The desert plateau in South America is located in south-western part of Peru in the Embankment Hills of Cordilliera. It looks like a spaceport. The plateau is known especially for the so-called Nazca drawings - line system, which when seen from above resembles the shape of animals or geometric figures. They are the work of the Nazca culture. These are ground geoglyphs, the drawings made by bulk. Each of them extends over several hundred meters (e.g. a spider, a condor, a tree). They can bee seen as complete only from a bird’s-eye view.
Line system, which viewed from above resemble the shape of animals, plants, or geometric figures, a work of the Nazca culture. Located in the south-western part of Peru, near the city of Nazca, in the area over 50 km long and 14 km wide. Lines are located on four plateaus: Palpa, Ingenio, Nazca and Socos, between 419 and 465 kilometer of Pan-American Highway. These geoglyphs were created by the Nazca Indians between 300 BC and AD 900.
Drawings were done by the removal of the red gravel surface andrevelation of the brighter, yellow soil. In this way, there is a darkbackground with clear lines being highlighted. Rites are an average of 20centimeters deep and about a meter wide. The Indians probably firstdesigned a powerful shape, which were unable to be comprehended withtheir eyes and then they moved it piece by piece to the fixed positions.On the plateau there are hundreds of Nazca geoglyphs that representboth the seemingly random collections of geometric shapes: squares andtriangles and straight lines extending up to 8 kilometers, and the greatimages of animals and plants. The most famous are: spider with the 40-meter legs, condor with a section of 120 meters, hummingbird, killerwhales, monkeys, dogs, cacti, flowers, fish.
For modern science, the geoglyphs were discovered in 1926 by two scientists - Alfred Kroeber and Toribio Mejía Xesspe. Initially they took the line tangle for the area of desert irrigation canals. Later they found that this is a religious maze, like the sacred path of the Incas. Another theory was put forward in 1941 by Paul Kosok. Like the German scientist Maria Reiche, he believed that the sand patterns are linked to astronomical observations, and are "the worlds largest textbook on astronomy." Some lines stretching for dozens of meters overlap because of the orbital motion of the stars, and giant animals faithfully reflect the contours of the constellations.
An American archaeologist David Johnson believes that some of thegeoglyphs were related to water sources and irrigation system (puquios).Still others seek the trade routes in the large linear systems, a treadmills whichwere used to played sports, ornaments which were to enjoy the eyes of the gods, oreven the religious and astronomical calendars. Most scientists, however, agree withMaria Reichs theory. It argues that geoglyphs were used to determine the time ofsowing and harvesting, as they mark the periodic appearance of the stars andconstellations and identify the points of sunrise and sunset during the autumn andspring equinox and the summer solstice. A different approach was presented bySwiss writer Erich von Däniken, who claims that the lines were supposed to belanding strip for visitors from outer space.