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  1. 1. ECOSYSTE M PRESENTED BY:1. Berlian Nur2. Lia Sari3. Rahma Arianti / 10050150294. Rosyadi Akhyar5. Siti Winarti
  2. 2. WHAT IS A POPULATION?A population is one species living in a specific area.For example, all foxes living in an area form a population.Another example, all dandelions growing in an area form another population.
  3. 3. WHAT IS A COMMUNITY?A community is formed from all living populations found in an area.All the foxes, dandelions, grasshoppers, snakes, hawks, deer, and skunks living in one area each form their individual populations, but together make up a community.
  4. 4. WHAT IS A ECOSYSTEM?An ecosystem is formed bythe interactions between allliving and non-living things.Ecosystem composed of bioticand abiotic components.
  5. 5. Biotic Components The living parts of an ecosystem.They include animals, plants, fungus, protists, and bacteria.
  6. 6. Abiotic ComponentsThe nonliving parts of anecosystem.They include water, minerals,sunlight, air, climate, andsoil.
  7. 7. TROPHIC LEVELS A trophic level is the position occupied by an organism in a food chain. Trophic levels can be analyzed on an energy pyramid. Producers are found at the base of the pyramid and compromise the first trophic level. Primary consumers make up the second trophic level. Secondary consumers make up the third trophic level. Finally tertiary consumers make up the top trophic level.
  8. 8. Trophic level: All the organisms thatare the same number of food-chain stepsfrom the primary source of energy Modified from: General Ecology, by David T. Krome
  9. 9. TROPHIC LEVELS FOUND ON AN ENERGY PYRAMID The greatest amount of energy is found at the base of the pyramid. The least amount of energy is found at top of the pyramid. Source:
  10. 10. FOOD CHAINS The producers, consumers, and decomposers of each ecosystem make up a food chain. There are many food chains in an ecosystem. Food chains show where energy is transferred and not who eats who.
  12. 12. FOOD WEBS All the food chains in an area make up the food web of the area.
  13. 13. What causes ecosystems to change? Changes caused by humans:1 Water pollution 2 Air pollution 3 Land pollution 4 Construction
  14. 14. 5. Illegal Logging
  15. 15. How can humans help to prevent changes in ecosystems? Use resources wisely1 2Laws that control pollution3 Clean up litter 4Keep rivers and lakes clean