THEORIST: Berger 1995, Hoynes 1997THEORY: Magic BulletARGUMENT: The idea that the media shootsinformation at us in such a powerful way and we cando nothing about this, it will have a direct effect on us.Similar to the hypodermic needle model.APPILICATION: Although our film was not sending outa direct message as it was fictional the audience couldperhaps see this as a presentation of young peopleand how they handle their relationships, being seen asvolatile and naïve.
THEORIST: Blulmer and Katz 1974THEORY: Audience and Gratification TheoryARGUMENT:Escapism- Escape from everyday problems and routinePersonal Identity- Seeing yourself reflected in textsPersonal Relationships- Finding a connection with someone in the textSurveillance- Keeping up to date with current events and informationAPPLICATION: When creating both our film opening and our music videowe studied this theory and made sure our product met these as we wantour audience to connect with our film somewhat. For example personalrelationships as many teenagers may have been through a bad break upand can identify with the emotions and feelings.
THEORIST: Paul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson and HazelGaudet (1994)THEORY: Two Step FlowARGUMENT: Instead of receiving information directly, theleaders send out the information they want us to hear throughthe media and we hear about it through others, this is thenpassed on through the audiences, then the audience will mediatewhat they have.APPLICATION: In terms of both the music video and the filmopening this could be watched by the audience than told to theirfriends to watch then that is passed on and the cycle continues.This could be seen in a way of presenting our message throughthese texts to tell the audience what we want them to think e.g.through the stereotypes ect.
THEORIST: Abraham MaslowTHEORY: Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsARGUMENT:Self Actualization, Esteem, Love/Belonging, Safety and Physiological.APPLICATION: Similarly to the audience gratification theory, Maslow’s hierarchy ofneeds refers to what the audience want to gain out of watching a text. In our filmopening we touched on a variety of needs but in particular love/belonging as our filmwas based on a relationship that ends up going badly and when watching this theaudience know what to expect and will be gratified.
THEORIST: Denis McQuail (1987), James Lull (1990), RichardKilborn (1992)THEORY: U&GARGUMENT: Similar to Audience Gratification theory, Use’s andGratifications theory. It is an approach to understanding whypeople actively seek out specific media outlets and content forgratification purposes.APPLICATION: Very much the same as the audiencegratification theory, people will watch our texts wanting to gainsomething from them whether it be diversion or surveillance.
THEORIST: Hans Robert JaussTHEORY: Reception TheoryARGUMENT: Based on Stuart Hall’s work ofEncoding/Decoding but by using recognised codes andconventions the producer can position the audiencesomewhat and create a general agreement.APPLICATION: When producing our film opening we studiedthe specific codes and conventions of a thriller and madesure we tried to stick to these as by the audience recognisingthese codes they are comfortable and satisfied as they knowwhat they are getting. Also as producers as said above wecan position the audience so we prepare them for what theywant and will get.
THEORIST: David Morley (1980)THEORY: Nationwide AudienceARGUMENT: Outlined three positions a member of the audience might take whenwatching a programDominant (or hegemonic) reading: The reader shares the programmes code(its meaning system of values, attitudes, beliefs and assumptions) and fully acceptsthe programmes preferred reading (a reading which may not have been the resultof any conscious intention on the part of the programme makers).Negotiated reading: The reader partly shares the programmes code and broadlyaccepts the preferred reading, but modifies it in a way which reflects their positionand interests.Oppositional (counter-hegemonic) reading: The reader does not share theprogrammes code and rejects the preferred reading, bringing to bear an alternativeframe of interpretation.APPLICATION: In our film opening we wanted to portray a fictional relationship butas it says in this theory the audience may take our portrayal at face value and thinkall relationships end in this way, relating to a Marxist view of hegemony but theaudience can read the meanings sent out and mediate them.
THEORIST: John FiskeTHEORY: Genre StructureARGUMENT: Defines genre as ‘attempts to structure someorder into the wide range of texts and meanings that circulate inour culture for the convince of both producers and audiences’.APPLICATION: When creating our thriller film opening we tookinto consideration the conventions and codes to make sure wewere creating something our audience would enjoy and theproducer would be comfortable making. Although we foundourselves stemming towards a hybrid of a drama/thriller.
THEORIST: Stuart HallTHEORY: Encoding/DecodingARGUMENT: Halls essay challenged all three components of the masscommunications model. It argued that for one meaning is not simplyfixed or determined by the sender secondly that the message is nevertransparent; and finally the audience is not a passive recipient ofmeaning.APPLICATION: Encoding/decoding allows the audience to mediate themessages they receive through a text, in our film opening we see arelationship break up take a sinister turn and the girl become obsessedalthough we have to remember this is fiction and the audience canchoose whether to believe these messages or decode them forthemselves.