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  1. 1. Intelligence
  2. 2. Intelligence <ul><li>The capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Approaches to Intelligence Approach Meaning Fluid and Crystallized Fluid intelligence relates to reasoning, memory, and information-processing capabilities; crystallized intelligence relates to information, skills, and strategies learned through experience Gardner’s multiple intelligence Eight independent forms of intelligence
  4. 4. Approach Meaning Information-processing approach Intelligence is reflected in the ways people store and use material to solve intellectual tasks Practical intelligence Intelligence in terms of nonacademic, career, and personal success Emotional intelligence Intelligence that provides an understanding of what other people are feeling and experiencing and permits us to respond appropriately to other’s needs
  5. 5. Multiple Intelligences <ul><li>Musical intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Logical-mathematic intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalist intelligence </li></ul>
  6. 6. Biological Basis of Intelligence <ul><li>The lateral prefrontal cortex is activated when the brain is confronted with problems that involve verbal and spatial domains. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Intelligence tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>devised to quantify a person’s level of intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfred Binet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mental Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the average age of individuals who achieve a particular level of performance on a test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IQ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a score that takes into account an individual’s mental and chronological ages </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III </li></ul><ul><li>Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement Test – level of knowledge in a given subject area </li></ul><ul><li>Aptitude Test – predict a person’s ability in a particular area or line of work </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the property by which tests measure consistently what they are trying to measure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the property by which tests actually measure what they are supposed to measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with reliability – no validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no reliability – no validity </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Norms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>standards of test performance that permit the comparison of one person’s score on a test with the scores of other individuals who have taken the same test </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Scoring Better on Standardized Tests <ul><li>Learn as much as you can about the test before you take it. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice. </li></ul><ul><li>If the test is administered on a computer, as it probably will be, take practice tests on a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Time yourself carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of the scoring policy. </li></ul><ul><li>If it is a paper-pencil test, complete answer sheets accurately. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mental Retardation <ul><li>A condition characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Categories of Mental Retardation <ul><li>Borderline – 70 to 84 (slow learner) </li></ul><ul><li>Mild – 55 to 69 (educable) </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate – 40 to 54 (trainable) </li></ul><ul><li>Severe – 25 to 39 (dependent) </li></ul><ul><li>Profound – below 25 (dependent) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Adaptive Behavior Skills: <ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self- care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health and safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional academics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leisure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Causes: <ul><li>Fetal alcohol syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Down syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Familial retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Birth complications </li></ul><ul><li>Head injury </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Infections </li></ul>
  16. 16. Educational Programs for Students with Mental Retardation <ul><li>Inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstreaming </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation/Home schooling </li></ul>
  17. 17. Intellectually Gifted <ul><li>IQ scores greater than 130. </li></ul><ul><li>A person with a high overall IQ is not necessarily gifted in every academic subject, but may excel in one or two. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Group Differences in Intelligence: Genetic and Environmental Determinants