History of Industrial Design Benjamin Camarillo Ben.Camarillo@gmail.comA brief summary of all the different artisticmovements that marked our history. As we can seein this paper, it’s clear that art is a great influence inIndustrial Design; shapes, colors, contrasts all formpart of the visual stimulation that gives form to theobjects around us.
Arts & CraftsThis movement was created as anattempt to increase the status ofcraftmanship. It also help rise theposition of the decorative arts that cameafter the Industrial Revolution.The movement was inspired bysimplicity, quality craftmanship andgood design. Those who said theybelong to the Arts and Crafts movementsaid that the Industrial Revolutioneliminated any creative outlet anduniqueness from society. Their maingoal was to create a link between theproduct and the maufacturer in order torestore what was lost inmass-production.
Arts & CraftsErnest GimsonEnglish furniture designer and architect.Was considered to be the greatest of theEnglish architect-designers. His interestsincluded the craft techniques, textures andsurfaces, detailed illustrations and simplebuilding processes.His furniture isconsidered aprime achieve-ment of its timeand can be seen inthe most importantcolections of thedecorative arts inBritain and the US.
Arts & CraftsWilliam MorrisEnglish writer, social reformer, designer andartist who tried to renew the culture byrecapturing the spirit of the arts and crafts.As a desiger and craftsman his work was agreat influence in the design of books,printing art, visual arts and industrial desighof the XIX century.His social ideality, somewhatutopian, was left intheoretical writings andnovels like “News fromnowere”.
Art NouveauBorn in Paris and later moving towardsBelgium, Art Nouveau was created in1875 with the purpose of being adecorative style. It’s popularity declinedwhen the First World War started.As we can see in their differentexpressions, their principal form ofinspiration is nature, especiallyplant-shaped forms. These shapes areoften seen in metal structures andornaments of iron.
Art NouveauAntoni GaudíSpanish architect who was thebiggest representative of catalánmodernism. many people agree thathe had a born sense of geometryand volume, as with a bigimaginative capacity that allowedhim to mentally project most of hisworks before placing them on blueprints. Actually he very rarely madeblue prints of his works, as heprefered to recreate them on 3Dmodels.
Art NouveauVictor HortaHis frst great work, the Hotel Tasselin Brussels, already showed his mainsubjects that he would eventuallydevelop: Visible iron structures andspecial attention to the ornament ofevery element.He supervised the interior decorationof all of his buildings, including thefurniture design, making sure doors,stairs and windows had his obviousvegetable inspiration showing awhip-like movement.
Art DecóThis movement started at the time theIndustrial Revolution was stablished.SOme peolpe say it’s a reflexion of thisperiod of time, while others say that itsthe way art became to be alsoindustrialized, as with the rest of theworld.It’s main goal is to accentuate thematerials and its textures, as well as thestraight lines and geometric shapes. ArtDeco is a clear message that man hasconquered the world around them, andinstead of emulating natural shapes,they abstract and simplify them in orderto make them “mass produceable”.
Art DecóRaymond HoodArchitect that worked on the Art Decó at themiddle of the XX century. When he wasstudying in Paris he met John MeadHowells, with whom he eventually becamean asociate. He also used the help of thesculptor Rene Paul Chambellan to createthe scrulptures of his buildings.
Art DecóTamara de LempickaHer artwork focuses on femenine paintingsand both male and female nudity. Followingthe Art Decó trend, she painted etherealfigures with floating cloathing and longfeatures, giving a sculpture type of feeling.Her most important influences are Boticelli,Bronzino, Manierism in general and Cubism.
BauhausFounded in Germany in 1919, WalterGropius created the first school ofdesign and architecture. With a war oncontext, the school’s primary goal wasto help create a world in a moresimplified way. It also marked theturning point to include functionality indesign.Bauhaus second intention was to createmore artistic everyday objects likeradios and orange sqweezers so thatthey could really reach all of thepossible users. They believed that theconection between the designer and theuser should be really tight: functionover form.
BauhausLudwig Mies Van der RoheHis artistic orientations varied a lot during his period, even though he stillremained his innovative touch for his constructions.He started shaping amazing houses, he became well known for hisspectacular buildings, like the apartment building “Weissenhofsiedlung”located in Stuttgart, Germany.
BauhausHannes MeyerHe saw buildings as a basicprocess that takes into accountthe biological, mental, spiritualand physical needs of life. A verycomplete panorama that goesthrough everything.He focused more on livingfacilities and, if we look closelyinto his work, we can notice howhe’s main goal is to create aliving environment were simpleeveryday life things such asventilation, smells and simpleconversations are taken intoaccount.
FuturismFilippo Marinetti created this movementwith the intention of, like the name says,forgetting the old classical design andgive birth to a new movement thatreflected the more technologicallyadvanced society we have created.A movement that started in Italy in thebeginning of the XX century, it alwaysreflected the new characteristics ofmodern society: fast manufacturngprocesses and a more “design aware”user.
FuturismCarlo CarràAt age twelve, he left his house to work as amurallist. In 1899 he moved to Paris to workon several pavilions for the UniverslaExposition. He spent a few years in Londonwere he stayed in touch with some italiananarchists that, like many other artsts of histime, eventually learned the basics ofanarchy, socialism and tried to expressthem in his paintings. He went back to Milanat 1901 were he entered the Accademia diBrera, were he studied with Cesare Tallone.In 1910 he started a pictoric era which wasthe most famous of the artist.
FuturismUmberto BoccioniIn his artworks, Boccioni newhow to express the movement ofthe shapes and the movement ofthe materials.Even though he was influencedby Cubism, which he hated a lot,Boccioi avoided always straightlines and he usedcomplementary colours tocreate a vibrating effect.
PostmodernismAs the name describes it,Postmodernism was looking to replacethe different aspects of Modernism.While also focusing on trying to guidesociety through their designs,Postmodernism focused more onsociety and the context of the objects orworks of art.This movement emerged after the end ofthe Cold War, and it’s a reflection of therapid changing of society itself. Theirprimary object was the people, and theworld around were they developed.
PostmodernismLe CorbusierBesides being a great architect andpainter, he was a great theorical ofarchitecture. He wrote several booksin which he showed his ideasthrough proyects of his own.He also knew that, besides knowinghow to create good buildings, it wasnecessary to know how to explainthem and transmit his message tothe rest of the people, both teachersand students. He also worked withgreat perfection the task ofpublishing his own artwork.
PostmodernismWalter GropiusGropius buildings reflected themost pure style of Bauhaus,because they were built withnew materials which provideshim with a modern aspectunknown at that time.His façades are flat and withvery clear lines and it lacks ofunnecessary ornamentalelements. With this, Gropius hasbeen one of the creators of theso called “international style” inarchitecture.
MinimalismThe movemet’s primary goal was tominimize at most the basiccomponents. The most important thingis to reduce any object to the leastnumber of components. Only theessential, and working around it.Solid colors, geometric shapes andfew components created with the nowavailable industrial technologies of the60’s is how the Minimalists tried to givea message: Trying to unite all of thedifferent aspects of the other oldermovements like context, simplicity,everyday life and beauty.
MinimalismDonald JuddHe’s a minimalist because in his designshe seeks autonomy and clarity for theconstructed objects and the spacecreated by it.The contrast of colors with the unity ofstraight lines creates a nice balancedifferentiation in his artworks.
MinimalismRobert MorrisIs also a minimalist artst because of how heuses simple curves and waves in hissculptures.His instalations have an inverse effect ofDonald Judd. Instead, he uses unity ofcolors in contrast with likes. While the linesare pretty simple, they tend to be in variousdirections, breaking with the ballance ofsimetry.