Educate Your Life.
Volume 1, Issue 1
Educate Your Life.
The Future of Children
Learn All About
The Consequences Of
Get Rid of that Clutter!
Find Your Power
October 2008 $3.50
Saving the Environment
One brown bag at a time. One plastic
bottle at a time.
Go to www.werecycle.com for more ideas
VOLUME 1, ISSUE 1 PAGE 3
Table of contents
Editor’s Letter………………………………………………………… 5
Reader Mail…………………………………………………………… 6
Daily Prizes Calendar…………………………………………… 7
How Do We Think? by Kevin Morley…………………………… 8
Quick & Easy Comfort Food………………………………… 11
Psychosocial Development by Debbie Higgins………… 12
Youth and Morality by Nicole Kincaid……………………… 13
What Do Kids Want To Be? by Kim Desando…………… 18
Frightfully Delicious Recipe…………………………………… 20
Find Your Power At Work by Anna Davies……………… 21
Inclusive Eduation by Alexia Serlis…………………………… 22
Most Popular Halloween Costumes……………………. 24
Extrinsic Eddie by Blair Thallmayer…………………………… 25
Handbook: The Hard Stuff……………………………………. 28
VOLUME 1, ISSUE 1 PAGE 29
Handbook– the hard stuff continueD...
I am a first year female science teacher in a
e d u c at e yo u r l i f e. private high school. At the beginning of the
school year, I was surprised to see only 3 female stu- The first thing we need to ask ourselves is why do gender-based differ-
Editor-in-Chief Blair Thallmayer ences exist? There are the obvious physical differences, but there are
dents out of 24 in my honors physics class. When I
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- social and developmental differences as well. Because of these, boys
questioned this, I was assured that the girls were either
Cognitive Development Director Kevin Morley and girls are often treated differently by parents, teachers, and friends. This
not interested or did not have the the grades to get
Psychosocial Development Director Debbie Higgins later shapes who they become.
into the course. I later learned that many of my stu-
Moral Development Director Nicole Kincaid dents had the grades, but were discouraged by teach- Schools have a great impact on gender-role identities because of teacher-
Theories of Intelligences Director Kim Desando ers or parents who warned that the class would be too student interaction and overall gender based expectations. During a history
Diversity Director Alexia Serlis lesson, for example, students learn that most of the explorers and warriors were
difficult for them. This is very upsetting to me. How
men. In English they read about the adventurous Tom Sawyer and other male
Special Education Director Alexia Serlis should I respond?
stereotypes. The females they read about tend to be more sensitive and nurtur-
Motivational Director Blair Thallmayer
ing. Further, research shows that females score higher on tests that measure
verbal ability, while boys excel in the area of visual imagery. These results gen-
Art erate expectations for what girls and boys are able to better accomplish as a
Art Director & Digital Imaging Specialist Blair Thallmayer gender.
Associate Art Editors Kevin Morley, Debbie Higgins, & Nicole Kincaid While you may feel powerless as a first year teacher, you certainly are not.
Assistant Art Editors Kim Desando, Alexia Serlis You have an enormous amount of influence in your classroom, and you may be
surprised to realize how powerful a role model you are. Use yourself as an ex-
Photography ample of a woman who has excelled in the field of science, and has attained
employment in a reputable school. Also, in an effort to bring awareness to your
Photo Director & Editor Blair Thallmayer
students about the topic of gender bias: 1) Have students define and discuss
Associate Photo Editors Kim Desando, Alexia Serlis
gender bias. Have them share issues of concern. 2) Eliminate gender bias in all
Assistant Photo Editors Kevin Morley, Debbie Higgins, & Nicole Kincaid your classroom activities. Don't only ask the boys to help you lift something.
Don't only choose girls to write something neatly on the board. Call on boys
Research/Copy/Operations and girls equally. 3) Make sure students learn about both male and female
Editorial Manager Blair Thallmayer scientists who have been a credit to their field. 4) Discuss gender stereotyping
with teachers, counselors, and parents.
Senior Research Editors Alexia Serlis & Kevin Morley
Associate Research Editors Kim Desando, Debbie Higgins, & Nicole Kincaid One Final Note
Due to genetic differences, boys and girls behave, and sometimes learn, differ-
Online ently in the classroom. However, because of gender bias, research shows that
Web Editor Briana Mowrey some schools are failing to meet the needs of both sexes. While girls fall behind
in math and science, boys lag in reading and writing. Schools should not allow
gender expectations to assign limits to students that prevent them from meet-
ing their potential.
Eggen, Paul D., Kauchak, Don. (2007). Educational psychology: windows on classrooms (7th ed.
NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
VOLUME 1, ISSUE 1 PAGE 28 PAGE 5
Handbook– the hard stuff
Let EdBook’s Alexia Serlis answer your toughest
questions on classroom diver sity. Editor’s letter
The Best Health that many children still believe
“is just what love looks like some-
Usually when someone talks
times.” “Love should never hurt.
I am a sixth grade elementary school teacher about making “healthy choices,”
Love should never make you
with 3 years of teaching experience. Over those past in their life, they are referring to
afraid. And I hope that this will
what he/she decided to eat for
years I have had students who struggled with the get you thinking– and talking–
lunch that day. And it’s true that
curriculum, but this year I have a student I can't fig- I turn to two giants in the field of intelligence to help solve this issue: Howard Gard- so that all of us can reach out
nutrition is a huge part of our
ure out. “John” is a happy, popular boy who does ner and Robert Sternberg. You say that John is a bright student who had been ex- and help any child who finds
overall wellness picture. But
well in all of his subjects, especially Language Arts celling in all of his subjects prior to this year when he began exhibiting problems in themselves on the downside of
healthy choices are also about
and social studies. According to his fourth and fifth math. You further discuss John's obvious lack of focus once the math lesson begins. It could a slippery slope and wondering
the people we choose to sur-
grade teachers, he was also quite good in mathemat- be that the subject content has become more challenging this year and the math lessons
how life got so hard. We all
round ourselves with. October is
need to draw that line in the
ics. Whenever I begin a math lesson, however, he need to appeal to John's strengths. You stated that John does particularly well in Language National Domestic Violence
sand– together– to say that
completely loses focus. I have even reprimanded Arts, so his strength lies within the linguistic dimension. Awareness Month, and as we do
abuse of any kind is not okay,
him for poor behavior during these times. When I While there are those who view intelligence as the ability to acquire knowledge, solve each year at this time, EDBOOK
and to embolden students to
speak to John about is declining scores, he also problems, and think and reason in the abstract, Gardner believed that intelligence is divided
is peeling away another layer in
reach out for the help that is all
the complicated conversation
seems confused as to why his performance in this into eight separate dimensions: Linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily- around them.
kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. This is important for teachers be-
around abuse in child abuse.
subject has changed.
This is what we do: stand up for
cause they need to realize that all students have different strengths and weaknesses, there- We all know by now that being
Any suggestions? others. Let’s all celebrate how
fore there cannot be a one size fits all lesson plan or unit. hit is abuse and that it is not ac-
lucky we are to be able to be
ceptable, and we know as well
Teachers should try to touch on as many intelligences as possible in each lesson. For exam- strong for the people we love
that walking away from an abu-
ple, when presenting a math lesson you might think, “How can I get students to talk or write when they can’t be strong for
sive relationship is a challenging
about this idea or problem?” themselves.
process that requires a lot of
Robert Sternberg Triarchic Theory differed from Gardner's because of the emphasis on support. There is a whole range Adopted from Stacy Morrison.
functioning effectively in the real world. The components of his theory are as follows: 1) of emotional abuse, however,
Analytical (componential) dimension: A traditional component that it is used in thinking and
problem-solving. 2) Creative (experiential) dimension: The ability to deal with new and
more familiar situations effectively. 3) Practical (contextual) dimension): Dealing effectively
with everyday tasks; adapting to or choosing a better environment.
Sternberg views intelligence as being able to function well in all aspects of life. In other E d b o o k o n to u r
words, the real measure of success is whether or not John can use what he's being taught
At last we can bring EDBOOK to you! Join us SEE YOU THERE!
outside of the classroom.
at the first stops on our Educate Your Life tour Garden City, NY Roosevelt Field
With this is mind, math assignments may include a creative or practical component. For in malls near you for classroom tips and tricks, Saturday, Nov.8 10 to 6 p.m.
example, instead of analyzing fractions, students might have the creative option of writing special guests, editor appearances, and lots of
word problems that measure their understanding of fractions. Or, to apply practical think- great information to help you live a healthier Schaumburg, IL Woodfield Mall
Saturday, Nov. 15 10 to 6 p.m.
ing to the lesson, ask students how we use fractions in our everyday lives. life. Plus, there’ll be prizes and giveaways at
One Final Note every event! As a EDBOOK reader, you are
Thousand Oaks, CA The Oaks
All students have different learning styles. They problem-solve, process information, and
entitled to a special all-access pass. Go to ed- Saturday, Nov. 22 10 to 6 p.m.
approach learning differently. It is important to focus on a student's strengths, not their
bookmag.com/educateyourlifetour for more infor-
weaknesses when designing lesson plans. If teachers vary instruction to meet the needs of mation and additional dates. Frisco, TX Stonebriar Centre
all students, not only will they keep them interested, they will get them learning. Saturday, Nov. 29 10.to 6 p.m.
POWER OF PLAY! Photo Credit: Ann Marie Kurtz/iStock
• Thank you for “How to Let Kids Be • Kudos to Judith Newman! I • I was so happy to read your article
Kids!” It completely took away my couldn’t agree more with her “How to Let Kids Be Kids.” I have
guilt of not involving my two sentiments about the importance been saying for years that parents
daughters in activities unit they of play in “How to Let Kids Be are too concerned about what
drop from exhaustion! I’m a stay-at- Kids.” My kids have taught me their kids know before they even
home mom, and I spend every day that while Mom might think bal- get to school. As a mother of seven,
with my girls. We play outdoor let lessons are great, it’s more fun and educator, I know how quickly
games to keep them occupied (and less expensive, less stressful, they grow up. My kids play sports,
when we aren't’ gymnastics (once but not more than one per season.
less exhausting) to head to the
a week) or the library. When my During the summer, we are lazy.
park to feed the ducks, try to
husband and I decided to take the We don’t do summer camps, and if
plunge into parenthood, we signed
catch the minnows, and then we have to miss a sporting event,
up for the whole package, even if it meander over to the candy shop we miss it. I know parents who
meant not having much time for to spend a couple of dollars on have their kids signed up for extra-
ourselves. We prefer to spend qual- some exotic gummy centipedes. I curricular activities by age 2, and
ity time with our kids now, before now know that my daughter will they are testing them from the time
they decide they don’t want to tell me when she truly has a pas- they are infants! They grow up fast,
spend time with us, which I’m sure sion to learn something that in- and we adults know how compli-
will happen sooner than we real- volves lessons. Rose Ricci, Pahoa, cated life gets when they get older.
ize! Barb Peck Prospect, CT HI Let them enjoy being kids while
they can. Sara Povich St. Charles,
B r avo, b l o g s K e e p i n g fa i t h
• I was flipping through your • In the past issue, you had an article Ed-Hot Topic!
magazine when I came across titled “Money Makeover.” It disap-
“Be the Author of Your Life.” I points me that you would run an We asked
skimmed the pages looking article encouraging people to cut
for the typical names and back on their library tithes to pay EDBOOK
faces that usually make a blog- their credit cards off sooner. There
ging news story, and the mis- are many other places that people readers...
information that educator- spend unnecessarily that could be
bloggin. Surprisingly, I found
cut without our giving to books. I’m
nothing of the sort. What I
not an expert on this, but I think
found were some well-written
introductions of educator
EDBOOK should be encouraging
bloggers of all kinds. It was so them to figure out where the miss-
refreshing to see a story focus- ing $300 is being spend each
month. Chances are this is where What gets you
ing on the community and
diversity of blogging. Marty they could cut back. Patsy Dean out of bed in
Long Raleigh, NJ Hamilton, GA
Here’s what more
than 700 of you said:
50% The Alarm
15% Your To-Do List
Tell us what you’re thinking! 13% Your Kids
Email email@example.com, or write to us at: EDBOOK Mail, 300 W. 57th
St. New York, NY 10019. Letters may be edited for clarity and length. 9% The Coffeemaker
VOLUME 1, ISSUE 1 PAGE 7
Extrinsic eddie continue...
L O G O N E V E RY DAY AT E D B O O K M AG. C O M / W I N I T F O R T H E C H A N C E
I failed in my attempts to motivate him intrinsically, and
instead of using other methods of intrinsic motivation, I
TO W I N M O R E T H A N $ 1 4 , 3 1 7 WO RT H O F F R E E S T U F F.
turned to extrinsic motivation. While this might sound
evil or wrong like selling your soul to the devil, it was poor
in judgment on my part for a couple of reasons. First, I
was using a different style of motivation with him than Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
the rest of the class, and secondly, extrinsic motivation
only motivated him to seek rewards, not necessarily learn
more. This is usually the biggest criticism of extrinsic 1 2 3 4
motivation, in that it sends the wrong message to stu-
dents about learning. It might be more acceptable in high
Portable Party October 1-5 40 Readers (8 per day)
school and college, when students are more developed and will each win an iHM8 portable music system with
mature, but using extrinsic motivation at such an early age
The color-coded pink fashion cover from ihomeaudio.com Value of
can give students the wrong idea about education. calendar tells you each, $40.
I started by rewarding Eddie with gold stars for correct 5
which prizes are
6 7 8 9 10 11
answers, with the idea that if he reached ten stars in a offered on which Heavenly Scent October 6-10
week, he would earn five extra points on our next test or days.
activity. This really worked to motivate him, but it was 25 readers (5 per day) will each win Vera
not until a few months later that I realized I was com- The problem came to its end when I questioned him after class one Wang Bouquet perfume. Value of each, $67.
pletely wrong. Instead of attempting to better himself, day about why he was only doing well on tests or activities or work
he attempted to earn more stars. While this may be good where he could earn rewards. His response was: “because I won’t
in the short run, it is not good for his future as a student. get anything if I do good.” This blew me away. Deep down, I knew 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
During group work, when no reward could be earned out- that I had failed him as a teacher by sending the wrong message AC Moore Shopping Spree October 11-14 Pamper Rack October 15– 20 6 readers will each
side of the pride of getting a good grade, he fell back into with extrinsic motivation, but I got so addicted to helping him do win Nu Skin Galvanic Spa System II EX, which in-
16 readers (4 per day) will each win a shopping cludes the Galvanic Spa System II EX Instrument,
that lack of motivation. I also think this happened be- well that I could not see how wrong I had been. It took him ex-
spree to AC Moore Arts & Crafts Store. Value of cleansing lotion, facial and body shaping gels, and a
cause the other members of his group dominated the dis- plaining it right to me for me to realize my experiment with ex-
set, $100. hair fitness treatment. Value of set, $455.
cussions or research, so he felt he did not need to do any trinsic motivation needed to stop. I should have made more at-
work. Add in that he was not going to get any reward and tempts at intrinsic motivation and done everything possible on that
there were no positives that would make him want to do end before jumping to the other side. I could have incorporated 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
well. problem-based learning into the curriculum, personalized projects, Heartfelt Message October 21-25 10 readers (2
or spruced up lesson plans to better reflect the current culture of per day) will each win the Mother of All Baskets
movies, music, and news rather than forcing myself to succeed in gift basket from sandramagsamen.com. Value
motivating him. of set, $250.
Eddie ended up passing with a generous C grade but he still lacked
motivation upon leaving my classroom. Perhaps another teacher 26 27 28 29 30 21
can succeed where I failed. I should have worked harder to find Toteworthy October 27- 31
the reason behind his motivation to fail and worked to help him get
20 readers (4 per day) will each
past the excuse. This way, with him aware of the situation, we
win a Vera Bradley tote bag.
could work together to create a solution. Perhaps my obsession Value of each, $100.
with motivating him was an example of a growth need, a need to
motivate that grows and expands with experience. Extrinsic moti- Nick Nights October 26
vation sends students the wrong message about learning and is 1 reader will win a 4-day, 3-night trip for 4 to Nick-
pretty similar to giving a dog a treat every time it does a trick. elodeon Family Suites in Orlando, FL, from travle-
The good thing about mistakes is that we can learn from them and muse.com and nickhotel.com. Suite accommoda-
tions and breakfast included. 2 ($300) airfare
Eddie Heffelfinger’s lack of motivation taught me to now work
vouchers will be provided. Total retail value,
harder at motivating students with a sense of accomplishment $1,700.
rather than gold stars or taking the easy way out.
PAGE 8 VOLUME 1, ISSUE 1 PAGE 25
How do we think?
An introspective look at cognitive development through the eyes of Piaget.
By Kevin Morley
Cognitive development can be the material is too complicated or if should try to connect material to
viewed as the orderly and durable comparisons, and similarities in previously mastered concepts. If My being enthusiastic and supportive, I believed, would help Eddie be
changes a learner experiences in construct and sound cannot be the student can relate they can as- more enthusiastic and interested in learning. I also hoped it would
their development. These changes identified the learner cannot estab- similate material into pre-existing help him realize that my job is to help him, not prevent him from
are generally the result of learning, lish a comfort level and will become pathways. If the material is outside learning. My next idea involved showing Eddie examples of problems
experience and maturation. The frustrated and confused. of previous understanding, the stu- on previous tests or activities that he got right, in an attempt to re-
entire development process tends to dent will be trying to form new visit past success to hopefully springboard him to future success. A
be continuous and relatively or- schemes and looking for ways to lot of times, students feel they are not smart and so everything they
derly. That does not negate the fact Several aspects of the process of cognitively connect the material try to do seems much harder than if they had confidence or motiva-
that it also shows great interde- developing and maintaining equi- and the teacher should be suppor- tion to do well. By showing him past success, I hoped that he would
pendence as new experiences build librium are schemes, organization tive in this process. If the material understand it is very possible for him to get good grades.
on previously mastered ones. Rates and adaptation. Schemes are useful varies too much from current
of development vary among learn- in establishing equilibrium because knowledge, the learner will be inca- None of this worked, and I let it get the best of me. Despite teaching
ers. people restructure their experiences pable of linking it to prior knowl- in a small classroom, where nine other students all showed motivation
into coherent patterns. These men- edge. In this case mastery is then and succeeded, the one student that I could not connect to bothered
tal patterns, operations and systems overlooked as the learner discards me more than the success of the others made me happy. All of my
Observations made by Jean Piaget are the basis for understanding the the information in an order to attempts to motivate Eddie were examples of intrinsic motivation, the
(1896-1990) were typically very world. Organization of these maintain equilibrium. type highly suggested by professionals, where the goal is to instill a
small scale. While Piaget developed schemes is a process by which the sense of accomplishment in the student, meaning that he would work
many of his methods and findings brain orders and arranges schemes hard so that he could get a good grade and be proud of the work he
studying his own children and in that are similarly related. Adapta- What benefit then is there to a put in. It seems that Eddie was actually motivated, but motivated to
fields that, at the time, were tion is a two pronged process of ad- teacher who understands and ap- fail, based on the struggles he had gone through leading up to this
thought to have little to do with justing schemes and experiences to plies Piaget’s stages of development past year. This isn’t a type of motivation that Eddie was aware he
education, his writings became each other in order to maintain to teaching and learning? The had, but it was dragging him down, so not only did I need him to not be
hugely influential on the American equilibrium. The first of these is teacher will be able to provide stim- negatively motivated, but I needed him to be the complete opposite,
educational system (1). He also accommodation, where an existing uli that target the learner. While
developed and defined several scheme is modified and a new one learners will vary greatly in their Extrinsic eddie motivated to succeed.
stages of development to help guide is created in response to an experi- stages of development, they do not
his research. Widely accepted and ence. Simulation is the other side of skip steps within the process (1). By Blair Thallmayer
studied, Piaget’s stages of Sensori- the same coin. In assimilation an They do not progress form sensori- Motivating students is one of the toughest parts of being a teacher.
motor (zero to 2 years), Preopera- experience is incorporated into a motor to concrete operational and From the outside, our job looks relatively simple: make the children
tional (two to seven years), Con- previously developed scheme. The skip preoperational. Similarly, a understand the material so they can get smarter. Unfortunately,
crete Operational (seven to eleven new information enhances the al- formal operational learner in math teaching is not that easy, and “making kids smarter” is really only pos-
years) and Formal Operational may only be at the concrete opera- sible if they truly want to get smarter. This does not mean that
(eleven to adult) have been a benefi- tional level in English. Mastery
someone without motivation cannot eventually learn to be motivated or
cial way to understand how children Educators need to be within the organization of schemes,
have a desire to learn, but that when they have no desire or motiva-
use information to describe the cognizant of the and corresponding advancement in
intellectual tion to learn, most of what is taught will go in one ear and out the
world around them (1). environment they are stages, are linked and can be spe-
creating for the
student. Too much
cialized. This can be seen on a more
imbalance will general scale when viewing social Eddie Heffelfinger was a student of mine in the third grade that
One of the elementary aspects of frustrate the student behavior in addition to intellectual lacked motivation to succeed in the classroom and improve his knowl-
and likely cause them
Piaget’s work is the learner’s sense to shut down all success. Mastery in one does not edge. I called upon my school training and experience in the class-
of equilibrium. As defined by Pia- learning to release the mandate success in the other. room, remembering that there are many ways to motivate students
anxiety they are
get, equilibrium is the act of search- experiencing. intrinsically, which is the style of motivation recommended by most
ing for order and balance. In the professionals. I created a supportive learning environment where I
learning environment, new experi- developed strong communication with the students, always giving and
ences are a form of dis-equilibrium ready present scheme and furthers Thus educators should
getting feedback. I thought this would help build his confidence be-
and the learner tries to establish understanding with regard to the emphasize learning that
cause, after years of doing poorly on tests and activities, it is very
some form of familiarity with the proceeds from what the
experience. student already likely a student will convince himself that he is dumber. This learning
experiences so that they (the understands and disrupts environment, I thought, would help him not be afraid to speak up out
learner) are more comfortable. In equilibrium enough to be of fear that he might be wrong.
reading, new words are compared Proceeding from an understanding motivating but not
to words already mastered. When of what this means the teacher overwhelming.
PAGE 24 VOLUME 1, ISSUE 1 PAGE 9
Piaget & the 4 stages
By Kevin Morley
Most popular kids Halloween costumes There are four stages of development
The top-selling children’s Halloween costumes. Data courtesy of National Retail Federations. defined by Piaget. These are Sensorimotor
(zero to 2 years), Preoperational (two to seven
years), Concrete Operational (seven to eleven
Princess Spiderman Pirate Witch Fairy years) and Formal Operational (eleven to
adult). Within the definitions for these four
stages, lie integral components that work to de-
fine how children process information and
In the first stage of sensory motor, chil-
dren rely heavily on their ability to use their
senses. Additionally, children are also reliant
on mastery of basic motor functions to help in- The fourth and final stage is formal opera-
terpret and understand their environment. tional. This stage is principally defined by the stu-
Learning is largely dependent on a very physi- dent’s ability to examine abstract perspectives and
cal interaction with the world around them. problems. This analysis is often systematic even
Furthermore, there is little mental permanence though conclusions may be generalized. Addition-
to items. When these objects leave the sensory ally, students begin to become familiar with both de-
range they are no longer relevant. As the stage ductive and hypothetical forms of reasoning. These
closes however, these items begin to gain per- higher forms of analysis allow children to explore
manence as they become represented in mem- much more of their environment as they begin to un-
Princess Star Wars Pumpkin Ghost Power Ranger ory. derstand concepts and their interactions with one
As the learner develops and moves into stage
two, preoperational, a rapid improvement in In next week’s issue we delve into the work of
linguistic ability is witnessed. Furthermore, Lev Vygotsky. Lev viewed learning and the develop-
symbolic thought becomes a key avenue of ment process from the perspective of children as in-
communication as children begin to recognize dividuals. His arguments of social interaction and
the difference between “cat” and “dog”. Their cultural significance will be explored following the
learning moves from items that need to be held guiding questions:
and tasted to objects that they merely see out • Why are his concepts of social interaction and
the car window as they travel to grand mom’s cultural awareness important concepts to human
During the concrete operational stage a child • Why is language development so important to
can operate logically with concrete (seen or ma- learning?
nipulated physically) materials. They can also • What role does activity play in reinforcing learn-
classify and serially order objects based on in- ing?
creasing or decreasing volume. This concrete
thinking extends to other forms of measure- • Are classrooms friendly environments to free
Monster Vampire Athlete Batman Wildcat speech?
ment as well. Children will also begin to clas-
sify objects based on similar characteristics. • How can guided practice and cooperative learn-
These ideas are all tied to concepts that have ing influence the zone of proximal development
already been learned and new
• How does a teachers’ understanding of the zone
experiences are worked into ex-
isting paradigms. of proximal development help when working with
students of different abilities?
Join us for part two of our three part series to un-
cover the mystery of human cognitive development.
PAGE 10 VOLUME 1, ISSUE 1 PAGE 23
2. De-junk your classroom
EDBOOKMAG.COM/DEJUNK Inclusive education continue...
Whether your clutter is strewn across the room or
stashed in a closet, reclaim your space with expert or- ties Act of 1990, and No Child Left Be- period to collaborate. Further, she was
ganizing (and junk-pitching) advice to take charge of hind Act of 2001. ADA is a law which admittedly ill-equipped to provide her
all the stuff that’s taken over your classroom. protects individuals with disabilities from students with special needs the modifica-
being discriminated against in various tions they needed. The final and some-
arenas. NCLB is a law requiring that all times most difficult barrier to overcome is
students (including special education stu- the attitudinal barrier.
dents) pass proficiency exams in reading
It has been suggested that having a
and mathematics by 2012.
shared vision that supports inclusion is
Finally, in 2005, Gaskins vs. Pennsyl- indicative of success. Although that par-
vania Department of Education was set- ticular idea is somewhat idealistic, finding
tled following a 10 year battle. This case some common ground, and agreeing to
was significant because it required that put all students first should be a priority.
schools become more accountable to LRE Also, with education, communication, and
regardless of personal philosophies. compromise, all members of the school
Schools no longer had the option of offer- community are capable of a shift in atti-
ing a service to students with disabilities, tude. “I don't think I welcomed the other
they were required by law to do so. The teacher with open arms,” Ms. Dennis fi-
IEP teams decided whether or not a stu- nally admits. “I wanted control of my
1. Try out top 40 motivational tips dent’s IEP could be implemented in a classroom. Maybe she would have partici-
regular classroom with modifications. pated more if I'd been open to it.”
Suddenly an emphasis was placed on the
We combined through our achieve of articles for the most successful moves, welfare of the child with disabilities,
stay-close secrets and tricks to turn up the heat in your classroom. You’ll find where previously it was on the nondis- Gargiulo, R.M. (2006). Special education
the tools you need to improve your classroom’s attitude towards school. abled students in the classroom. in contemporary society (2cnd ed.). CA:
Inspiration for your classroom www.MagicalMountain.net
Overcoming Barriers to Successful Inclu- Thomson Wadsworth.
sive Practices Gold, S. (2005). Separate But Equal? NY:
Edbookmag.com In 1999 a study showed that almost 50%
of children with disabilities spent more
than 80% of their day in general educa-
Kochhar, C.A., West, L.L., & Taymans,
J.M. (2000). Successful inclusion: Practi-
Get the Most out of your life. tion classes. Almost a decade later, too
many school districts are still not provid-
cal suggestions for a shared responsibility.
Log on to edbookmag.com for hundreds of ing the necessary modifications and sup-
ports that are mandated by law. In order Pennsylvania Department of Education.
handy tips, guilty pleasures, yummy recipes, (2008). Gaskin settlement agreement-
for productive learning to take place in an
and simple solutions for your busy life. inclusive classroom, responsibilities need overview.
to be met and barriers overcome. First, Villa, R.A., & Thousand, J.S. (2003).
the student with special needs must be
4. Make an easy identified. Second, administrators and
Successful implementation requires com-
mitment, creative thinking, and effective
chicken dinner educators must put personal philosophies classroom strategies. Association for Su-
aside and make a commitment to support pervision and Curriculum Development,
inclusive practices. October.
3. Boost your mood EDBOOKMAG.COM/ In addition to meeting these key re- WWW.tesionline.com/.../
CHICKEN sponsibilities, there are several barriers cooperative_learning.jpg. Image.
EDBOOKMAG.COM/MOOD that hinder progress to inclusion. The
If there’s one no-fail, crowd first two barriers play off of one another.
Bad mood begone! We’ve and kid-pleasing dish, it’s got One is an organizational and the other is a
to be chicken! For easy
got 31 pointers that will ban- variations of the suppertime
knowledge barrier. Schools can overcome
this by providing educators with the nec-
ish stress, fatigue, and anxi- fave, log on for 80 of our essary time for teacher collaboration.
ety for a happier, healthier tastiest chicken recipes. You’ll Also, in-service days and trainings de-
never have to cook the same voted to inclusive education, and commu-
you! meal twice (unless you really nication with parents, teachers, and ad-
love it!). ministrators is beneficial. Ms. Dennis
faced both barriers when the special edu-
cation teacher stopped coming to her class
and they were not provided with another
PAGE 22 VOLUME 1, ISSUE 1 PAGE 11
Q u i c k & e a s y c o m f o rt f o o d
Inclusive education These simple satisfying suppers are so fast, you’ll Halibut with tomato, olive, and pine nut relish
Although it’s been over thirty years since Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) make them again and again: By Frank P. Melodia. Prep time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 14 minutes
was passed by congress, inclusion remains a controversial topic and a source of 3 Tbsp pine nuts 3 Tbsp extra-virgin olive oil
frustration for teachers in countless school communities.
1/2 cub each pitted kalamata 2 Tbsp chopped chervil or parsley
By Alexia Serlis and green olives, cut in silvers Freshley grounded pepper, to taste
At the beginning of her fifth year at Roosevelt High School, Ms. Dennis was told that she 1/2 cup each finely diced red 4 (1 inch thick) halibut fillets without skin
would have several special education students in each of her five 11th grade English classes. and yellow tomato
In addition, a special education teacher would work with her during those class periods to 1 small shallot, minced Flour, for dusting
ensure that each student was receiving the proper accommodations and provisions they
1 Tbsp lemon juice 1/2 Tsp kosher salt
were entitled to by law; and to help Ms. Dennis with differentiated instruction. “I was both
nervous and excited about this new experience,” explains Ms. Dennis. “On one hand I was 1. Toast pine nuts in a dry, nonstick skillet over medium heart 3
pleased that I was being provided with the help I needed to help my students, but I wasn’t Smoked Paprika-garlic Chicken to 4 minutes, tossing frequently, until lightly toasted, re-
thrilled about losing control of my classroom.” moved to a small cup. In a medium bowl, combine olives,
Prep time: 8 minutes Cooking Time: 50 minutes tomatoes, shallot, lemon zest and juice, and 1 Tbsp of the oil;
But only a few months into the school year, the whole program fell apart. The teacher toss. Stir in chervil and freshly grounded pepper.
1 1/2 Tbsp each smoked Spanish paprika (sweet or hot), sherry vinegar, &
assigned to assist Ms. Dennis did not show up consistently, and when she did, she sat in the honesty
back doing paperwork. She finally stopped coming altogether. “My administrator told me 2. Dust fillets in flour, tapping off excess; season with salt and a
that there were too many scheduling conflicts, and revisions needed to be made to the pro- 1 Tbsp garlic paste 1 Small (3-lb) chicken, cut into 8 pieces few grindings of pepper. Heat the remaining 2 Tbsp oil in a
gram. I tried my best that year, but I know those students were short-changed. What 1/2 Tsp each salt & pepper 8 Large Scallions, trimmed nonstick skillet over medium high heat; add fillets. Cook 6
could I have done? I was overwhelmed and unprepared to teach them properly. I just tried minutes, turn fillets and continue to cook 4 minutes, or until
1 Package yellow rice mix 1 Cup frozen green peas
my best.” Ms. Dennis said. Unfortunately stories like these are all too common. just barely opaque in thickest parts. Transfer to plates and
1. Heat oven to 400* F. Line a roasting pan with foil. Combine spoon relish over fillets. Garnish with pine nuts.
History of Inclusion at a Glance paprika, vinegar, honey & garlic past; brush over chicken
Makes 4 servings.
Before the civil rights movement began to gain any real momentum in the United States, pieces, then sprinkle with salt.
many people believed in the ideology “separate, but equal” when it came to public educa- Each serving: 392 cal, 25 g fat, 30 g protein, 14 g carb
2. Arrange chicken in prepared pan. Roast 30 minutes; turn
tion. This resulted in a segregated school system for many years. For countless black chicken pieces over. Add scallions to pan. Continue to roast 15
American students, this often required being transported to distant neighborhoods where
to 20 minutes, turning pieces if necessary, until chicken is
they could attend schools that were certainly less than equal than their white counterparts. browned and cooked through.
Then came Brown vs. Board of Education, which was not the first case against segrega- 3. While chicken cooks, prepare yellow rice according to package
tion to be challenged in the courts, but the most groundbreaking. The court declared that
segregated schools were in violation of the fourteenth amendment of the United States Con-
disability into ‘THIS’ directions, stirring in frozen peas 5 minutes before rice is
cooked. Top with chicken and scallions.
stitution which guarantees citizens equal protection under the law. In addition, it was de-
cided that ensuring that children receive an equal education was the responsibility of the
ability”- Sigma Pi Makes 4 servings.
Each serving: 603 cal, 27 g fat, 47 g protein, 42 g carb
Although this was a victory for the civil rights movement, Brown vs. Board of Education
paved the way for other injustices and had major implications for children with disabilities.
Epsilon Delta Potato, Bacon, and Fontina Frittata
Then in 1975, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) was signed into law. Prep time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 20 minutes
This bill has six principles which are still being applied today:
1 Tbsp extra-virgin olive oil 8 Large eggs 1 Tbsp snipped fresh chives
A free and appropriate public education (FAPE)
6 Slices bacon/pancetta, cut into small pieces 1/4 Cup heavy cream
The least restrictive environment (LRE) 1 1/2 Cups Yukon gold or red-skinned potato 1/4 Tbsp each kosher salt & freshly ground pepper
An individualized education program (IEP) 1 Onion, halved, cut into thin strips 1/2 Cup plus 2 Tbsp shredded fontina cheese
Procedural Due Process
1. Heat broiler. Heat oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium heat. Add bacon and cook until fat is almost rendered
Parental participation and bacon is starting to crisp; remove bacon to a paper towel to drain. Add potato and onion to drippings; raise
Two more recent and significant civil rights legislation are American with Disabili- heat to medium-high and sauté mixture until potato is almost tender, about 10 to 12 minutes.
2. Whisk eggs, cream, salt, and pepper in a medium bowl; stir in 1/2 cup of the cheese, then stir in bacon. Pour into
skillet, shaking pan gently to distribute. Reduce heat to medium and cook, without stirring, 5 minutes, or until set
on bottom and sides (eggs will be runny in center).
3. Place skillet under broiler; broil 2 minutes, or until frittata is firm in center. Sprinkle with the remaining 2 table-
spoons cheese and chives. Loosen edges with a rubber spatula and slide onto a serving plate. Cut into wedges.
Makes 4 servings.