Logo R.I.P.


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Livro Logo R.I.P. (free download). Totalmente atualizado e revisado. Uma homenagem a uma grande pesquisa de 50 logos que não existem mais ou foram redesenhados. Inclui um prefácio de Gert Dumbar e apresenta um design clássicos da NASA, a British Steel, BOAC e Pan Am.
Fonte: http://www.logorip.com/Dica

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Logo R.I.P.

  1. 1. “Logo R.I.P. is not just a nostalgia trip, but a serious questioning of the ephemerality of modern life.” The Sunday Times “Logo R.I.P. works both as a critique of corporate culture and design’s complicity in it and a celebration of some of the past century’s most resonant graphic symbols… It may be clever enough to appeal to anti-corporate activist and corporate climber alike.” EYE Magazine “The notes are the strongest asset of the book: well-informed and often hilarious.” de Volkskrant “Logo R.I.P. is more than just a frivolous bit of fun at the expenseof defunct institutions or over-greedy corporations who went tits-up… It serves as a genuinely useful archive and reference resource.” Dazed & Confused “This book is an obituary to the visual casualties of today’s ruthless business environment, and to those trademarks that have tried to battle the powers of globalisation.” Creative Review “Logotypes get scrapped everyday, as casualties of mergers, bankruptcies and new-image campaigns. Their passings are generally unsung, but Logo R.I.P., offers dignified adieus to 50 defunct graphic icons.” Print “Behind every good logo is a hidden history of the rise and fall… Logo R.I.P., is a compact, well-illustrated study.” NRC Handelsblad “The Stone Twins are the undertakers of style… Included in this hall of fame, are 50 pertinent logos who do not deserve oblivion; but a minute silence… and this commemorative book.” Étapes
  2. 2. logo r.i.p.
  3. 3. Publishing house: bis Publishers Building Het Sieraad Postjesweg 1 1057 dt Amsterdam The Netherlands t +31 20 5150230 f +31 20 5150239 www.bispublishers.nl bis@bispublishers.nl First Edition 2003 Second Edition 2012 isbn 978 90 6369 290 2 Copyright © 2003 and 2012 bis Publishers and The Stone Twins, Amsterdam All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner(s). All featured logos are trademarks of the respective copyright owners. Every reasonable attempt has been made to contact owners of copyright. Errors or omissions will be corrected in subsequent editions.written, designed + photographed by the stone twins, amsterdam www.stonetwins.com www.logorip.com
  4. 4. a commemoration of dead logotypes The Stone Twins
  5. 5. plot page contents preface 9 foreword by Gert Dumbar 13 introduction 15 obituariesi Imperial Airlines/BOAC ‘Speedbird’ 127ii Swastika 128iii NASA ‘Worm’ 129iv P & G ‘Moon and Stars’ 130v Kodak ‘K’ 131vi Enron ‘Tilted E’ 132vii VOC ‘Monogram’ 133viii Tarmac ‘Seven Ts’ 134ix The New Haven Railroad ‘NH’ 135x British Steel ‘S’ 136xi Robertson’s ‘Golly’ 137xii Energie Noord West ‘Jupiter’ 138xiii Riley ‘Diamond Badge’ 139xiv 3M ‘Plumber’s Gothic’ 140xv Mac Fisheries ‘St. Andrew’s Cross’ 141xvi Xerox ‘Digital X’ 142xvii Telecom Éireann ‘TE’ 143 xviii CCA ‘Box’ 144xix Pharmacia & Upjohn ‘The Hand, Bird, Star’ 145xx Mexico 68 146xxi NeXT ‘Cube’ 147xxii RUC ‘Harp & Crown’ 148xxiii Transamerica ‘T’ 149xxiv Betamax ‘β’ 150
  6. 6. plot page obituariesxxv Spratt’s ‘Dog’ 151xxvi Lucent ‘Innovation Ring’ 152xxvii DSM ‘Hexagon’ 153xxviii Hoechst ‘Tower and Bridge’ 154xxix MetLife ‘Four Ms’ 155xxx Arsenal FC ‘VCC Crest’ 156xxxi Commodore ‘C’ 157xxxii PTT Post 158xxxiii AT&T ‘Globe’ 159xxxiv Midland Bank ‘Griffin’ 160xxxv HTV ‘Aerial’ 161xxxvi Pye ‘Roundel’ 162xxxvii Reuters ‘Dotted Logotype’ 163xxxviii Festival of Britain ‘Britannia’ 164xxxix DeLorean Motor Company ‘DMC’ 165xl BP ‘Shield’ 166xli Rover ‘Longship’ 167xlii Unilever ‘Twin Pillar U’ 168xliii BT ‘Piper’ 169xliv Braniff Airways ‘BI’ 170xlv Abbey National ‘Umbrella Couple’ 171xlvi Wellcome ‘Unicorn’ 172xlvii Pan Am ‘Blue Globe’ 173xlviii UPS ‘Bow-Tied Package’ Shield 174 logo r.i.p? 176xlix British Rail ‘Double-Arrow’ 179l Sun Microsystems ‘Ambigram’ 180 references 182 bibliography 186 appendix: new identities 189 index 191
  7. 7. prefaceWelcome to the fully updated and revised secondedition of Logo R.I.P. Readers of the original book,will notice that several things have changed in thisnew version. All articles were substantially rewritten,and, in some cases, were replaced by more compellingor current examples. But what has not changed isthe core thesis of this book: that defunct logos – thatwere once an integral part of the landscape, our visualculture and our lives – are worthy of commemoration,or even preservation.We wish to thank all the people who took the time toshare their ideas on the website logorip.com, since itslaunch in 2003. This online ‘Book of Condolences’, ordigital repository, provided a wealth of new material.It’s a platform where fellow designers advocate for thepreservation of iconic logos and critically discuss themerits of our funerary homage.Just as importantly, the forum also attracted inputthat reveals the human cost of discarded logos:those individuals who lost their jobs, and are thefallout of corporate euphemisms, such as downsizing,restructuring, consolidation, repositioning or merger(the very terms that accompany the launch of shinynew trademarks). In addition, the website reveals thestrong emotional bonds that ordinary people have with 9
  8. 8. logos, and how they can trigger heated discussions ona variety of topics: from the environment (BP) toracism (Robertson’s) or corporate loyalty (Wellcome),amongst others. The overall quality and scope of thecomments on logorip.com enriched our understandingof the subject and provided a fresh impulse to refine,sharpen and update many of the ‘obituaries’.We take advantage of this opportunity to includeseveral logos that have suffered an ignominious death,since the first edition in 2003. The ubiquitous andhistoric corporate symbols of Abbey National, AT&T,DSM, Hoechst, Kodak, Lucent, Rover, Unilever andXerox have all been consigned to the logo graveyard.No revision of Logo R.I.P. could ignore the significanceof these trademarks and the calls for their inclusion.This fully revised version of Logo R.I.P. is also anacknowledgment of the growing movement to docu-ment the cultural and design history of trademarks;particularly icons from the golden era of corporateidentity design (1950s to the 1970s). The preservationof our visual culture is central to our hypothesis; andechoes the goals of the architectural conservationmovement. Some will argue that logos are just markson paper and, inherently, ephemeral – but that’sbeside the point. As stated in our original introduction,10
  9. 9. great logos are much more than graphic marks thatsymbolise ideas or represent organisations. Logoshoard our memories, passions and reputations.Besides, the great work of great designers is worthyof preservation. The graphic marks included in thisbook have significance every bit as important aslandmark architecture. In recent years, this idea hasbeen embraced by the writings of Michael Bierut 1and Scott Stowell. Logo R.I.P. has also inspired several 2exhibitions, most notably L.I.P. (Logo in Peace) at theChaumont Poster Festival in 2010, and the series ofDead Brands events hosted by AIGA since 2009.Furthermore, no update of this book could disregardthe Global Financial Crisis of the late-2000s, which isconsidered by many economists to be the worst financialdownturn since the Great Depression. A period thathas seen the collapse of financial behemoths, suchas Lehman Brothers and Washington Mutual – andcontributed to the demise of household brands such asKodak and Woolworths. The failure of these businesses,and the subsequent retirement of their visual signifiers,is one of the recurring themes in this book. With thepace of corporate funerals set to pick up further, manymore titans of logo design look set to take their finalbow. So, don’t put away the black garb yet. 11
  10. 10. In short, Logo R.I.P. is as relevant as ever. Acknowledgedas both a critique of corporate culture and a celebrationof some of the most potent logos ever created – weinvite you once again to take a moment to pause andreflect on our selection of lost logos that are, quitesimply, well-conceived, well-crafted and well-known.Gone but not forgotten.‘Logo R.I.P.’Declan and Garech Stone, The Stone TwinsAmsterdam, May 201212
  11. 11. forewordBy keeping memories alive of things that happened inthe past, one defines some sort of civilisation. Inmost cases, this is done in the form of a memorial suchas a statue, an arch or a column. Graveyards too areplaces of reflection and act as a beacon of thecollective memory.This book is a commemoration of historical logos thathave passed away. No one likes funerals, but in LogoR.I.P. there are many valuable trademarks that shouldbe remembered, not just for today’s generation ofdesigners but also for the next.The selection contained in Logo R.I.P. reveals theoptimism, skill and craftsmanship of some great classictrademarks and logos. Apart from the functionalityof these marks, which represent services and trades,these logos conjure up emotional responses – whichrange from the depraved (the Swastika) to theingenuous (Spratt’s).This book is an important alternative to the new trendin logo design that is marketing-orientated nonsense.Many of today’s solutions are produced by agenciesthat consist of a ratio of ten pin-stripes to every onecreative. They are strategy-driven and lack stylisticdurability, are missing concept, magic, wit, emotion or 13
  12. 12. narrative – some of the major ingredients of a good logo. This marketing-driven fever of clients ultimately leads to nothing, producing bland future brands. Metaphorically speaking, these agencies are the‘gravediggers’ for many design classics.I hope, and sincerely wish, that this book becomes avaluable design resource in the future. Let’s not makethis a coffee-table book!Gert Dumbar, Studio DumbarRotterdam14
  13. 13. introductiongone but not forgotten: the thankless life of a rejected logoLike it or not, logos are everywhere. In addition to thespine of this book, there’s probably one emblazonedon your watch, sleeve, spectacles, shoes and coffeecup. Logos adorn almost every item in our vicinity,screaming their message, clamouring for attention.Logos are signs, small graphic identifiers; thingsthat help differentiate a product or service from itscompetitors. Yet over time, their meaning has trans-cended mere differentiation. Like personal signatures,logos are unique statements of their origins. They giveaway our background, our interests, our vanity andvulnerabilities. They mock our lifestyles, tell ourincome, betray our sociopolitical point of view. And still they’re so much more. Logos hoard our memories, passions and reputations. Made familiar with time, we come to trust and befriend them. Then, like mates, we give them nicknames (the ‘Swoosh’,‘ Worm’ or ‘Piper’). In naming a logo, we infuse it with meaning, it helps classify and define who we are. In short, it helps us be.Then one day, they desert us. They rust, fade frombillboards, are replaced by new italicised upgrades. 15
  14. 14. backgroundTwo years ago, when we began this book, ourhypothesis was based on first-hand experience. Wewere submerged in a project based on the logo ofpharmaceutical giant SmithKlineBeecham. Thoughwe hadn’t created this trademark, our task was todevise a corporate identity program for its application.Then just as we reached the implementation stage, itwas announced that the entire project was to bedropped. The reason was simple: SmithKlineBeechamhad agreed to a merger with arch rival GlaxoWellcome.The new company was to be called GlaxoSmithKline(GSK) and unified under a new logo. Naturally, all ourtemplates were irrelevant. Never again, would weglimpse the trademark of SmithKlineBeecham. Thelogo was no more. The logo was dead.Around the same time, we became conscious of other,similar stories. Practically every week, the effects ofglobalisation dominated the headlines. Takeovers,mergers, buy-outs, bankruptcy… the list went on andon. Numerous familiar visual identities had to redefineor die.These changes were echoed in our postbox. Newnames and motifs appeared on bills for our mobilenetworks, insurance companies and energy concerns.16
  15. 15. Even the logo on the postman had changed. Later wewere to reminisce the lost logos of our youth: themanufacturer of our first game-console, the wrapperof our favourite ice-lolly, our parents’ first car. One-time precursors of our daily lives, these familiar‘ landmarks’ had vanished and we had hardly noticed. Yet in contrast to the ceremony and pomp that greeted their arrival, they often suffered an ignoble death. Used-up and superfluous, they were discarded or replaced by a shiny new signifier. Businesses went under, but no one shed a tear for the other loser of diversification – the logo.Logo R.I.P. is a collection of lost design icons. Icons thatdespite achieving ‘stylistic durability’, have beendeemed defunct, consigned to the logo graveyard.No longer allowed to signify.This compilation recognises that each dead logo isa story in itself, an ideogram of its time. They arecultural barometers, expressions of a recent butbygone age. Like the sounds of an old LP or aparticular smell, they transport us to what was.Here we attempt not only to properly commemoratetheir demise, but also to tell their tale. The end of thebook is dedicated to a series of ‘obituaries’; or articles 17
  16. 16. that give a short account of the logo’s life, includingdetails such as the nature of the organisation behind itand the reason for its discontinuation.Unlike contemporary corporate identity design, manyof the logos in this book weren’t accompanied bylengthy press releases; their ‘magic’ is inherent, theirideas clear. They were designed by creatives notcommittees, were tested on real people like familymembers and directors’ wives, not the clinical environ-ment of the modern day test-group.We bid farewell to these once familiar logos, and paytribute both to the designer’s ideas, and thecorporations behind them. Join with us in mourning.‘Logo R.I.P.’Declan and Garech Stone, The Stone TwinsAmsterdam18
  17. 17. The term ‘logotype’ and itsshortened form ‘logo’ comefrom the Greek logos, meaningword. Logotype sometimesrefers to marks that are longerand easily readable names,while logo sometimes refersto shorter names, acronyms orabbreviations. Sometimes bothterms are used as synonyms forthe graphic trademark, whichalso includes picture marks.Source: Mollerup, Per, Marks of Excellence:The History and Taxonomy of Trademarks,Phaidon Press, London 1997 (p. 109)
  18. 18. in memoriam…
  19. 19. i
  20. 20. ii
  21. 21. iii
  22. 22. iv
  23. 23. v
  24. 24. “… it’s time for this old friend to retire with the grace and dignity it deserves. So, today, we’re saying ‘goodbye’…”Mike Eskew, ups Chairmanand ceo, on the departureof Paul Rand’s ups logotype.(March 25th, 2003)117
  25. 25. obituaries
  26. 26. plot i Airways and British Airlines. The new state-owned national airline retained the Speedbird as its unifying symbol. By the 1950s, BOAC led many of the developments of the passenger jet era – and the Speedbird both evoked and expressed the glamour and romance of air travel during this period. Throughout the 1960s, the BOAC livery of a dark blue tail with gold initials on the cheatline and a gold Speedbird on the fin was a familiar imperial sight around the world. The Speedbird, airlines/boac albeit a slightly restyled version by Karl ‘speedbird’ Gerstner in 1964, had survived for generations and was stylistically relevant 1932–1984 to brand the airline even further into design: theyre lee-elliott (uk) the future – adverts from 1971 show it visualised on the supersonic Concorde.In 1932 Imperial Airlines (est. 1924) With the fusion of BOAC and itsintroduced a stylised motif of a bird in sister airline BEA (British Europeanflight, nicknamed the ‘Speedbird’, as Airways) to form British Airways inits corporate emblem. The bold logo 1974, the iconic Speedbird wasperfectly captured the spirit of this jettisoned in favour of a truncatednew and exciting mode of transport. version of the Union Jack as the airline’sTo many it is a design classic, an icon logo. BA’s chairman, David Nicolson,created before its time. According to explained that the new look, by designdesigner Peter Wilbur it is a “mark agency Negus and Negus, expressedwhich although created in an age of “a modern, efficient, confident and100 mph aircraft is still remarkably friendly face to the public.”4 However,modern in concept.”3 after a large number of petitions from The Speedbird was designed by ex-BOAC staff, the Speedbird wasTheyre Lee-Elliott, a noted poster recalled – and featured as a separateartist. During the 1920s and 1930s, emblem on the nose section of thethe artwork he produced for Imperial aircraft.5 This diminished role for theAirlines frequently employed this legendary symbol lasted until 1984,motif to illustrate the various British when BA launched a new look, as partimperial or empire routes. of its preparations for privatisation. In 1939, British Overseas Airways Discarded to the dustbin of history,Corporation (BOAC) was formed only the Speedbird name endures – inafter the merger between Imperial the title of BA’s HQ and call-sign. 127
  27. 27. plot ii Salzburg Congress, the Swastika was unveiled as the official emblem of the party. It appeared in a white circle on a crimson background. The original designer of the Nazi insignia, Dr. Friedrich Krohn (a dentist), initially drew it counter-clockwise but Hitler insisted on a change to its direction. In Mein Kampf, Hitler describes this reductive yet stark visual mark as the symbol “of the fight for the victory of swastika Aryan man” and adds that it “has been and always will be anti-Semitic.”6 –1945 From 1933, Albert Speer, Hitler’s design: unknown personal architect, moulded the image of Nazi Germany. He createdAlthough instantly acknowledged as the a decorative scheme of Swastika orna-symbol of Nazi Germany, the ‘Swastika’ mentation throughout Germany whichis in fact an ancient symbol. It has been was as pervasive as the Führer’s image.found on Byzantine buildings, Buddhist To the international world, theseinscriptions, Celtic monuments and designs broadcast the arrival of a newGreek coins. Throughout the course powerful Germany – the result of aof 3000 years it represented life, sun, mass will and restored national pride.power, strength and good luck. Today, many regard Speer’s starkly Even in the early 20th century the powerful designs as the beginnings ofSwastika, or the ‘hooked cross’, was post-war corporate identity schemes.a largely benign emblem used inno- Since the defeat of Nazi Germanycently as a decorative motif to signify by the Allies in 1945, all forms ofgood fortune and well being. It was the Swastika have been banned infrequently used on cigarette cases, many countries. Hitler took an ancientpostcards, coins, and buildings. During symbol and perverted it to such aWorld War I, the Swastika was found on degree that it can never be used againthe shoulder patches of the American without evoking all the associations of45th Infantry Division and right up destruction, death and vileness that theuntil the mid-1930s, Carlsberg etched NSDAP perpetrated. If the Swastika isit onto the base of their beer bottles. displayed in any part of the western With the rise of National Socialist world, the reactions are universally ofGermany, Adolf Hitler decided that the rage and disgust.NSDAP (Nationalsozialistische DeutscheArbeiterpartei) needed its own insignia • buddhists + hindus still commonly employand flag. On August 7th 1920, at the the swastika as a religious symbol.128
  28. 28. plot iii maximum visibility during the pioneering flights of the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. According to designer Michael Johnson: “The Worm came to symbolise space travel itself – modern, flowing, sinuous, a continuous line… Corporate America identity design had its role model, and needed no further prompting… The Worm created a new benchmark to which designers could refer when they were seeking to appear nasa ‘worm’ ‘new’ and ‘technological’.”8 The emblematic design program by 1974–1992 Danne and Blackburn, not only had design: danne & blackburn (usa) to consider the design from a graphic viewpoint, but also had to take intoIn 1975, the National Aeronautics consideration the technical aspects,and Space Administration (NASA), such as the application of the logotypeintroduced a new unified visual onto spacecraft, uniform patches,communications system. This was publications and satellite markings.commissioned as part of the US Federal Over the years, the program was widelyDesign Improvement Program, a 1972 cited, and in 1984, it was awarded oneinitiative to modernise the use of of the first Presidential Awards fordesign by government agencies. Design Excellence. A central part of the new identity was In 1992, as part of a process tothe NASA logotype, devised by Bruce restore its badly shaken moraleBlackburn, of the New York agency caused by the 1986 Space ShuttleDanne and Blackburn. The ‘Worm’, disaster, NASA scrapped the clean andas it is more popularly known, consists progressive Worm, and re-instated ‘Theof NASA’s initials reduced to their Meatball’ (an insignia comprising ofsimplest form, with the A’s abstracted a sphere, stars and orbit, designed byinto minimal cones that metaphorically James Modarelli in 1959). NASA chiefsuggest rockets ready for take-off. The Daniel S. Goldin, believed that theone width, continuous-stroke letters older logo, laden with ‘Buck Rogers’evoke “a feeling of unity, technological imagery, represented the optimisticprecision, thrust and orientation days of glory for the space program.9toward the future.”7 Nowadays, and sadly for design The Worm was used in a vibrant purists, the far superior Worm isshade of red, and was often accom- only used on retro merchandise –panied by auxiliary information set a treatment viewed in some quarters asin Helvetica. The logotype achieved an act of cultural desecration. 129
  29. 29. plot viii to design a new symbol to represent the new concern. Designer Ronald Armstrong created a strikingly bold solution, that was contemporary in spirit and progressive in outlook. Dubbed the ‘Seven Ts’, the symbol communicates myriad meanings: the seven merged companies, construction and the ‘T’ for tarmac. As DRU explained: “The scheme was designed for eventual extension to all the companies in the tarmac group, a unification which is expressed ‘seven ts’ in the symbolic cluster of seven Ts.”23 The symbol became an ever-present 1964-1996 icon in the British landscape during the design: design research unit (uk) rapid motorway expansion in the 1960s and 1970s (throughout this period, theThe Tarmac Company is one of the Tarmac logo was often an unwelcomeUK’s foremost construction firms. sight as it was synonymous with delaysEver since its founder Edgar Purnell due to roadworks). By 1974, Tarmac’sHooley had accidentally discovered logo was “voted one of the world’sTarmacadam (when he noticed that a top trademarks.”24passer-by had covered some tar spillage As Tarmac diversified further in thewith waste slag),22 the company has 1970s, going into house building andliterally built much of Britain. property development, it became a During the 1960s, there was a worldwide player. In the 1980s it wasconstruction boom in the UK. Post- one of the lead companies involved inwar prosperity created new city skylines the construction of the Channel Tunnel.and a motorway network extended Nevertheless, by the late 1980s, highacross the country. Under the director- interest rates caused serious problems.ship of Robin Martin, Tarmac After recording record losses in 1992,undertook a staggering expansion the company fragmented and refocusedprogram. However, Tarmac’s rapid on its three core activities: quarrygrowth and diversification had caused products, housing and construction.serious communication problems and On May 1st 1996, Tarmac unveiledconfusion over the company’s image. a new corporate identity (designed by In 1963, Design Research Unit Enterprise IG) to represent this change(DRU) – one of the first generation of in strategy: a single green and white TBritish design consultancies combining on an oval yellow background. Afterexpertise in architecture, graphics and more than 30 years service, the famousindustrial design – was commissioned ‘Seven Ts’ logo was discontinued.134
  30. 30. plot ix the railroad’s unfocused and highly ornate script wordmark (which had existed since 1891) with an eloquent logo composed of its initials ‘NH’. The stacked elongated slab serif letterforms aptly evoke a rail-network, connection- points or rail tracks. Over the next two years, Matter and his associate Norman Ives moulded a comprehensive visual identity for New Haven – a prodigious amount covering brochures, adverts, the new haven timetables and the famous train livery railroad ‘nh’ of black, red and white. As with most of Matter’s work, the 1954–1968 NH logo is as compelling now as it was design: herbert matter (usa) back in the 1950s. The great Paul Rand, when celebrating Matter’s oeuvre, onceThe New York, New Haven and said: “His work of ’32 could haveHartford Railroad Company, commonly been done in ’72 or even ’82. It hasknown as the New Haven Railroad, that timeless, unerring quality oneoperated in the states of Connecticut, recognises instinctively. It speaks toNew York, Rhode Island and all tongues, with one tongue. It isMassachusetts from 1872 to 1968. uncomplicated, to the point, familiar,The company operated freight and and yet unexpected.”25passenger trains over a Boston – However, by 1960, the New HavenNew York City main line and a Railroad was approaching insolvencynumber of branch lines. In its heyday, and the company filed for bankruptcy athe New Haven was generally year later. After a decade of strugglingconsidered the largest and most along under various trustees, the Newimportant transportation enterprise in Haven Railroad was absorbed by theNew England. ill-fated Penn Central Transportation With the arrival of new president Company in 1968. The NH symbol,Patrick McGinnis in 1954, Herbert which had become one of the mostMatter, the Swiss émigré designer and identifiable symbols in America, had hitposter artist, was commissioned to the buffers.create a corporate identity for the In a strange twist of fate, therailroad. In line with many other classic NH logo was revived, andlarge American Corporations (e.g. ibm lives on as heritage livery for aand Westinghouse) The New Haven different railroad company, the Newwas endowed with an international Haven line of MetroNorth CommuterModernist aesthetic. Matter replaced Railroad (MNCRR). 135
  31. 31. Myerson, Jeremy and Vickers, Graham Vickers, Quinn, Malcolm, The Swastika: ConstructingRewind: Forty Years of Design and Advertising The Symbol, Routledge, London and New York 1998Phaidon Press, London 2002 Rand, Paul, Design, Form, and ChaosMcQuiston & Kitts, Graphic Design Source Book Yale University Press 1993Quarto Publishing, London 1987 Ricci & Ferrari, Top Symbols & TrademarksNakanishi, Motoo, Corporate Design Systems 1 –  of the World: Annual 1979/1980Case Studies in International Applications F.M. Ricci/Deco Press, Milan 1981Sanno, Tokyo 1979 Schleger, Pat, Hans Schleger – A life of DesignNeuburg, Hans, Graphic Design in Swiss Industry Princeton Architectural Press, New York 2001ABC Editions, Zurich 1965 Sedgwick, Michael, Auto’s uit de Jaren ‘50 en ‘60Niggli, The New Graphic Art Batteljee & Terpstra, Leiden 1984Switzerland 1959 Slater, Stephen, The Complete Book of HeraldyNourmand, Tony and Marsh, Graham, Anness Publishing, London 2002Film Posters of the 70’s Spencer, Herbert (ed.),Reel Poster Press, London 1998 The Penrose Annual 1969 (Vol.62)de Nijs, Ronald (ed.), The Image of a Company: Lund Humphries, London 1969Manual for Corporate Identity Stevens, Harm, Dutch Enterprise and the VOCSDU Uitgeverij, The Hague 1990 Walburg Pers, Amsterdam 1998Ogilvy, David, Ogilvy on Advertising Tambini, Michael, The Look of the Century -Crown Publishers, New York 1983 Design Icons of the 20th CenturyPastoureau, Michel, Heraldry: Origins/Meaning Dorling Kindersley, London 1999Thames and Hudson, London 1997 Watano, Matsuzaki, Design for Public Institutions inPedersen, B. Martin (ed.), Graphis Logo 1 The Netherlands, Shigeo Ogawa, Tokyo 1989Graphis Press, New York/Zurich 1991 Wilson, Charles, The History of Unilever,Pedersen, B. Martin (ed.), Graphis Corporate Cassell & Company, London, 1970Identity 1, Graphis Press, New York/Zurich 1989 Whyte Andrew, 101 Great MarquesPentagram: The Compendium Guild Publishing/Octopus Books, London 1985Phaidon Press, London 1993 Wilbur, Peter, Trademarks: a Handbook ofPijbes, Wim (ed.), Studio Dumbar: Behind the Seen International designs, Studio Vista/Reinhold Art,Verlag Hermann Schmidt, Mainz 1996 London, 1966Pilditch, James, Communication by Design:A Study in Corporate Identity, Berkshire 1970Poynor, Rick, Design without BoundariesBooth-Clibborn Publications, London 1998188
  32. 32. appendix new identitiesFrom left to right, top to bottom:BA ‘Speedmarque’ (Interbrand); NASA ‘Meatball’ (James Modarelli); P&G ‘Wordmark’(Peterson & Blyth);Kodak (BIG); Tarmac (Enterprise IG); Corus (Enterprise IG); Nuon (Tel Design); 3M (Siegel+Gale);Xerox (Interbrand); Eircom (Identity Business); Pharmacia (Crosby Associates); Police Service N. Ireland;Transamerica; Alcatel Lucent (Landor Associates); DSM (Coley Porter Bell); Hoechst (Hans Günter Schmitz). 189
  33. 33. From left to right, top to bottom:MetLife (Young & Rubicam); Arsenal FC (20/20); PostNL (VBAT); AT&T (Interbrand);HSBC (Henry Steiner); ITV (Red Bee); Reuters (Interbrand); BP ‘Helios’ (Landor Associates);Unilever (Wolff Olins); BT (Wolff Olins); Braniff (Cars & Concepts);Santander (Landor Associates); GSK (FutureBrand); UPS ‘Shield’ (FutureBrand)190
  34. 34. index Page numbers in italic denote colour plates3M 49, 140, 189 BIG 131, 189 D20/20 156, 190 Blackburn, Bruce 129 Dabinett, Peter 143β 69, 150 Blair, Tony 167 Danne and Blackburn 129 Blue Globe (Pan Am) 115, 173 Decca 162A BMW 139 DeLorean, John Zachary 165Abbey National 10, 111, 160, 171 Bowie, David 162 DeLorean (DMC) 99, 165Adidas 176 Bow-tied Package (UPS) 117, 174 Dempsey, Mike 136Aerial (HTV) 91, 161 Braniff 109, 170, 190 Design Research Unit 134, 168, 179Agfa 154 Brattinga, Pieter 153 Digital X (Xerox) 53, 142AIGA 11 Britannia (Festival of Brit.) 97, 164 Dog (Spratt’s) 71, 151Akzo 138, 169 British Airways (BA) 127, 189 Dotted Logotype (Reuters) 95, 163Albert Heijn 153 British Dept. for Transport 177, 179 Double-Arrow (BR) 177, 179Alcatel Lucent 152, 189 British Motor Corp. (BMC) 139 DSM 10, 75, 153, 189Allen, Tony 145 BOAC 23, 127 Duke, Joseph C. 140Ambigram 165, 180 Brit. Petroleum (BP) 10, 101, Dumbar, Gert 14, 158Amoco 166 166, 190Apple 147, 157 British Rail (BR) 177, 179 EArmstrong, Ronald 134 British Steel 41, 136 Eastman, George 131Arsenal 81, 156, 190 British Telecom (BT) 107, 169, 190 Eastman Kodak 131Atari 176 Brooks Stevens Associates 140 Eckersley, Tom 164AT&T 10, 87, 142, 152, 159, 190 Brownjohn, Robert 160 Eckerstrom, Ralph E. 144Aventis 154 BRS Premsela Vonk 138 Edward L. Barnes Associates 173 Burroughs, Silas 172 Eircom 143, 189B Burroughs Wellcome 172 EMI 162Bache, David 167 Burton, Richard 161 Energie Noord West 45, 138Baker, Stanley 161 Enron 33, 132, 147Banks & Miles 169 C Enterprise IG 134, 136, 163, 189Barclays 160 Carlton 161 Ervin, Don 149, 155Barney, Gerald 179 Cars & Concepts 190 Eskew, Mike 174BASF 154, 178 Centre Pompidou 176 Eskilson, Prof Stephen J. 132Bass, Saul 159 Chapman, Colin 165Bass/Yager & Associates 159 Chaumont Poster Festival 11 FBayer 154 Chermayeff & Geismar 142, 173 Festival of Britain 97, 164Bayer, Herbert 144 Chermayeff, Ivan 173 Field-Bush, Max 151BBC 161 Citigroup 171 Fletcher, Alan 130, 137, 163Bechtolsheim, Andy 180 Coca-Cola 159, 173 Four Ms (MetLife) 79, 155Behrensbau 154 Coley Porter Bell 153, 189 FutureBrand 174, 190Behrens, Peter 154 Collis Clements 168Bell System 159 Commodore 83, 157 GBen 176 CCA 57, 144 Gamble, James 130Beta 150 Corus 136, 189 Games, Abram 164Betamax 69, 150 Crosby Associates 189 Garland, Ken 141Bierut, Michael 11, 159 Crosby/Fletcher/Forbes 163 Gates, Bill 157 191
  35. 35. General Motors 165 J McGinnis, Patrick 135Gentleman, David 136 Jack Tinker and Partners 170 McNealy, Scott 180Gerald Stahl & Associates 140 Jacobson, Egbert 144 Meatball (NASA) 129, 189Gerstner, Karl 127 JAL 176 MetLife 79, 149, 155, 190Giannini, A.P. 149 James, Ken 168 Mexico 68 Olympics 61, 146Girard, Alexander 170 Jefferson Smurfit Corp 144 MG 176Giugiaro, Giorgetto 165 Jobs, Steve 147 Microsoft 157GlaxoSmithKline 16, 172, 190 Johnson, Michael 129 Midget, Hairy 197GlaxoWellcome 172 Joy, Bill 180 Midland Bank 89, 160Globe (AT&T) 87, 159 Jupiter (ENW) 45, 138 Minale, Marcello 166Goldin, Daniel S. 129 Minale Tattersfield 166Golly (Robertson’s) 43, 137 K Modarelli, James 129, 189Granada 161 Kinneir, Jock 179 Monsanto 145Gray, Milner 164 Knobil, Marcel 160 Moon and Stars (P&G) 29, 130Griffin (Midland Bank) 89, 160 Knox, Ginny 137 Kodak 10, 11, 31, 131, 189 NH KPN 142, 158 NASA 27, 129, 189Haloid Photo. Company 142 Krohn, Dr. Friedrich 128 National Westminster 160Halpin, Geoff 151 Nazi 128Hand, Bird, Star 59, 145 L Negus & Negus 127Harlech, Lord 161 Landor Associates 142, 152, 166, Neuhart, John 170Harp & Crown (RUC) 65, 148 171, 189, 190 Newell and Sorrell 145Helios (BP) 166, 190 Lawrence, Harding 170 New Haven Railroad (NH) 39, 135Henrion, FHK 164 Lee-Elliott, Theyre 127, 164 NeXT 63, 147Hexagon (DSM) 75, 153 Lehman Brothers 11 NI Policing Board 148, 189Hill-Wood, Peter 156 Lever Brothers 141, 168 Novivorm 153Hitachi 178 Leverhulme, Lord 141 NS 153Hitler, Adolf 128 Leyland Motor Corp. 139, 167 NSDAP 128Hoechst 10, 77, 154, 172, 189 Lipson Alport Glass 130 NUON 138, 189Hooley, Edgar Purnell 134 Lloyds 160HSBC 160, 190 Loewy, Raymond 166 OHTV 91, 161 Logo in Peace 11 Oestreich, Peter J. 131 Longship (Rover) 103, 167 Ogilvy, David 144I Lotus 165 Olsen, Henrik 152IBM 135, 147, 157 Lucent 10, 73, 152 Oracle 180ICI 178Identica 151 M PIdentity Business 143, 189 Mac Fisheries 51, 141 Paepcke, Walter 144Imperial Airlines 23, 127 Margarine Unie 168 Pan Am 115, 173Innovation Ring (Lucent) 73, 152 Marketplace Design 167 Patten, Chris 148Interbrand 142, 145, 159, 163, Massey, John 144 Peterson & Blyth 130, 189189, 190 Mather & Crowther 141 Pharmacia 145, 189ITV 161, 190 Matter, Herbert 135 Pharmacia & Upjohn 59, 145, 172192
  36. 36. Philips 162, 178 Selame, Joseph 131 TPG Post 158Pickard, Peter 160 Seven Ts (Tarmac) 37, 134 Tramiel, Jack 157Piper (BT) 15, 107, 138, 169 SHV 153 Transamerica 67, 149, 189Plumber’s Gothic 49, 140 Siegel+Gale 140, 166, 189 Trefoil (Adidas) 176Polaroid 176 Skilling, Jeffrey K. 132 Tsurumaru (JAL) 176Postma, Paul 163 Smith, G. Dean 159 Twain, Mark 175PostNL 158, 190 SmithKlineBeecham 16 Twin Pillar U (Unilever) 105, 168Poynor, Rick 158 Snail (TÉ) 55, 143Pratt, Vaughan 180 Snoopy 155 UProcter & Gamble (P&G) 29, Sony 150 Umbrella Couple (Abbey130, 189 Space Shuttle 129 National) 111, 171Procter, William 130 Speedbird (BOAC) 23, 127 Unicorn (Wellcome) 113, 172Prudential 138, 169 Speedmarque (BA) 189 Unilever 10, 105, 168, 190PSNI 148, 189 Speer, Albert 128 UPS 117, 147, 174, 190PTT Post 85, 158 Spillers 151Pucci, Emilio 170 Spratt’s 13, 71, 151 VPye 93, 162 St. Andrew’s Cross 51, 141 Vázquez, Pedro Ramírez 146Pye, William George 162 Stanford 180 VBAT 190 Stanley, Charles 162 VCC Crest (Arsenal) 81, 156R Starley & Sutton 167 VOC 35, 133Rabobank 138, 169 Star Wars 159Rand, Paul 132, 135, 174 Steiner, Henry 160, 190 WRed Bee 190 Stowell, Scott 11 Washington Mutual 11Reed, Matthew 156 Strong, Henry 131 Wellcome 10, 113, 172Reuter, Paul Julius 163 Studio Dumbar 14, 158 Wellcome, Henry 172Reuters 95, 163, 190 Sun Microsystems 178, 180 Wells, Mary 170Rhône-Poulenc 154 Superbrand 160 Werkgroep Novivorm 153Riley 47, 139, 167 Swastika 15, 25, 128 Wilbur, Peter 127Robertson’s 10, 43, 137 Swoosh (Nike) 15 Wilson, Harold 167Roundel 93, 162 Winter, Eric 171Rover 10, 103, 139, 167 T Wolff Olins 160, 168, 169, 171, 190RUC 65, 148 Tani, Karl 170 Woolworths 11Rush, Harry 139 Tarmac 37, 134, 189 Worm (NASA) 15, 27, 129RVS 171 Tay, Chong Huang 160 Wyman, Lance 146 Tel Design 138, 189S Telecom Éireann 55, 143 XSaab 11 Terrazas, Eduardo 146 Xerox 10, 53, 142, 189Sandgren & Murtha 149, 155 Thatcher, Margaret 167Santander 171, 190 Thomson Reuters 163 ZSaunders, A. R. 166 Tilted E (Enron) 33, 132 Zucker, Margo 142SBC Communications 159 T-Mobile 176Schleger, Hans 141 TNT Post 158Schmitz, Hans Günter 154, 189 Tower & Bridge (Hoechst) 77, 154 193
  37. 37. acknowledgementsWe would firstly like to express oursincere thanks to all the featureddesigners and companies for theircooperation. Only the active supportof most of the persons included inthis book, or of their heirs, has madeit possible. We’d also like to thank theindividuals who submitted suggestionsand condolences since the firstedition in 2003. There are too manyto mention by name, but we wouldespecially like to thank: Rudolf vanWezel (bis) for his belief and commit-ment to our project, Gert Dumbarfor his encouragement and infectiousenthusiasm, Jonathan Bolger for hiscritical eye, and our Mam and Dad fortheir invaluable assistance. Thanks alsoto Adrienne Stone, Irene Stone, InesScheffers, Dick Bezem†, and our clientswho pay the bills.Lastly, but most importantly, our thanksand love go to Marieke and little Samfor their remarkable support, under-standing and fresh coffee.We thank You, we praise You.We find strength and courage to go on.AMEN.Declan and Garech Stone,The Stone TwinsAmsterdam, May 2012
  38. 38. about the authorsThe Stone Twins is a creative partner-ship, based in Amsterdam. Founded bytwin brothers Declan and Garech Stone(born Dublin, 1970), the agency is notedfor its concept-driven and engagingsolutions. The duo are also Head of theCommunication department at DesignAcademy Eindhoven. www.stonetwins.com
  39. 39. A Book of Condolences is open atwww.logorip.com