Background of psychology


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Background of psychology

  1. 1. Psychology
  2. 2. <ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>the scientific study of behavior and mental processes </li></ul><ul><li>Greek words: psyche (mind, soul) and logos (study) </li></ul><ul><li>Goals of Psychology: </li></ul><ul><li>to describe behavior </li></ul><ul><li>to identify factors that help predict behavior </li></ul><ul><li>to understand or explain behavior by identifying causes that bring about certain effects </li></ul><ul><li>to control or change behavior </li></ul>
  3. 3. Subfields of Psychology <ul><li>Behavioral genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral neuroscience </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Educational psychology </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Environmental psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Health psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial/Organizational psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Personality psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Program Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology of women </li></ul><ul><li>School psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Social psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Sport psychology </li></ul>
  5. 5. History of Psychology
  6. 6. Forerunners of Psychology <ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>father of modern experimental psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>William James </li></ul><ul><ul><li>played an active part in bringing the new experimental psychology to the United States and founded functionalism together with John Dewey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developed the theory and method of the treatment called psychoanalysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Watson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>founded the school of psychology called behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Max Wertheimer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>founder of Gestalt psychology, together with Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><ul><li>experimented on learning which led to the principles of classical conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developed an important theory of cognitive development in children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B.F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>experimented on learning which led to the principles of operant conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>constructed his hierarchy of needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Edward Titchener </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proponent of structuralism </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Other Important People: <ul><li>Carl Jung </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>Erik Erikson </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Gardner </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Adler </li></ul>
  9. 9. Date Event 5,000 BC Trephining used to allow the escape of evil spirits. 1637 Descartes described animal spirits. Knowledge was inborn in humans. 1690 John Locke introduced the idea of tabula rasa. 1807 Franz Josef Gall proposed phrenology. 1879 Wilhelm Wundt inaugurated first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany
  10. 10. Date Event 1890 Principles of Psychology published by William James. 1895 Functionalist model formulated. 1900 Sigmund Freud developed the psychodynamic perspective. 1904 Ivan Pavlov won Nobel Prize for work on digestion that led to fundamental principles of learning. 1905 Mary Calkins worked on memory.
  11. 11. Date Event 1915 Strong emphasis on intelligence testing. 1920 Gestalt psychology became the most influential. 1924 John B. Watson, an early behaviorist, published Behaviorism. 1951 Carl Rogers published Client-Centered Therapy, helping to establish the humanistic perspective. 1953 B. F. Skinner published Science and Human Behavior advocating the behavioral perspective.
  12. 12. Date Event 1954 Abraham Maslow published Motivation and Personality, developing the concept of self-actualization. 1980 Jean Piaget, influential developmental psychologist died. 1985 Increasing emphasis on cognitive perspective. 2000 New subfields developed such as clinical neuropsychology and evolutionary psychology.
  13. 13. Women in Psychology <ul><li>Margaret Floy Washburn (first woman to receive a doctorate in psychology and made important works on animal behavior) </li></ul><ul><li>Leta Steller Hollingworth (first psychologist to focus on child development and on women’s issues) </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Mary Calkins (studied memory, and became the first female president of the American Psychological Association) </li></ul><ul><li>Karen Horney (focused on social and cultural factors behind personality) </li></ul><ul><li>June Etta Downey (spearheaded the study of personality traits and became the first woman to head a psychology department at a state university. </li></ul><ul><li>Anna Freud (made notable contributions to the treatment of abnormal behavior) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Schools of Psychology <ul><li>Structuralism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it attempted to study the elements of the mind through introspective analysis (introspection) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functionalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it studied the function or utility value of the mind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aimed to uncover and resolve unconscious emotional conflicts that underlie neurotic symptoms through free association, dream analysis and projective tests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>studied behavior in terms of stimulus and response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gestalt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concerned primarily with pattern organization, wholes, and field properties of perception </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Perspectives in Psychology <ul><li>Biological Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic/Phenomenological Perspectives </li></ul>