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09 The Information Super Highway Lesson


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09 The Information Super Highway Lesson

  1. 1. The Information Super Highway Buckle Up !!
  2. 2. Let’s go ! <ul><li>Sometimes referred to as the Information Superhighway, The Internet is a super-network. It connects many smaller networks together and allows all the computers to exchange information with each other. No one network or computer is essential to the operation of the whole. </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet is the transport vehicle for the information stored in files or documents on millions of computers. It is not the information itself. Think of it as the connecting wire. It is a misstatement to say a &quot;document was found on the Internet.&quot; It would be more correct to say it was &quot;found USING the Internet.&quot; It was found in one of the many computers connected to the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet has the potential to change society completely within the next few years. It is such an important new advance that we must understand at least the basic structures and tools it provides. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Internet is transitory, ever changing, reshaping and remolding itself. <ul><li>There are an estimated 800 million users worldwide in 2004 (Source: CyberAtlas ) </li></ul><ul><li>Over 200 million U.S. residents (or 3/4 of the U.S. population) now have access to the internet at home. This 74.9% is up from 66% in 2003 (March 18, 2004 Nielsen) </li></ul>Source: NUA Internet Surveys The Internet is not controlled or regulated by any public, governmental, private or corporate agency worldwide. The single largest telecommunications system ever conceived by humankind Remarkable growth rate
  4. 4. A Hierarchy of Networks <ul><li>The Internet is a global collection of networks, both big and small. These networks connect together in many different ways to form the single entity that we know as the Internet . In fact, the very name comes from this idea of interconnected networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Every computer that is connected to the Internet is part of a network, even the one in your home. For example, you may use a modem and dial a local number to connect to an Internet Service Provider (ISP), like AOL or CompuServe. At school, you are part of a local area network (LAN), but you still connect to the Internet using an ISP that the school has contracted with. When you connect to your ISP, you become part of their network. The ISP may then connect to a larger network and become part of their network. The Internet is simply a network of networks. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sem’s Network Your Lab Computer is part of the Sem Network The Sem network connects to the BISSNET network Bissnet (Buffalo Independent Secondary School Network) connects to our ISP PREMCOM <ul><li>Premcom </li></ul><ul><li>World </li></ul>Park School Mt. St. Mary’s Nichols Holy Angels Premcom hosts many networks like ours and sends us out to the world! <ul><li>BISSNET </li></ul><ul><li>Sem </li></ul>
  6. 6. Routers <ul><li>All of these networks rely on NAPs, backbones and routers to talk to each other. What is incredible about this process is that a message can leave one computer and travel halfway across the world through several different networks and arrive at another computer in a fraction of a second! </li></ul><ul><li>A router connects networks together, controlling the routing of information from source to destination and providing alternate paths when necessary. Routers send your messages and those of every other Internet user speeding to their destinations along thousands of pathways. It also protects the networks from one another, preventing the traffic on one from unnecessarily spilling over to the other. Since the Internet is one huge network made up of tens of thousands of smaller networks, its use of routers is an absolute necessity. </li></ul>
  7. 7. NAPS <ul><li>A Network Access Point is one of several major Internet interconnection points in the United States that serve to tie all the Internet access providers together. NAPs were created and supported by the National Science Foundation as part of the transition from the original U.S. government-financed Internet to a commercially operated Internet. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Backbones <ul><li>The National Science Foundation (NSF) created the first high-speed backbone in 1987. Called NSFNET , it was a high speed line that connected 170 smaller networks together. Backbones are typically fiber optic trunk lines. The trunk line has multiple fiber optic cables combined together to increase the capacity. Today there are many companies that operate their own high-capacity backbones, and all of them interconnect at various NAPs around the world. In this way, everyone on the Internet, no matter where they are and what company they use, is able to talk to everyone else on the planet. The entire Internet is a gigantic, sprawling agreement between companies to intercommunicate freely. </li></ul>
  9. 9. For visual learners ! CompuServe Home computers Home computers BACKBONE Premcom A O L Huge Corporation Big University N A P BISSNET SEM N A P router router router router router router router
  10. 10. Protocols <ul><li>Protocols are agreed-upon methods of communications used by computers. A specification that describes the rules and procedures that products should follow to perform activities on a network, such as transmitting data. If they use the same protocols, products from different vendors should be able to communicate on the same network. </li></ul><ul><li>Some common protocols include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/Internet protocol)--the standard piece of software that allows your computer to link up with other computers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol is Internet networking software that controls the transmission of packets(units) of data over the internet. Among its tasks, TCP checks for lost packets, puts the data from multiple packets into the correct order, and requests that missing or damaged packets be resent. Computers must run TCP to communicate with world wide web servers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol, the most basic protocol to communicate on the Internet. An IP number is a numerical address consisting of four numbers separated by periods. Each IP address uniquely identifies a certain computer on the Internet. The domain name is used to make using them easier. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POP (Post Office Protocol)--for accessing Internet e-mail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FTP (File Transfer Protocol)--for sending files from one computer to another over the Internet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext Transfer Protocol specifies the rules for communication between World Wide Web servers and browsers. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Can I get your name and number? <ul><li>I P (Internet Protocol) Addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number,like a phone number called an IP Address . The IP stands for Internet Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A typical IP address looks like this: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A server has a static IP address that does not change very often. A home machine that is dialing up through a modem, on the other hand, typically has an IP address assigned by the ISP every time you dial in. That IP address is unique for your session -- it may be different the next time you dial in. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Domain Name System is a system of mapping names to IP addresses. Because domain names are alphabetic, they're easier for humans to remember. The Internet, however, is really based on IP addresses. Every time you use a domain name, DNS translates the name into the corresponding IP address. It is a “phonebook” for the Internet. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Domain Name <ul><li>Domain names provide a system of easy-to-remember Internet addresses, which can be translated by the Domain Name System (DNS) into the numeric addresses (Internet Protocol (IP) numbers) used by the network </li></ul><ul><li>This is the unique name that identifies an Internet site. A given machine may have more than one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Names always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The first part of the name is usually descriptive of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>The second part is based on whether the domain belongs to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a commercial enterprise (.com) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>higher educational establishment (.edu) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a government body (.gov) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the military (.mil) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a network (.net) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a nonprofit organization (.org) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a geographical notation (such as the San Francisco, California-based well. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our Domain name is </li></ul>
  13. 13. URL <ul><li>The URL is what you type into your browser to get to a specific website </li></ul><ul><li>Each individual page on each website has an address, or Uniform Resource Locator (URL).  The URL is the roadmap that is read by the browser. </li></ul><ul><li>The beginning of the URL contains the protocol.  This is usually &quot;http&quot; (Hypertext Transfer Protocol).  The second section of the URL is the domain. Lastly is the name of the document.  </li></ul><ul><li>Most browsers will assume the protocol info and even the www. To get to the Sem Website from Internet Explorer, all you have to type is “” </li></ul><ul><li>Once the browser takes you to the Sem website, you will see that the complete address in the browser is: </li></ul> protocol web Domain name and type Name of the homepage of the website
  14. 14. email <ul><li>E-mail , or email , is short for &quot;electronic mail&quot; (as opposed to conventional mail, in this context also called snail mail) and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Mail (email) is the most frequently used application of the Internet . Many people who have access to the Internet at school, home, and work, use the Internet for no other purpose than to send and receive email. </li></ul><ul><li>It's all very easy. You create the message, log onto the Internet, and send it. The message first goes to your Internet Service Provider's mail server, which in turn sends it to the recipient's mail server. On the way your message may go through several servers, each reading the domain name in order to route it to the appropriate server. </li></ul><ul><li>The message then remains in the recipient's mail server until he requests it by &quot;checking his mail.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Each email address you send is made up of certain components that help route it to the proper recipient: </li></ul>An e-mail address is always in the form jsmith@domain.extension. It should be read as &quot;jsmith at domain dot extension&quot;. The part before the @ sign is the local part of the address, often the username of the recipient, and the part after the @ sign is a domain name. my email address
  15. 15. Clients and Servers <ul><li>Internet servers make the Internet possible. All of the machines on the Internet are either servers or clients . The machines that provide services to other machines are servers. And the machines that are used to connect to those services are clients. There are Web servers, e-mail servers, FTP servers and so on serving the needs of Internet users all over the world. When you connect to a website to read a page, you are a user sitting at a client machine. You are accessing that websites Web server. The server machine finds the page you requested and sends it to you. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The World Wide Web <ul><li>The World Wide Web (or Web) is the graphical, point and click part of the Internet. It is a collection of electronic documents, or &quot;pages,&quot; that can be viewed on your computer using a Web browser, such as Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer. Although many people think of the World Wide Web and the Internet as the same thing, the Web is actually only part of the Internet. Web documents are formatted in a language called HTML (HyperText Markup Language) that supports links to other documents, as well as graphics, audio, and video files. This means you can jump from one document to another simply by clicking on hot spots. This is one of the features that makes the web so unique and revolutionary. The Web is the fastest growing portion of the Internet and the most familiar part to most people. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Networks, routers, NAPs, ISPs, DNS and powerful servers all make the Internet possible. It is truly amazing when you realize that all this information is sent around the world in a matter of milliseconds! The components are extremely important in modern life -- without them, there would be no Internet. And without the Internet, life would be very different indeed for many of us. </li></ul>