Eight kilometers from Cairo, in the Giza, above the empty areas and complex of smaller pyramids and tombs there are three large pyramids which predominate. They were built not close by a huge statue of the Sphinx of Thebes is being built. These wonders of ancient world survived close 5000 years, but only for the 19th century archaeologists started collecting the information concerning their coming into existence. Small town of Giza is located in the Nile delta in determining once area border between Upper and with Lower Egypt. About 2925 yr BC, when both these kingdoms were united, Memfis laid on the west bank of the Nile became a capital city of new Egypt. For almost 3000 years it constituted the residence of pharaohs, of which 30 dynasties governed Egypt. Large pyramids in the Giza were raised too at the times of the fourth dynasty (2575-2465 yr BC). The biggest from them, tomb of the pharaoh of Cheops (Chufu), incurred as first. Pyramid standing in the middle, built as the second, is a little bit smaller and belongs to the son of Cheops, of Chefren. Third, much smaller, is a pyramid of the Mykerinosa pharaoh, of grandson of Cheops.
The pyramid of Cheops is the largest of three pyramids in Giza. It was regarded by ancient Greeks as one of seven Miracles in the World. It was uplifted on the artificially smoothed area. it is well up according to the directions of the World. Its sides are returned directly south, the North, the East and the West. Large stone blocks, from which lightest weigh for 2.5 tones were placed with the great accuracy. The entire building consists of the over 2.3 m of blocks. Three chambers laid on the split level are in a pyramid of Cheops. Two upper belonged to the king and the queen. They are connected with large vaulted gallery 47 meters and the height long 8.5 underground. The third chamber being deep under the level of ground, wasnt finished. The entry to the acrobats pyramid of Cheops was hidden under the casing from smooth stones. The empty underground chamber and the corridor leading into the bottom were probably supposed to turn the attention of robbers away from upper corridors and appropriate burial chambers.
Pyramid of Chefren (Chafre) was built 2540 r BC Chefren was the fourth master of ancient Egypt of the IV dynasty. He was a son of Cheops and a Mykerinosa father. He built the second largest (143.5 m), after the acrobats pyramid of Cheops pyramid in the Giza and of the Sphinx of Thebes. During the reign of Chefren the worship of the sun-god became a Ray with national religion. Chefren sent the expedition to the Synaj peninsula (to quarries and the mine of turquoises) and to quarries of granite in Abu Simbel surroundings. The pyramid selling built by Chefren is holding a lot kept sepulchral complex from the entire group of pyramids in the Giza. Primitive for her dimensions are: 145.5 m of the height, square base about the side 215.5 m and pitch 53 ° 10 . The bottom temple called the Temple of the Sphinx of Thebes before was dug up in 1853. The interior of the temple is built of limestone and red granite. The pyramid has two entries from the north side: one on the height of 11 m from the earth, second on the level of the area for a few meters from the acrobats pyramid. Corridors cause the horizontal transition which is ending with the burial chamber. For her the forged part was lower in primeval rock, upper and are finding the tent ceiling oneself inside the core of the pyramid. The made sarcophagus of nice polished granite was conned into the floor in the end chambers. On the south wall of the Belzoni chamber, the discoverer of the entry to the acrobats pyramid and her researcher, put his surname and the date - 1818.
Pyramid of Mykerinosa, built ca. 2525 BC through Mykerinosa(Mykerynosa, Menkaure) for her dimensions are taking the old-Egyptian master out from the IV dynasty, son of Chefren,Cheopsa. Primary grandson: (67 m of the height, base - 108 m,51 ° tilting sides). The bottom sepulchral temple is situated bythe Muslim graveyard and is built of brick mule. Here shaleMykerinosa triad and fragments of other statues were found. Bythe sepulchral temple (on the southern side of the pyramid) threesmall pyramids are standing, from which one he is a normalsupport acrobats pyramid and presumably belongs to theChamerenebty queen, Mykerinos sister - wife. The pyramid lostthe majority around ones calcareous area. For her a fundamentalstructure, but especially her north side cut in two with the deepexcavation also suffered damage. In 1196 vizier of one ofEgyptian caliphs, Karakusz tried to destroy the ones the pyramidas the monument to idolatrous masters. The burial chambercontained the wonderful sarcophagus which during the transportto England sank at coasts of Portugal.
The pyramid is standing almost precisely on the pivot North-South.At one time she was based precisely on a N-S pivot, deviation arose as a result of the drifting of continents.The running meridian by the pyramid selling is longest running through of counters.He is dividing seas and continents simultaneously into two equal parts.Angles of the pyramid of work the Nile delta to two equal parts.She lies in the centre masses of the mainland of the Earth.The meridian going through the centre forms pyramid selling with the parallel going through the Mykerinosa pyramid selling and from straight line joining these two points Pythagorean triangle.The relationship of the length and the volume of the pyramid corresponds to the ratio of the ray to the surface of the Wheel. The height of the pyramid raised to the tenth power is equal of the average distance of the Earth from the Sun.The pyramid is a sundial, showing times and the length of the year.Distance to the pole Sec. (Noon) is equal of the distance to the centre of the Earth and the distance from the pole to the centre of the Earth. Circumference of the base divided through the double height is giving the number pi = 3.1416. Pyramid from the end of February to sudoral isnt throwing the October at noon of no shadow. Mass of the sarcophagus raised to the fifteenth power is equal of mass of the Earth. The length of the side of the base is 365.342 of Egyptian elbows and is equal of the number of days of the solar year in the tropics.
This statue has a body of the lion and a human head, 20 m of the height and 73 m of the length have dimensions. In the widest place the face has an over 4 flatThe statue is forged in monolithic remaining rock after getting the stone for the Large acrobats pyramid distant by 330 m, was built by the pharaoh of Chefren (the head of the Sphinx of Thebes is his portrait most clearly).From time immemorial the Sphinx of Thebes constitutes the symbol of the mystery and mysteries. It is believed that he is a guard of pyramids lying behind him.He has royal headgear and the royal cobra on the head. A part is lacking the nose, but the chin entirely, originally was probably plastered and paint red. In New you the Sphinx of Thebes was left in relation to the sun worship and was regarded as a Horus symbol (Egyptian sun-god).Sand has often buried the building. To 1926 the Sphinx of Thebes was buried up to the neck into sand. Recently a subject of the conservation was in years 90. of last century.
Pyramids in the Giza and the Sphinx of Thebes are only from seven wonders of ancient world which he survived up to our times. They are on the list of the world legacy UNESCO. they are deciding biggest tourist attraction of Egypt.