Educ 501 teaching and other related concepts in education
Philippine Normal University
College of Education
DAPARTMENT OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION
Educ501 (Philosophy of Education)
Teaching and Other Related
Concepts in Education
Bernard M. Paderes
Education is a difficult concept to define
because there are other concepts which are
related to it but not “education” in themselves.
These include teaching, instruction, indoctrination
and learning. Also, different societies and cultures
have different conceptions of what education is
and what it should aim to accomplish (Oladosu,
• Teaching is aimed at bringing about
meaningful learning through a morally and
pedagogically acceptable method.
• It involves a teacher, a learner, and a content
which could be in a form of facts, knowledge,
or skills to be imparted.
• There is a deliberate intention of the teacher to
teach and a learner to learn.
• Teaching requires recognition by both teacher
and pupil of a special relationship existing
• It uses methods that respect the learner’s
cognitive integrity and freedom of choice.
What is education ?
• It is a process and product.
• As a process, it is the transmission of
knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs.
• As a product, it is measured by the qualities
and traits displayed by the educated person .
Here, the person is conceived as
“knowledgeable” and “cultured.” It emphasizes
the power of education to transform.
• Education involves teaching what is morally
• Education usually involves teaching, but not
all teaching need be education and some of
it is not.
• Training has something to do with the
acquisition of skills in a certain area of
• It is through training professionals such as
teachers, doctors, lawyers, and engineers to
acquire the “know-how” of their respective
areas of specialization.
• It is limited to exercise, constant repetition,
and a definite end and purpose. In addition,
it does not necessarily accompanied by an
understanding of the underlying principles
or knowledge which is in contrast with
• In contrast to teaching, indoctrination does not
give the learner the freedom to choose.
Instead, the learner is a passive recipient of the
• It has more to do with the matters of religious
dogmas, political ideologies, and economic
• The content is presented as if it is an absolute
fact where no reactions or arguments are
• In literal sense, instruction is the act of
telling a person (the trainee) what to do and
what not to do.
• The content of an instruction maybe
worthwhile, the intention maybe noble; but
the method is undemocratic and violates the
principle of willingness and voluntariness
on the part of the learner.
• It is traditionally defined as a change or
modification of behavior of an organism as a
result in a change of environment or as a
reaction to the stimulation in the
• Farrant (1982) defines learning as the
process by which attitudes, knowledge,
understanding, skills, and capabilities are
acquired and retained.
• The mechanistic approach views
education as a transaction between teacher
• The teacher is an authority, a repository of
knowledge, an expert; the pupil is none of
• The transaction takes form of the teacher
handing over to the pupil the knowledge
and skills he/she needs.
• The teacher views the child as an empty
vessel, to be filled with intellectual goods,
then the pupil’s role is restricted to the
passive role of listening to the teacher,
receiving information, imitating and
emulating the teacher’s example.
• The organic approach weakens the
rigid polarity of the mechanistic model.
• The emphasis is shifted to the pupil’s need
to develop his/her own methods of working
and acquiring knowledge and skill.
• Ideally, the pupil will engage in activities
that exercise his/her capacities and
stimulate his/her interests.
• Education will not be so much of a
transaction but as a process of discovery.
• The teacher views the child as developing
and exploring creatures.
• The teacher role is to cooperate with
his/her fellows in joint enterprises in the
authority | participation | discipline | punishment
Since education is the transmission of
knowledge and skills by one who is an
authority, the concepts of authority,
discipline and punishment are closely
bound up with the business of teaching and
• Education is concerned with the schooling
and improvement of the pupil which is
dependent on his/her participation in the
• The mechanistic approach treats the child
like an empty vessel to be filled with
intellectual goods, whereas the teacher is an
authority who conveys knowledge and skills
by giving the child experiences that will
produce correct ideas and responses.
• The organic approach treats the
child as a developing and exploring
creature. The pupil’s participation will be
organized to take different forms. His /her
role will that be of a cooperator with his
/her classmates , whereas the teacher acts
as an adviser and supervisor who is mainly
concerned about the arrangement of
environment that will allow the child to
develop his capacities and ‘grow’ as a
The concept of discipline is rooted in the
notion of ‘order.’ To maintain discipline is to
maintain some degree of order, and it
implies some degree of restraint or
constraint. However, some people confused
discipline with the act or frightening or
threatening the pupil. This confusion comes
from the tendency to identify authority with
the use of force and inculcation of fear. To
avoid this confusion, the concept of
authority needs to be clarified.
• Authority de jure – is authority given as a
consequence of one’s place in a system or
rules and convention.
• Authority de facto - is simple the ability to
get one’s ordered obeyed.
• Requirements of punishment
– Punishment must be given by someone in
authority de jure.
– It must be a consequence of an offence.
– It must only inflicted on an offender.
• Punishment is a means of restoring order.
– Prevents the repetition of an offence.
– It restores the lost of authority de facto.
– It is connected to teaching but should
NOT be be regarded as a kind of teaching.