Coral Reefs


Published on

Created by the Honors Biology Class at Buffalo Seminary.

Published in: Technology, Lifestyle
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Coral Reefs

  1. 1. Coral Reefs the “rainforest” of the sea
  2. 2. Home to the phylum cnidaria - radially symmetric (arrangement of body around a center point) <ul><li>Polyp structure: attached to the floor of the ocean & surrounded by a circlet of tentacles . </li></ul><ul><li>three basic tissue layers </li></ul><ul><li>the gastrovascular cavity is lined with flagella, which filters out nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>contain organelles called cnidae (a type of stinging cell.) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Platform Reefs <ul><li>Platform reefs usually lie far off of the shore. They are flat- topped reefs with shallow lagoons </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>- Fringing Reefs form on the shores of most tropical islands. </li></ul><ul><li>-They are one of the few coral animals that can withstand the climate of the tropical waters. </li></ul><ul><li>-They can tolerate the warm, nutrient-poor surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Grow upwards and/or outwards </li></ul>Fringing Reefs:
  5. 5. Fringing Reefs <ul><li> </li></ul>-Most common type -This reef is attached, lying adjacent to the shore of a continent or island. -There is little to no lagoon (a body of water cut off from a larger body by a reef of sand or coral) between it and the shore
  6. 6. The Barrier Reef - serve as a barrier between the ocean and the land. They slow down the harsh waves, protecting the coast. -usually a wide, deep lagoon separating the reefs from the land mass. - only grows where there has been a change of sea level on the adjacent coast PICTURE: The Great Barrier Reef. It is located off the northeast coast of Australia . It measures up to 150 km long .
  7. 7. Atoll <ul><li>a ring shaped coral reef </li></ul><ul><li>Created when an island, </li></ul><ul><li>which is encircled by barrier reefs, sinks. The sunken island leaves a reef that is circular. </li></ul><ul><li>Encloses a lagoon. </li></ul><ul><li>On top of under-water mountains formed by volcanoes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Coral Reef Locations <ul><li>91.9% of the world’s coral reefs are located in the Indo-Pacific region. </li></ul><ul><li>Coral Reefs cover 284,300 square kilometers of Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>There aren’t coral reefs on the west coasts of America and Africa because of upwelling and cold currents. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The Great Barrier Reef in Queensland, Australia is the largest coral reef in the world! </li></ul><ul><li>The Belize Barrier Reef is the second largest in the world! </li></ul><ul><li>The Red Sea coral reef is located off the coast of Saudi Arabia and Egypt! </li></ul>
  11. 11. wave action Coral Reefs need: warm, clear water sunlight calcium
  12. 12. Coral reefs have a symbiotic relationship with a type of microscopic algae, which require sunlight. Therefore, coral reefs must exist where sunlight penetrates so that they can thrive and grow. CORAL REEFS NEED: sunlight
  13. 13. Clear water allows for sunlight to reach the algae CORAL REEFS NEED: clear water
  14. 14. 73-77°F (23-25°C) CORAL REEFS NEED: warm water
  15. 15. waves bring in food, nutrients and oxygen to the reef CORAL REEFS NEED: wave action
  16. 16. CORAL REEFS NEED: calcium used to build their limestone skeletons available in shallow waters
  17. 18. Importance of Coral Reefs and Symbiosis
  18. 19. Importance of Coral Reefs
  19. 20. Protect coasts from strong currents and waves by slowing down the water before it gets to the shore; hence the name “barrier reefs”
  20. 21. Homes for Sea Creatures <ul><li>Coral reefs support about 4,000 species of fish, 800 species of coral and hundreds of other species, some of which are yet to be discovered. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Reefs help local economies through tourism, diving tours, fishing trips, hotels, and restaurants
  22. 23. Symbiosis
  23. 24. Coral Polyp <ul><li>Algae in the coral polyp produces oxygen for the polyp </li></ul><ul><li>The coral polyp produces carbon dioxide for the algae (zooxanthellae) </li></ul>
  24. 25. Clown Fish and Anemones <ul><li>Clown fish are protected by anemone’s stinging tentacles </li></ul><ul><li>Clown fish chases away anemone’s predators </li></ul><ul><li>Clown fish provide fertilizer for anemone </li></ul>
  25. 26. Crab and Coral <ul><li>Crab eats coral tissue and mucous. </li></ul><ul><li>Coral provides protection for crab </li></ul><ul><li>Crab protects coral from fish and starfish. </li></ul><ul><li>Corals that have crabs living on them actually grow faster and live longer </li></ul>
  26. 27. “Cleaning Stations” <ul><li>Tiny fish clean off fungal growths on bigger fish </li></ul><ul><li>The tiny fish get fed </li></ul><ul><li>Bigger fish avoid infections </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cleaning stations” are in found in reef environments </li></ul>
  27. 28. Animals on the Coral Reef Arthropods, mollusks, sponges, cnidarians and more..
  28. 29. Types of Animals <ul><li>Coral reefs are home to many animals including sponges, fish, anemones, crustaceans, snails, and mollusks </li></ul><ul><li>These animals rely on corals for food and shelter </li></ul>
  29. 30. Sponges <ul><li>Have a range of sizes. some varieties can grow to over 6 feet in diameter </li></ul><ul><li>No true tissues or organs. Their structure is composed of a simple collection of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>sponges are actually one of the most primitive animals in the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Live attached to surfaces in the ocean </li></ul>
  30. 31. More Sponges
  31. 32. Cnidarians <ul><li>Some types of corals and jellyfish live on coral reefs </li></ul><ul><li>Large territories of hard corals form coral reefs </li></ul><ul><li>The sea anemone’s tentacles provide protection and safety for fish </li></ul><ul><li>The name Cnidaria comes from the Greek word &quot;cnidos,&quot; which means stinging nettle </li></ul>
  32. 33. Mollusks <ul><li>Many feed by filtering water from the coral reef </li></ul><ul><li>Octopi, clams, and more inhabit the reefs </li></ul><ul><li>There are about 112,000 species included in this phylum </li></ul><ul><li>One of the largest mollusks of the reef is the giant clam </li></ul>
  33. 34. Giant Clam <ul><li>One of the largest mollusks on the reef </li></ul><ul><li>Can reach the length of 4 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>Largest bivalve mollusk </li></ul><ul><li>Lives in the shallow coral reefs of the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean </li></ul>
  34. 35. Arthropods <ul><li>Find protection between coral branches </li></ul><ul><li>Shrimps, crabs, lobsters and more </li></ul><ul><li>Crustaceans are also predators in the coral reefs </li></ul><ul><li>Shrimp removes parasites and dead skin from reef fishes </li></ul><ul><li>They also come in various sizes ; The king Crab has an arm span of 12 feet. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Fish <ul><li>They are the most colorful and diverse groups of animals on the reef </li></ul><ul><li>Their different colors allow them to camouflage themselves against the coral </li></ul><ul><li>The coral reefs provide different ways for the fishes to feed, live and reproduce. </li></ul>Barracudas
  36. 37. Humuhumunukunukuapua’a ( humu-humu-nuku-nuku-a-pu-a-a ) <ul><li>The largest are 8 inches. </li></ul><ul><li>-They are very aggressive and make a whirring sound when scared. </li></ul><ul><li>-They are very Poor swimmers because they rarely use their tails. </li></ul><ul><li>-They Eat shell invertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>& sea urchins </li></ul><ul><li>-They also have the name </li></ul><ul><li>trigger fish because of a </li></ul><ul><li>dorsal fin which they can </li></ul><ul><li>erect to keep them in place. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Plankton Eaters There are many fish that feed on plankton. They include damselfish, wrasses, and groupers, just to name a few. Damselfish wrasses wrasses Groupers
  38. 39. There are also herbivore, invertebrate, omnivore, and piscivores fish. Herbivore fish Invertebrate fish Omnivore fish Piscivores fish
  39. 40. Echinoderms Are a group of animals that include starfish, urchins, feather stars, and sea cucumbers. Starfish Flaming sea urchin Feather stars Sea urchins Sea Cucumber
  40. 41. Echinoderms <ul><li>CHARACTERISTICS: </li></ul><ul><li>spiny, rough skin </li></ul><ul><li>radial symmetry (based on a circle) </li></ul><ul><li>water vascular system (used for suction) </li></ul><ul><li>not segmented </li></ul><ul><li>Simple animals that lack a brain and complex sensing organs </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>starfish </li></ul><ul><li>Sea urchins </li></ul><ul><li>Sand dollars </li></ul><ul><li>brittle sea stars </li></ul><ul><li>Sea cucumbers </li></ul>Crown of Thorns Starfish Sea Urchin
  41. 42. Flatworms Flatworms are the simplest of worm groups. There are about 20,000 species in this group. They are bilateral, have an eyespot, have a simple nervous system, and have no internal body cavity. They can be free living or parasitic.
  42. 43. Christmas Tree Worm <ul><li>They can grow up to 3 cm tall. </li></ul><ul><li>They grow in </li></ul><ul><li>large colonies on </li></ul><ul><li>Porites coral. </li></ul><ul><li>-They are very </li></ul><ul><li>sensitive to light and </li></ul><ul><li>pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>- They will retract into their tubes when bothered. </li></ul>
  43. 45. Background <ul><li>Coral Reefs are extremely sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>They are affected by 2 main causes: Natural Disturbances (forces of nature) and Anthropogenic Disturbances (caused by humans) </li></ul>
  44. 46. Coral Reef Threats <ul><li>Water Pollution-Petroleum products and  chemicals are lethal to Coral Reefs. Raw sewage is dumped into the sea, bringing an overload of nutrients; algae take over the reefs, blotting out the sunlight corals need to live. </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing with explosives or cyanide-In depleted fisheries, people resort to desperate tactics to catch the fish that remain—one of those is dynamite. The explosions send dead fish to the surface and destroy living reefs. </li></ul>
  45. 47. Sedimentation, Construction along coasts, mining, farming, and logging of Rainforests cause soil run off which smothers coral reefs blocking sunlight that it needs to survive. Dangerous
  46. 48. <ul><li>Human-caused, or anthropogenic activities are major threats to coral reefs. Pollution, overfishing, destructive fishing practices using dynamite or cyanide, collecting live corals for the aquarium market and mining coral for building materials are some of the many ways that people damage reefs all around the world every day.  </li></ul>Anthropogenic Threats to Corals
  47. 49. <ul><li>27 % of world’s coral reefs lost in 2000 (1998 coral bleaching alone destroyed 16 % of reefs, half will never recover); </li></ul><ul><li>32 % in critical stage or threatened. </li></ul>Reefs are disappearing fast
  48. 50. <ul><li>Or Acanthaster planci is a large star fish that eats coral. </li></ul><ul><li>Many other gastropods and fish have been known to destroy coral reefs, but not to the extent of the Crown of Thorns. </li></ul>Crown of Thorns
  49. 51. <ul><li>One of the most significant threats to reefs is pollution. Land-based runoff and pollutant discharges can result from dredging, coastal development, agricultural and deforestation activities, and sewage treatment plant operations. This runoff may contain sediments, nutrients, chemicals, insecticides, oil, and debris. </li></ul>
  50. 52. Ways to Help? <ul><li>Do not use chemically enhanced fertilizers or pesticides. </li></ul><ul><li>Be educated about the types of animals that live in and around coral reefs </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve Water </li></ul><ul><li>Do not pollute </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle </li></ul><ul><li>Dive, but DON’T TOUCH! </li></ul><ul><li>Spread the word! </li></ul>
  51. 53. The End
  52. 54. Presentation by Honors Biology Class <ul><li>Farah Ashraf </li></ul><ul><li>Jule Carr </li></ul><ul><li>Tory Dann </li></ul><ul><li>Bekah Farrar </li></ul><ul><li>Gillian Green </li></ul><ul><li>Stephanie Haddad </li></ul><ul><li>Joelle Luongo </li></ul><ul><li>Alex Ruh </li></ul><ul><li>Jillian Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Iana Spann </li></ul><ul><li>Kyrie Vermette </li></ul><ul><li>Kate Yeksigian </li></ul><ul><li>Special effects by Farah Ashraf </li></ul>