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Philippine Normal University
National Center for Teacher Education
Taft Avenue, Manila
College of Education
DEPARTMENT OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION
Educ501 (Philosophy of Education)
1st
Sem SY 2012-2013
Dr. Nick Manantan
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
TEACHING AND OTHER RELATED CONCEPTS IN EDUCATION
Education is a difficult concept to define because there are other concepts which are
related to it but not ‘education” in themselves. These include teaching, instruction,
indoctrination and learning. Also, different societies and cultures have different conceptions of
what education is and what it should aim to accomplish.
I. Teaching and Other Concepts
A. Teaching
- It is aimed at bringing about meaningful learning through a morally and
pedagogically acceptable method.
- It involves a teacher, a learner, and a content which could be in a form of facts,
knowledge, or skills to be imparted.
- A deliberate intention of the teacher to teach and a learner to learn.
- Teaching requires recognition by both teacher and pupil of a special relationship
existing between them.
- A method that respects the learner’s cognitive integrity and freedom of choice.
B. Education
- It is a process and product.
- As a process, it is the transmission of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs.
- As a product, it is measured by the qualities and traits displayed by the educated
person . Here, the person is conceived as “knowledgeable” and “cultured.” It
emphasizes the power of education to transform.
- Education involves teaching what is morally acceptable.
- Education usually involves teaching, but not all teaching need be education and
some of it is not.
C. Training
- Training has something to do with the acquisition of skills in a certain area of
specialization.
- It is through training the professionals such as teachers, doctors, lawyers, and
engineers acquire the “know-how” of their respective areas of specialization.
- To emphasize the limited scope of training, it is limited to exercise, constant
repetition, and a definite end and purpose. In addition, it does not necessarily
accompanied by an understanding of the underlying principles or knowledge
which is in contrast with education.
D. Indoctrination
- In contrast to teaching, indoctrination does not give the learner the freedom to
choose. Instead, the learner is a passive recipient of the content.
- It has more to do with the matters of religious dogmas, political ideologies, and
economic doctrines.
- The content is presented as if it is an absolute fact where no reactions or arguments
are tolerated.
E. Instruction
- In literal sense, it is the act if telling the trainee or the learner what to do and what
not.
- The content of an instruction maybe worthwhile, the intention maybe noble; but the
method is undemocratic and violates the principle of willingness and voluntariness
on the part of the learner.
F. Learning
- It is traditionally defined as a change or modification of behavior of an organism as
a result in a change of environment or as a reaction to the stimulation in the
environment.
- Farrant (1982) defines learning as the process by which attitudes, knowledge,
understanding, skills, and capabilities are acquired and retained.
II. Contrasting Views of Education and Humans
- Is education a transaction or discovery?
- Are humans mechanic or organic?
A. Mechanistic / Transaction
• The mechanistic approach views education as a transaction between teacher and pupil.
• The teacher is an authority, a repository of knowledge, an expert; the pupil is none of
these.
• The transaction takes form of the teacher handing over to the pupil the knowledge and
skills he/she needs.
• The teacher views the child as an empty vessel, to be filled with intellectual goods, then
the pupil’s role is restricted to the passive role of listening to the teacher, receiving
information, imitating and emulating the teacher’s example.
B. Organic / Discovery
• The organic approach weakens the rigid polarity of the mechanistic model.
• The emphasis is shifted to the pupil’s need to develop his/her own methods of working
and acquiring knowledge and skill.
• Ideally, the pupil will engage in activities that exercise his/her capacities and stimulate
his/her interests.
• Education will not be so much of a transaction but as a process of discovery.
• The teacher views the child as developing and exploring creatures.
• The teacher role is to cooperate with his/her fellows in joint enterprises in the
classroom.
III. Authority, Participation, Discipline, and Punishment
Since education is the transmission of knowledge and skills by one who is an
authority, the concepts of authority, discipline and punishment are closely bound
up with the business of teaching and educating.
A. Authority and Participation
Education is concerned with the schooling and improvement of the pupil which
is dependent on his/her participation in the process.
The mechanistic approach treats the child like an empty vessel to be filled with
intellectual goods, whereas the teacher is an authority who conveys knowledge and
skills by giving the child experiences that will produce correct ideas and responses.
The organic approach treats the child as a developing and exploring creature.
The pupil’s participation will be organized to take different forms. His /her role will
that be of a cooperator with his /her classmates , whereas the teacher acts as an
adviser and supervisor who is mainly concerned about the arrangement of
environment that will allow the child to develop his capacities and ‘grow’ as a person.
B. Authority and Discipline
The concept of discipline is rooted in the notion of ‘order.’ To maintain
discipline is to maintain some degree of order, and it implies some degree of restraint
or constraint. However, some people confused discipline with the act or frightening or
threatening the pupil. This confusion comes from the tendency to identify authority
with the use of force and inculcation of fear. To avoid this confusion, the concept of
authority needs to be clarified.
b.1 Authority de jure – is authority given as a consequence of one’s
place in a system or rules and convention.
b.2 Authority de facto - is simply the ability to get one’s ordered
obeyed.
C. Authority and Punishment
- Requirements of punishment
o Punishment must be given by someone in authority de jure.
o It must be a consequence of an offence.
o It must only inflicted on an offender.
- Punishment is a means of restoring order.
o Prevents the repetition of an offence.
o It restores the lost of authority de facto.
o It is connected to teaching but should NOT be be regarded as a kind of
teaching.
References
Moore, T.W. (1982). Philosophy of Education: An Introduction. London:
Routledge and Kegan
Oladosu, A.G.A.S. (2009). Concepts in Education, In I. O. Abimbola, and A. O.
Abolade, (eds). Fundamental principles and practice of Instruction. Ilorin: Department of
Science Education and Arts and Social Science Education, University of Ilorin, Ilorin
Prepared by:
Bernard M. Paderes
MA Linguistics
bernardpaderes@gmail.com

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Educ 501 teaching and other related concepts in educ (presentation)

  • 1. Philippine Normal University National Center for Teacher Education Taft Avenue, Manila College of Education DEPARTMENT OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION Educ501 (Philosophy of Education) 1st Sem SY 2012-2013 Dr. Nick Manantan _________________________________________________________________________________________________ TEACHING AND OTHER RELATED CONCEPTS IN EDUCATION Education is a difficult concept to define because there are other concepts which are related to it but not ‘education” in themselves. These include teaching, instruction, indoctrination and learning. Also, different societies and cultures have different conceptions of what education is and what it should aim to accomplish. I. Teaching and Other Concepts A. Teaching - It is aimed at bringing about meaningful learning through a morally and pedagogically acceptable method. - It involves a teacher, a learner, and a content which could be in a form of facts, knowledge, or skills to be imparted. - A deliberate intention of the teacher to teach and a learner to learn. - Teaching requires recognition by both teacher and pupil of a special relationship existing between them. - A method that respects the learner’s cognitive integrity and freedom of choice. B. Education - It is a process and product. - As a process, it is the transmission of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs. - As a product, it is measured by the qualities and traits displayed by the educated person . Here, the person is conceived as “knowledgeable” and “cultured.” It emphasizes the power of education to transform. - Education involves teaching what is morally acceptable. - Education usually involves teaching, but not all teaching need be education and some of it is not. C. Training - Training has something to do with the acquisition of skills in a certain area of specialization. - It is through training the professionals such as teachers, doctors, lawyers, and engineers acquire the “know-how” of their respective areas of specialization. - To emphasize the limited scope of training, it is limited to exercise, constant repetition, and a definite end and purpose. In addition, it does not necessarily accompanied by an understanding of the underlying principles or knowledge which is in contrast with education. D. Indoctrination - In contrast to teaching, indoctrination does not give the learner the freedom to choose. Instead, the learner is a passive recipient of the content. - It has more to do with the matters of religious dogmas, political ideologies, and economic doctrines. - The content is presented as if it is an absolute fact where no reactions or arguments are tolerated. E. Instruction
  • 2. - In literal sense, it is the act if telling the trainee or the learner what to do and what not. - The content of an instruction maybe worthwhile, the intention maybe noble; but the method is undemocratic and violates the principle of willingness and voluntariness on the part of the learner. F. Learning - It is traditionally defined as a change or modification of behavior of an organism as a result in a change of environment or as a reaction to the stimulation in the environment. - Farrant (1982) defines learning as the process by which attitudes, knowledge, understanding, skills, and capabilities are acquired and retained. II. Contrasting Views of Education and Humans - Is education a transaction or discovery? - Are humans mechanic or organic? A. Mechanistic / Transaction • The mechanistic approach views education as a transaction between teacher and pupil. • The teacher is an authority, a repository of knowledge, an expert; the pupil is none of these. • The transaction takes form of the teacher handing over to the pupil the knowledge and skills he/she needs. • The teacher views the child as an empty vessel, to be filled with intellectual goods, then the pupil’s role is restricted to the passive role of listening to the teacher, receiving information, imitating and emulating the teacher’s example. B. Organic / Discovery • The organic approach weakens the rigid polarity of the mechanistic model. • The emphasis is shifted to the pupil’s need to develop his/her own methods of working and acquiring knowledge and skill. • Ideally, the pupil will engage in activities that exercise his/her capacities and stimulate his/her interests. • Education will not be so much of a transaction but as a process of discovery. • The teacher views the child as developing and exploring creatures. • The teacher role is to cooperate with his/her fellows in joint enterprises in the classroom. III. Authority, Participation, Discipline, and Punishment Since education is the transmission of knowledge and skills by one who is an authority, the concepts of authority, discipline and punishment are closely bound up with the business of teaching and educating. A. Authority and Participation Education is concerned with the schooling and improvement of the pupil which is dependent on his/her participation in the process. The mechanistic approach treats the child like an empty vessel to be filled with intellectual goods, whereas the teacher is an authority who conveys knowledge and skills by giving the child experiences that will produce correct ideas and responses. The organic approach treats the child as a developing and exploring creature. The pupil’s participation will be organized to take different forms. His /her role will that be of a cooperator with his /her classmates , whereas the teacher acts as an adviser and supervisor who is mainly concerned about the arrangement of environment that will allow the child to develop his capacities and ‘grow’ as a person. B. Authority and Discipline The concept of discipline is rooted in the notion of ‘order.’ To maintain discipline is to maintain some degree of order, and it implies some degree of restraint or constraint. However, some people confused discipline with the act or frightening or threatening the pupil. This confusion comes from the tendency to identify authority
  • 3. with the use of force and inculcation of fear. To avoid this confusion, the concept of authority needs to be clarified. b.1 Authority de jure – is authority given as a consequence of one’s place in a system or rules and convention. b.2 Authority de facto - is simply the ability to get one’s ordered obeyed. C. Authority and Punishment - Requirements of punishment o Punishment must be given by someone in authority de jure. o It must be a consequence of an offence. o It must only inflicted on an offender. - Punishment is a means of restoring order. o Prevents the repetition of an offence. o It restores the lost of authority de facto. o It is connected to teaching but should NOT be be regarded as a kind of teaching. References Moore, T.W. (1982). Philosophy of Education: An Introduction. London: Routledge and Kegan Oladosu, A.G.A.S. (2009). Concepts in Education, In I. O. Abimbola, and A. O. Abolade, (eds). Fundamental principles and practice of Instruction. Ilorin: Department of Science Education and Arts and Social Science Education, University of Ilorin, Ilorin Prepared by: Bernard M. Paderes MA Linguistics bernardpaderes@gmail.com