Educ 501 teaching and other related concepts in education

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Educ 501 teaching and other related concepts in education

  1. 1. Philippine Normal University College of Education DAPARTMENT OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION Educ501 (Philosophy of Education) Teaching and Other Related Concepts in Education Bernard M. Paderes
  2. 2. Education is a difficult concept to define because there are other concepts which are related to it but not “education” in themselves. These include teaching, instruction, indoctrination and learning. Also, different societies and cultures have different conceptions of what education is and what it should aim to accomplish (Oladosu, 2000)
  3. 3. What is teaching ?
  4. 4. • Teaching is aimed at bringing about meaningful learning through a morally and pedagogically acceptable method. • It involves a teacher, a learner, and a content which could be in a form of facts, knowledge, or skills to be imparted. • There is a deliberate intention of the teacher to teach and a learner to learn.
  5. 5. • Teaching requires recognition by both teacher and pupil of a special relationship existing between them. • It uses methods that respect the learner’s cognitive integrity and freedom of choice.
  6. 6. What is education ?
  7. 7. What is education ? • It is a process and product. • As a process, it is the transmission of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs. • As a product, it is measured by the qualities and traits displayed by the educated person . Here, the person is conceived as “knowledgeable” and “cultured.” It emphasizes the power of education to transform.
  8. 8. • Education involves teaching what is morally acceptable. • Education usually involves teaching, but not all teaching need be education and some of it is not.
  9. 9. What is training ?
  10. 10. • Training has something to do with the acquisition of skills in a certain area of specialization. • It is through training professionals such as teachers, doctors, lawyers, and engineers to acquire the “know-how” of their respective areas of specialization.
  11. 11. • It is limited to exercise, constant repetition, and a definite end and purpose. In addition, it does not necessarily accompanied by an understanding of the underlying principles or knowledge which is in contrast with education.
  12. 12. What is indoctrination ?
  13. 13. • In contrast to teaching, indoctrination does not give the learner the freedom to choose. Instead, the learner is a passive recipient of the content. • It has more to do with the matters of religious dogmas, political ideologies, and economic doctrines. • The content is presented as if it is an absolute fact where no reactions or arguments are tolerated.
  14. 14. What is instruction ?
  15. 15. • In literal sense, instruction is the act of telling a person (the trainee) what to do and what not to do. • The content of an instruction maybe worthwhile, the intention maybe noble; but the method is undemocratic and violates the principle of willingness and voluntariness on the part of the learner.
  16. 16. What is learning ?
  17. 17. • It is traditionally defined as a change or modification of behavior of an organism as a result in a change of environment or as a reaction to the stimulation in the environment. • Farrant (1982) defines learning as the process by which attitudes, knowledge, understanding, skills, and capabilities are acquired and retained.
  18. 18. { education } Transaction Discovery
  19. 19. { humans } mechanic organic
  20. 20. The Mechanic View
  21. 21. • The mechanistic approach views education as a transaction between teacher and pupil. • The teacher is an authority, a repository of knowledge, an expert; the pupil is none of these. • The transaction takes form of the teacher handing over to the pupil the knowledge and skills he/she needs.
  22. 22. • The teacher views the child as an empty vessel, to be filled with intellectual goods, then the pupil’s role is restricted to the passive role of listening to the teacher, receiving information, imitating and emulating the teacher’s example.
  23. 23. The Organic View
  24. 24. • The organic approach weakens the rigid polarity of the mechanistic model. • The emphasis is shifted to the pupil’s need to develop his/her own methods of working and acquiring knowledge and skill. • Ideally, the pupil will engage in activities that exercise his/her capacities and stimulate his/her interests.
  25. 25. • Education will not be so much of a transaction but as a process of discovery. • The teacher views the child as developing and exploring creatures. • The teacher role is to cooperate with his/her fellows in joint enterprises in the classroom.
  26. 26. authority | participation | discipline | punishment
  27. 27. authority | participation | discipline | punishment Since education is the transmission of knowledge and skills by one who is an authority, the concepts of authority, discipline and punishment are closely bound up with the business of teaching and educating.
  28. 28. Authority and Participation
  29. 29. • Education is concerned with the schooling and improvement of the pupil which is dependent on his/her participation in the process. • The mechanistic approach treats the child like an empty vessel to be filled with intellectual goods, whereas the teacher is an authority who conveys knowledge and skills by giving the child experiences that will produce correct ideas and responses.
  30. 30. • The organic approach treats the child as a developing and exploring creature. The pupil’s participation will be organized to take different forms. His /her role will that be of a cooperator with his /her classmates , whereas the teacher acts as an adviser and supervisor who is mainly concerned about the arrangement of environment that will allow the child to develop his capacities and ‘grow’ as a person.
  31. 31. Authority and Discipline
  32. 32. The concept of discipline is rooted in the notion of ‘order.’ To maintain discipline is to maintain some degree of order, and it implies some degree of restraint or constraint. However, some people confused discipline with the act or frightening or threatening the pupil. This confusion comes from the tendency to identify authority with the use of force and inculcation of fear. To avoid this confusion, the concept of authority needs to be clarified.
  33. 33. • Authority de jure – is authority given as a consequence of one’s place in a system or rules and convention. • Authority de facto - is simple the ability to get one’s ordered obeyed.
  34. 34. Authority and Punishment
  35. 35. • Requirements of punishment – Punishment must be given by someone in authority de jure. – It must be a consequence of an offence. – It must only inflicted on an offender.
  36. 36. • Punishment is a means of restoring order. – Prevents the repetition of an offence. – It restores the lost of authority de facto. – It is connected to teaching but should NOT be be regarded as a kind of teaching.
  37. 37. ~ fin ~~ fin ~

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