2% of the total marine fish production of our country. • About 550 fish and shellfish species are recorded in the marine fish landings. • The numbers of pelagic, demersal, crustacean and mollusc species identified were 200, 280, 95 and 90 respectively. • The marine fisheries sector contributes to about 3% of the state GDP and 17% of the agricultural GDP. (Sreekanth G.B. and Sajiya Mujawar,(2021) Goa 1. North Goa 2. South Goa
  6. 6. KARNATAKA • checklist of the riverine fishes of Karnataka includes 240 species (109 species from Cauvery, 59 species from Godavari, 168 fish species from Krishna and 124 fish species from West flowing river basins) distributed under 102 genera, 38 families and 14 orders. The top three orders with diverse species composition were Cypriniformes (140 species, 45 genera and 5 families), Siluriformes (51 species, 24 genera and 9 families) and Perciformes (26 species, 15 genera and 9 families). Fourty species listed under threatened category including 5 species as critically endangered, 22 as endangered and 13 as vulnerable(H. S. MOGALEKAR, P. JAWAHAR AND CANCIYAV,2016) & • MARINE FISHES (http://karenvis.nic.in/Content/MarineWaterFishesofKarnataka_ 11268.aspx) • Karnataka state with a coastline of 320 km along the southwest coast of India is one of the frontline state in the country in marine fisheries development. During 1957, Karnataka emerged as a separate maritime state having 27000 square km of continental shelf area and 87000 square km of EEZ. Historically Karnataka coast is referred as “mackerel coast”. • The three major maritime districts of Karnataka are Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Uttara Kannada. Dakshina Kannada district has a coastal line of 42 km from Talapady in South to Mulky in the North. Udupi district stretches from Kodi Hejamady to Gangoli with 98 km of coastline. Uttara Kannada has the longest coastline of 162 km with natural harbors and ports like Karwar, Binaga, Chendiya, Balekeri, Tadri, Ankola, Gangavali, Kumta, Honnavar, Manki, Murudeshwar, Shirali and Bhatka (Suyani NK, et al.2020). • pelagics found in Karnataka are Indian oil sardine, Indian mackerel, ribbon fish, anchovies, Thryssa sp., carangids, seer fishes, tunnies, etc. The demersal fishes found are bulleyes, threadfin breams, croakers, lizard fishes, pomfrets, triggerfish, elasmobranchs and catfishes KARNATAKA 1.Dakshin Kannada 2.Udupi 3.Uttar Kannada
  7. 7. KERALA • Among 1,471 species of marine ornamental fishes in the international trade, as many as 400 species were occurring in coastal waters and the coral reef ecosystem surrounding the islands and mainland of India. • The coral reef patches and rocky pools on the shores of the Lakshadweep sea along with artificial rocky areas formed by sea wall construction materials harbours a wide variety of marine ornamental fishes all along the 590 kms coastal line of Kerala.(Biju Kumar et al.2012) • Nine Hundred and five species of fishes are recorded from the inland and marine waters of Kerala comprising of 41 orders and 172 families. • Close to 30% of the freshwater fish species found in Kerala are endemic to the State. • Only 8% of the total fishes of Kerala are listed as threatened in the IUCN Red List, of which the majority are freshwater species KERALA 1.Alappuzha 2.Ernakulam 3.Kannur 4.Kasaragod 5.Kollam 6.Kozhikode 7.Malappuram 8.Thiruvananthapuram 9.Thrissur
  8. 8. Tamil Nadu • A total of 1656 fish species under two classes, 40 orders, 191 families and 683 geranra reported from marine and estuarine waters of Tamil Nadu. In the checklist, 1075 fish species were primary marine water and remaining 581 species were diadromus. • In total, 128 species were reported under class Elasmobranchii (11 orders, 36 families and 70 genera) and 1528 species under class Actinopterygii (29 orders, 155 families and 613 genera). • The top five order with diverse species composition were Perciformes (932 species; 56.29% of the total fauna), Tetraodontiformes (99 species), Pleuronectiforms (77 species), Clupeiformes (72 species) and Scorpaeniformes (69 species). At the family level, the Gobiidae has the greatest number of species (86 species), followed by the Carangidae (65 species), Labridae (64 species) and Serranidae (63 species). Fishery status assessment revealed existence of 1029 species worth for capture fishery, 425 species worth for aquarium fishery, 84 species worth for culture fishery, 242 species worth for sport fishery and 60 species worth for bait fishery, (Mogalekar et al.,2018). • The state has 1076 kms of coastal length and 0.19 lakh sq km of exclusive economic zone (EEZ) up to 200 nautical miles from the shore (Ramesh et al., 2008; Barman et al., 2011). The total estuarine area of Tamil Nadu was estimated to be 56000 ha, which accounts 3.88 % of the total estuarine area of India (De, 2011). • The estuaries and brackish water wetlands in Tamil Nadu were Adyar, Agniar, Alangkulam, Ambuliyar, Araniar, Arasalar, Athankarai, Coleroon, Cooum, Edaiyur-Sadras, Ennore, Gadilum, Giriyampeta, Gulf of Mannar lagoon, Gundar, Kaliveli lagoon, Kallar, Kanjirankudi, Karumeniyar (Manapadu), Kaveri, Kollidam, Kottakarayar, Kuduvaiyar, Manakudy, Manimuttar, Muthupet lagoon, Muttukadu backwaters, Muttukadu lagoon, Nambiyar, Nandalar, Palayakayal, Pambar, Pantri, Pazhayar, Pichavaram, Ponnaiyar, Pulicat lake (South) lagoon, • Pullavazhi, Punnakayal, Sayalkudi, Thengapattinam, Thirumullaivasal, Uppanar, Uppar, Vaigai, Vaipar, Valliyar, Velankanni, Vellar, Vembar, Vennar, Vettar and Yedayanthittu (Ramesh et al., 2008; Mogalekar et al., 2017). The state has 1076 kms of coastal length and 0.19 lakh sq km of exclusive economic zone (EEZ) up to 200 nautical miles from the shore (Ramesh et al., 2008; Barman et al., 2011). The total estuarine area of Tamil Nadu was estimated to be 56000 ha, which accounts 3.88 % of the total estuarine area of India (De, 2011).
  9. 9. The estuaries and brackish water wetlands in Tamil Nadu were Adyar, Agniar, Alangkulam, Ambuliyar, Araniar, Arasalar, Athankarai, Coleroon, Cooum, Edaiyur-Sadras, Ennore, Gadilum, Giriyampeta, Gulf of Mannar lagoon, Gundar, Kaliveli lagoon, Kallar, Kanjirankudi, Karumeniyar (Manapadu), Kaveri, Kollidam, Kottakarayar, Kuduvaiyar, Manakudy, Manimuttar, Muthupet lagoon, Muttukadu backwaters, Muttukadu lagoon, Nambiyar, Nandalar, Palayakayal, Pambar, Pantri, Pazhayar, Pichavaram, Ponnaiyar, Pulicat lake (South) lagoon, Pullavazhi, Punnakayal, Sayalkudi, Thengapattinam, Thirumullaivasal, Uppanar, Uppar, Vaigai, Vaipar, Valliyar, Velankanni, Vellar, Vembar, Vennar, Vettar and Yedayanthittu (Ramesh et al., 2008; Mogalekar et al., 2017). Tamil Nadu (1076km) coastal dist 1.Thiruvallur 2. Chennai 3.Chengalpattu 4.Villupuram 5.Cuddalore 6.Mayildathurai 7.Nagapattinam 8.Tiruvarur 9.Thanjavur 10.Pudukottai 11.Ramanathapura m 12.Thoothukudi 13.Tirunelveli 14.Kanyakumari
  10. 10. Puducherry • The Union Territory of Puducherry comprises of four region namely, Puducherry, Karaikal, Mahe & Yanam with a total coastal line of 45 kms, 1000 sq.km of continental shelves enriched with marine fisheries potential. • It has a fishermen population of about 96,071 of which 26,478 nos. of fishermen are actively engaged in fishing from 27 marine fishing villages and 23 inland fishing villages/hamlets scattered in and around Union Territory of Puducherry. • This Union Territory is also endowed with 2052 Ha of fresh water area in the form of Ponds and Tanks suitable for both capture and culture fishery. 1209 Ha of Brackishwater area are available for undertaking Brackish water fish and prawn culture. (Fisheries dept of Puducherry annual plan, 2017). Source: CMFRI, annual report, 2020. Puduc herry 1.Karaikal 2.Yanam 3.Puducherry 4.Mahe
  11. 11. AP(95,442 km2 total of 26dist of this 19 are Coastal dist) 974 km Coastal line • AP with coastline of 974 km and a continental shelf area of 33,227 km. • A total of 19 coastal districts as per new districts recent list • Sardines, mackerel, ribbonfish,carangids, seerfish and anchovies were the major pelagics landed along the Andhra coast. • In the demersal group, croakers formed the dominant group followed by perches, silverbellies, catfish and Rays. • Crustaceans were dominanted bythe penaeid prawns followed by crabs and non-penaeid prawns (Rao G Syda et al. 2008) AP (974Km) Coastal dist 1.Srikakulam 2.Vizianagaram 3. Parvathipuram Manyam 4.Alluri Sitharama Raju 5. Visakhapatnam 6.Anakapalli 7.Kakinada 8. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Konaseema 9.East Godavari 10.West Godavari 11.Eluru 12.Krishna 13.NTR 14.Guntur 15.Palnadu 16. Bapatla 17.Prakasam 18.SPSR Nellore 19.Tirupati
  12. 12. Odisha • Odisha is rich in marine fishery resources such as carangids, ribbon fishes, clupeids, croakers, pomfrets, catfishes, silver bellies, penaeid prawns, non-penaeid prawns, crabs. • The state Odisha in the east coast of India has a 480 km long coastline in 7 coastal districts (Balasore, Bhadrak, Kendrapara, Jagatsinghpur, Puri, and Ganjam, Khordha) besides a continental shelf of 24,000 km2.(Pati, et al.2018) • The coast is bestowed with six major estuaries (Subarnarekha, Budhabalanga, Baitarani, Brahmani, Mahanadi, and Rushikulya), World’s largest rookery for the Olive Ridley sea turtle (Gahirmatha), Asia’s largest brackish water lagoon (Chilika Lake), India’s second largest mangrove forest (Bhitarkanika), one major port (Paradip), three minor ports, and four fishing harbours (Mohanty et al., 2008). • Bhitarkanika National Park, Gahiramatha Marine Sanctuary, and Nalabana Wildlife Sanctuary are the three marine protected areas of Odisha (Singh, 2003). the presence of 2,611 marine and brackish water species from Odisha. These species belong to 25 taxa [Ciliophora, Foraminifera, Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Entoprocta, Platyhelminthes, Kinorhyncha, Nematoda, Gastrotricha, Chaetognatha, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Annelida, Echiura, Mollusca, Sipuncula, Bryozoa, Brachiopoda, Echinodermata, Tunicata, Gnathostomata (Pisces), Reptilia, Aves, and Mammalia]. The most species rich taxon of the Odisha coast is the superclass Gnathostomata (Pisces) followed by the phyla such as Arthropoda, Mollusca, Platyhelminthes, and Annelida. The least represented taxa were Ctenophora, Entoprocta, Kinorhyncha, Tardigrada, Echiura, Sipuncula, Brachiopoda, and Tunicata. Odisha shares 1.24 per cent of world’s marine diversity whereas it contributes nearly 19 percent of Indian marine fauna ODISHA (480km) Coastal dist 1.Baleshwar 2.Bhadrak 3.Kendrapara 4.Jagatsinghpur 5.Puri 6.Ganjam 7.Khordha
  13. 13. West Bengal • Along WB coast with 158 km coastline area with 9 major fish landing stations viz. Digha, Digha Mohana, Shankarpur, Petuaghat, Sagar, Fresergunge, Namkhana, Kakdwip and Diamond Harbour. It is reported at least 314 fish species are involved with the marine ecosystems in respect to fishing zone of West Bengal coast,(A Kar, 2017). • Important fish species like Tenualosa ilisha, Chelon parsia, Sillago sihama, and Harpodon nehereus are widely found here (Kar et al., 2017). WEST BENGAL(158km) coastal dist 1.Purba Medinipur 2.South 24 Parganas 3.North 24 Parganas
  14. 14. Lakshadweep • Lakshadweep archipelago is the northernmost chain of atolls at the Laccadive-Chagos ridge, situated between 12o – 8o N and 71o – 74o E in the Arabian Sea, and separated from the Maldives by the nine-degree Channel, consists of 15 atolls and three prominent submerged reefs. The atolls have a reef area of 933.7 km2, including a lagoon area of 510 km2 (Bahuguna and Naik 1994). • present an inventory of Ichthyofauna of Lakshadweep atolls based on published literature and incorporating 15 new species records identified through a rapid survey. The new species records for this region are presented here with the diagnostics of these species. The checklist shows 856 species of 432 genera, 43 orders, and 144 families known from these islands, including 16 freshwater forms. 49.3% of the contribution is from 14 fish families having > 15 species each, while the remainder 131 families contributed 52.5%, which have < 15 species. • About 154 species belonging to 12 families are known to contribute to the commercial fisheries of these islands, (Rajkumar Rajan et al. 2021).
  15. 15. Daman& Diu • Elasmobranchs, Sharks, Skates and Rays
  16. 16. Dadra nagar haveli
  17. 17. ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS • Andaman And Nicobar Islands Is Called As Bay Of Islands, comprise over 500 islands), have a land area of 8293 sq.km. They have a coastline of 1962Km. (Fishingchimes, Jan, 2006). • A total of 1434 species under 576 genera belonging to 33 orders and 165 families is represented from these islands, of which 400 species having commercial significance as food fishes. Among the fishes, 75.68 %of species are recorded as coral inhabitants (1089 species). about 290 species from mangroves, 152 species from seagrass meadow, 23 species from freshwater streams and 101 species from offshore environment, while 258 species were commonly observed as overlap between mangrove, seagrass, coral reefs and offshore ecosystems, (Rajan, et al.2021). Andaman and Nicobar Islands(1962 km) 1.North And Middle Andaman 2.Nicobar 3.South Andaman
  18. 18. 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  20. 20. THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME B

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