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Dexamethasone: Drug study guide for Nurses

a drug study guide about dexamethasone

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Dexamethasone: Drug study guide for Nurses

  1. 1. Dexamethasone (Ak-Dex, Dalalone, Decadrol, Decadron, Decaject, Dexon, Hexadrol, Mymethasone, Solurex) CATEGORY MECHANISMOF ACTION SIDE EFFECTS ADVERSE EFFECT INDICATION NURSING CARE CONTRAINDICA- TION GLUCOCORTICOIDS ANTI- INFLAMMATORY AGENT -Suppresses inflammation and the normal immune response. Has numerous intense metabolic effects -Suppresses adrenal function at chronic doses of 0.75mg/day. Practically devoid of mineralocortic oid (sodium- retaining) activity CNS: headache dizziness, spinning sensation; GI: nausea, vomiting INTEGU- MENTARY: acne, dry skin, thinning skin, bruising or discoloration; slow wound healing; increased sweating; MUSCULO- SKELETAL: muscle weakness EENT: problems with vision; increased intraocular pressure METABOLISM: swelling, rapid weight gain, feeling short of breath; CNS: severe depression, unusual thoughts or behavior, seizure (convulsions); GI: bloody or tarry stools, coughing up blood; pancreatitis (severe pain in upper stomach spreading to back, nausea and vomiting, fast heart rate); -Used systematically and locally in a variety of disorders including: Chronic Inflammatory Disorders, Allergies, Hematologic Diseases, Neoplasm, Autoimmune Disease, Management of Cerebral Edema and Septic shock, Diagnostic agent in adrenal disorders -This drug is indicated for many conditions. Assess involved systems prior to and periodically throughout the course of therapy -Monitor intake and output ratios and daily weights. Observe patient for appearance of peripheral edema, steady weight gain, rales/crackles, or dyspnea. Notify physician if these occur -Children should have periodic evaluation of growth -Active untreated infectious (exceprt for certain forms of meningitis) -Avoid chronic use during lactation;may affect child’s growth -Bisulfie, paraben or alcohol hypersensitivity— some products contain Bisulfie, paraben or alcohol -Use caustiously: chronic treatment (will lead to adrenal suppression); should never be abruptly discontinue
  2. 2. Dexamethasone (Ak-Dex, Dalalone, Decadrol, Decadron, Decaject, Dexon, Hexadrol, Mymethasone, Solurex) CATEGORY MECHANISMOF ACTION SIDE EFFECTS ADVERSE EFFECT INDICATION NURSING CARE CONTRAINDI CATION -Suppression of inflammation and modification of normal immune response FLUID & ELECTROLYTES: Low potassium (confusion, uneven heart rate, extreme thirst, increased urination, leg discomfort, muscle weakness or limp feeling); CARDIO- VASCU- LAR: dangerously high blood pressure (severe headache, blurred vision, buzzing in ears, anxiety, confusion, chest pain, shortness of breath, uneven heartbeats, seizure). -Short-term administration to high-risk mothers before delivery to prevent distress syndrome in the newborn -Assess patient for changes in level of consciousness and headache throughout the therapy -Monitor pain, edema, ROM of affected joints. -Assess affected skin prior to and daily during therapy -Monitor respiratory status and lung sounds -Monitor serum electrolytes -Promptly report presence of guaiac positive stools -If dose is ordered daily, administer in the morning to coincide with the body’s normal secretion of cortisol. -Administer with meals to minimize gastric irritations. -Instruct the patient to take the medication exactly as indicated and not to skip doses or double up on
  3. 3. Dexamethasone (Ak-Dex, Dalalone, Decadrol, Decadron, Decaject, Dexon, Hexadrol, Mymethasone, Solurex) CATEGORY MECHANISMOF ACTION SIDE EFFECTS ADVERSE EFFECT INDICATION NURSING CARE CONTRAINDICATION missed doses -Encourage the patient on long- term therapy to eat diet high in protein, calcium and potassium and low in sodium and carbohydrates -Instruct the patient to avoid people with contagious disease because this drug causes immunosuppression -Caution the patient to avoid vaccination without doctor’s advise -Instruct the patient to report severe abdominal pain, tarry stools, unusual swelling, weight gain, bone pain, visual disturbances or behavior changes
  4. 4. Dexamethasone (Ak-Dex, Dalalone, Decadrol, Decadron, Decaject, Dexon, Hexadrol, Mymethasone, Solurex)
  5. 5. Dexamethasone (Ak-Dex, Dalalone, Decadrol, Decadron, Decaject, Dexon, Hexadrol, Mymethasone, Solurex) CATEGORY MECHANISMOF ACTION SIDE EFFECTS ADVERSE EFFECT INDICATION NURSING CARE CONTRAINDICATION
  6. 6. Dexamethasone (Ak-Dex, Dalalone, Decadrol, Decadron, Decaject, Dexon, Hexadrol, Mymethasone, Solurex) CATEGORY MECHANISMOF ACTION SIDE EFFECTS ADVERSE EFFECT INDICATION NURSING CARE CONTRAINDICATION

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