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From Super to Savickas:
A Review of Career Theory & its Application
Asia Pacific Career Development
Association Conference...
• Explains the phenomenon of career choice
and development.
• Serves as a foundation for career
interventions.
• Predicts ...
• Career Development Theory
– Defines and describes career development through
five life stages and sub-stages.
– Provides...
The Career Rainbow
The Arch of Determinants
Practical Application
• Assist individuals to
– know their interests, aptitudes, and values.
– form a realistic, strong, a...
• Circumscription, Compromise, & Self-Creation
– Individuals choose occupations they perceive to be a
“good fit” related t...
Practical Applications
• Assist individuals to
– have a realistic picture of their interests and
personality and of the jo...
• Personality Types & Environment
Interactions
– Individuals can be described as a combination of
two or more of six perso...
The Holland Hexagon
Practical Applications
• Assist individuals to
– identify their personality type.
– find occupations, postsecondary majors...
John Krumboltz
• Learning Theory
– Career decision making is affected by
genetic endowment and special abilities.
enviro...
Practical Applications
• Assist individuals to
– understand their unique capabilities.
– engage in meaningful learning act...
Lent, Brown, & Hackett
• Social Cognitive Theory
– Self-efficacy is a very important ingredient of career
choice and succe...
Practical Applications
• Assist individuals to
– Identify and develop skills that allow them to
perform well in some speci...
Peterson, Sampson,
Reardon, & Lenz
• Cognitive Information Processing (CIP)
– Good career choices result from gathering an...
Practical Applications
• Assist individuals by
– assuring that they have “readiness” for career
planning and decision maki...
Mark Savickas
• Career Construction Theory
– Individuals have one or more life themes that guide
their career choices.
– T...
Practical Application
• Help individuals to
– identify important life themes through reflection
on the past chapters of th...
A Summary
• Influences on Career Choice and Development
– Genetic endowment.
– Awareness of interests, skills, aptitudes, ...
Continua to Consider
• Developmental vs. Choice Point
• Individual Control vs. Environmental Control
• Theoretical vs. Pra...
Developmental vs Choice Point
• Donald Super’s theory is the most developmental in
nature because
– It defines all life st...
Internal vs External Control
• Krumboltz and Peterson, Sampson, Reardon, &
Lenz appear to be highest on internal control
d...
Theoretical vs Practical
• John Holland’s theory offers the most practical application
due to
– providing both informal an...
Total Life Involvement
vs Work Only
• Super leads the group in applying career
development principles to the totality of l...
Research-supported vs
Non-research-supported
• By far, Holland’s theory is the most research-
supported theory of all, fol...
In Closing
• All of these theories add to the well of what
we know about the antecedents and process
of career choice.
• I...
Questions?Thank you
JoAnn Harris-Bowlsbey, Ed.D.
Executive Director, Content Development
bowlsbeyj@kuder.com
Kuder, Inc.
3...
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From Super to Savickas: A Review of Career Theory & its Application (Dr. JoAnn Harris Bowlsbey at 2014 APCDA Conference)

This presentation was conducted by Dr. JoAnn Harris-Bowlsbey on May 21, 2014, at the 2014 Asia Pacific Career Development Association (APCDA) conference in Honolulu, HI.

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From Super to Savickas: A Review of Career Theory & its Application (Dr. JoAnn Harris Bowlsbey at 2014 APCDA Conference)

  1. 1. From Super to Savickas: A Review of Career Theory & its Application Asia Pacific Career Development Association Conference May, 2014 Presented by: JoAnn Harris-Bowlsbey, Ed.D. Executive Director, Content Development Kuder, Inc.
  2. 2. • Explains the phenomenon of career choice and development. • Serves as a foundation for career interventions. • Predicts outcomes that can be expected from career interventions and environmental influences. Why study theory?
  3. 3. • Career Development Theory – Defines and describes career development through five life stages and sub-stages. – Provides an expansive definition of career as a combination of interacting life roles. – Stresses the centrality of self-concept as the driving force in career choice. – Stresses the role of values in making career choices. – Depicts the balance of internal and external influences on career choice. Donald E. Super
  4. 4. The Career Rainbow
  5. 5. The Arch of Determinants
  6. 6. Practical Application • Assist individuals to – know their interests, aptitudes, and values. – form a realistic, strong, and clear self-concept. – develop time perspective and knowledge that today’s choices affect the future. – view work as one important role that interacts with all other life roles. – recognize and adapt to influences in the environment that affect career choice and change.
  7. 7. • Circumscription, Compromise, & Self-Creation – Individuals choose occupations they perceive to be a “good fit” related to gender appropriateness. intellectual demand. interests and personality. – Individuals are indecisive when the options they see are perceived as undesirable. – Career choices may be made by compromising, which is the process of modifying career aspirations related to these three characteristics. Linda Gottfredson
  8. 8. Practical Applications • Assist individuals to – have a realistic picture of their interests and personality and of the job duties and requirements of occupations. – view all occupations as accessible by members of both genders and all social backgrounds. – identify occupations that would be a “good fit” for their interests, personality, and academic ability.
  9. 9. • Personality Types & Environment Interactions – Individuals can be described as a combination of two or more of six personality types. – Environments can also be described as a combination of these same six personality types. – Individuals of a given type seek environments of the same or similar type. – To the extent that individuals find this match, they are satisfied and productive. John Holland
  10. 10. The Holland Hexagon
  11. 11. Practical Applications • Assist individuals to – identify their personality type. – find occupations, postsecondary majors, and leisure activities that match this type. – gather information about these options and make an informed choice. – know how to make career moves, when necessary, that are most compatible with personal type.
  12. 12. John Krumboltz • Learning Theory – Career decision making is affected by genetic endowment and special abilities. environmental conditions. instrumental and associative learning. task-approach (decision-making) skills. – From these, individuals develop unique self-observations. unique worldview generalizations. task-approach (decision-making) skills.
  13. 13. Practical Applications • Assist individuals to – understand their unique capabilities. – engage in meaningful learning activities related to career choice. – create realistic views of self and of the world. – purposefully expand their interests and be open to new opportunities. – be open to and take advantage of unexpected opportunities (happenstance).
  14. 14. Lent, Brown, & Hackett • Social Cognitive Theory – Self-efficacy is a very important ingredient of career choice and success. – Individuals are drawn to activities they think they can perform well and avoid those they think they cannot perform well. – Self-efficacy is developed through personal accomplishments. vicarious learning (watching others; role models). social persuasion (feedback from others). outcome expectations (expected rewards).
  15. 15. Practical Applications • Assist individuals to – Identify and develop skills that allow them to perform well in some specific areas, especially those that can be related to paid employment. – Create opportunities for individuals to receive positive reinforcement for use of their skills. – Identify occupations where these skills can be used and rewarded.
  16. 16. Peterson, Sampson, Reardon, & Lenz • Cognitive Information Processing (CIP) – Good career choices result from gathering and processing information effectively. – The career decision-making process is both cognitive and affective and can be defined in specific steps (communication, analysis, synthesis, valuing, and execution). – Decision making is affected by career beliefs, self-talk, and self-awareness. – Negative career thoughts need to be removed or modified before good decision making can occur.
  17. 17. Practical Applications • Assist individuals by – assuring that they have “readiness” for career planning and decision making by attending to negative thoughts or self-talk that may be barriers to good decision making. – providing accurate and timely career information on which to base decisions. – helping them learn an effective decision-making process that engages both mind and emotion.
  18. 18. Mark Savickas • Career Construction Theory – Individuals have one or more life themes that guide their career choices. – These life themes become apparent as individuals tell their life stories. – Individuals construct their careers by imposing meaning on what they do in work – meaning that helps them live out their life theme(s). – In today’s uncertain world, career adaptability is exceedingly important.
  19. 19. Practical Application • Help individuals to – identify important life themes through reflection on the past chapters of their lives. – identify work activities that would allow them to play out those themes. – identify action steps that they need to take in order to make career choices or changes. – understand the concept of career adaptability and be psychologically prepared to make changes as needed.
  20. 20. A Summary • Influences on Career Choice and Development – Genetic endowment. – Awareness of interests, skills, aptitudes, and values. – Awareness of need to plan ahead and effect of current choices on future outcomes. – Clear understanding of personal life theme(s) and values. – Strong self-concept and self-efficacy. – Cognitive decision-making skills. – Environmental conditions, including family and peers. – Career adaptability/willingness to engage in new learning.
  21. 21. Continua to Consider • Developmental vs. Choice Point • Individual Control vs. Environmental Control • Theoretical vs. Practical • Total Life Involvement vs. Work only • Research-supported vs. Non-supported
  22. 22. Developmental vs Choice Point • Donald Super’s theory is the most developmental in nature because – It defines all life stages and sub-stages and how career development occurs in each. – It defines all life roles and how they interact in an individual’s life space. – It defines most, if not all, of the influences that affect career choice and development. • John Holland’s theory is the most “choice point” theory because – It does not focus on how individuals become a specific “type,” but rather on how to identify that type and match it in occupations, postsecondary majors, and other life activities.
  23. 23. Internal vs External Control • Krumboltz and Peterson, Sampson, Reardon, & Lenz appear to be highest on internal control due to – emphasis on exercising control via a rational decision- making process. – emphasis on removing personal barriers and purposefully seeking new learning experiences. • John Holland appears to be highest on external control due to – his position that an individual’s personal code is formed through heredity and environment and is typically stable across the life span.
  24. 24. Theoretical vs Practical • John Holland’s theory offers the most practical application due to – providing both informal and formal assessments to measure one’s Holland type. – providing databases that assign codes to all occupations and postsecondary majors. – ease of use of this matching system in web-based and print- based interventions for both individuals and groups. • The theories of Gottfredson and Lent, Brown, & Hackett appear to be the least practical due to – Identifying key factors in career choice without providing tools to measure those factors in any concrete way. – not providing any way to translate self-perceptions into occupational choices.
  25. 25. Total Life Involvement vs Work Only • Super leads the group in applying career development principles to the totality of life because – no other theorists (other than Sunny Hansen) deal with this issue at all. – his definition of career is “all of the activities occurring in all life roles at a given point in time.” – his Career Rainbow and its attendant concepts are an invaluable depiction of the impact of work on other life roles and vice versa.
  26. 26. Research-supported vs Non-research-supported • By far, Holland’s theory is the most research- supported theory of all, followed by that of Donald Super because – Holland himself conducted vast research studies of the theory while he was Vice-President of Research at ACT. – Hundreds of students and professionals worldwide have researched his theory. Results are reported in Holland’s book Making Vocational Choices and in a scholarly paper (http://www.career.fsu.edu/documents/technical%20r eports/TR50.pdf) written by Bullock, Andrews, Braud, and Reardon.
  27. 27. In Closing • All of these theories add to the well of what we know about the antecedents and process of career choice. • It is professionally wise to be an eclectic, in other words, to draw from all the theories. • It is useful to apply different theories and their proposed interventions to different clients, depending upon their needs and your resources in the situation.
  28. 28. Questions?Thank you JoAnn Harris-Bowlsbey, Ed.D. Executive Director, Content Development bowlsbeyj@kuder.com Kuder, Inc. 302 Visions Parkway, Adel, IA 50003 www.kuder.com

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