• managerial performance is explained in terms of effectiveness
• Paul Drucker definitions:
Effectiveness - doing the right things.
Is the degree to which the goals of an organisation have been
attained. The strategy that is going to be used o attain certain
goals is also a measure of the effectiveness.
Efficiency - doing things right.
It is based on the inputs and outputs relationship, for example,
efficiency of an engine. Efficient managers achieve high levels
of output with a given base of outputs. Minimising the costs of
the resources for higher output levels.
The Functional Approach
• Planning: this is designing a framework of performance by:
1. Evaluating environmental forces and organisational resources.
2. establishing a set of organisational goals
3. developing strategies and plans to achieve the stated goals
4. formulating the decision-making process
• Organising: is establishing order, function and design. It includes the
following three elements:
1. Developing structure of the organisation
2. Acquiring and training human resources
3. Establishing communication patterns and networks.
• Leading: is directing employee’s performance. It includes four principles:
1. motivating employees
2. influencing employees to perform
3. forming effective groups.
4. improving the job performance.
The Functional Approach
• Controlling: is evaluating performance, that is,
ensuring that the organisation is moving towards
the goals. The basic components of the
1. elements of a control system or
2. evaluating and rewarding employee
3. controlling financial, information, and
Mintzberg’s Management Roles Approach
• The term role is defined as the organisational set of observable behaviours
that are attributed to a specific office or position
• Roles are a capacity to which the manager acts and Minztberg defined
1. interpersonal roles
2. informational roles
3. decisional roles
These characterize managerial activities.
1. Figurehead - for sales manager involves ceremonial work as receiving
visitors or hierarchical duties as requesting subordinate to
follow up a specific job.
2. Leader - hires, trains and motivates field and personal personnel.
3. Liaison - consists of interaction with other managers of external
organisations, for example to establish a sales contract with a
customer. He acts as a representative of the organisation.
1.Monitor - seeks and receives wide variety of special
information. Nerve centre of internal and external
information about the org.
2.Disseminator - transmit that information to members of the
organisation or subordinates.
3.Spokesman - transmit the information to the outsiders about the
org’s plans, polices, actions, results, etc.
1.Entrepreneur - searches organisation and its environment
for opportunities. Initiating projects in the
org and bring about change.
2.Disturbance Handler - takes the corrective action when org
faces unexpected disturbances. Also, in
3.Resource Allocator - allocates resources of all kinds for the org.
4.Negotiator - represents the organisation for major
TYPES or LEVELS OF MANAGERS
•These are responsible for the work of others
•They direct employees but they do not supervise other managers
•They are often called supervisors
•Their duties include evaluation of day-to-day performance indicators, such as
volume produced, quality control, inventory and preventive maintenance.
•Examples of such are: sales manager, foreman or production supervisor in a
manufacturing plant, clerical supervisor in a large plant.
•Can include more than one level in an org.
•These direct first line managers the activities that implement their orgnal
polices and to balance the demands of their managers with the capacity of their
•This level is the prime training ground for executives and is at the centre of
•Examples are: general manager, plant manager, operations superintended
TOP OR EXECUTIVE MANAGERS
• These are responsible for interacting with
representatives of the external environment and
establish the goals of the org, its plans,
strategies, broad operating polices and
• Typical examples are President, CEO or COO-
Chief Operating Officer, Executive vice
president, senior vice president and vice
DISTRIBUTION OF TIME PER ACTIVITY BY
•Executive manager spends much time on issues of planning and change
which concern overall policy and strategy formulation.
•The Middle-Managers has much time on organizing and leading. This is
called strategy implementation. It means they put into action the plans and
strategies of executive managers.
•First-line managers spend much of their time on leading and controlling. The
main focus is on implementation and evaluation of the organizational plans
achieve certain goals.
The ability of using tools, techniques, procedures, or approaches in a
Engineer designing a bridge can be an example.
People with these skills are referred to as experts.
This relates to the ability of selecting, motivating, work with or lead employees.
An examples is a manufacturing manager resolving a conflict between an
inventory supervisor and a loading supervisor.
This relates to the ability to see the total orgnal picture by integrating or
coordinating a large number of activities.
This is a picture of how the different part of the org fit together and how each
part can affect another.
The manager should also be able to link the works of different groups together
CHALLENGES FOR MANAGEMENT IN A GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT
1.THE NEED FOR VISION
A vision for living through is important for a manager in thus world of increasing
technology advancements. Thus, building a competitive advantage.
•Increasing Efficiency -Reducing the quantity of resources used to produce
goods and services.
•Increasing Quality -Introducing Total Quality Management (TQM) to improve
•Increasing Speed, Flexibility, and Innovation -Adapting to bring new products to market faster.
•Increasing Responsiveness to Customers -Empowering employees to deal with customers.
2. INCREASE IN NUMBER OF GLOBAL ORGANISATIONS.
3. MAINTAINING ETHICAL STANDARDS
This is the study of who is and should be benefited or harmed by an action.
Ethics deals with both conflict and opportunity in human relationships.
•Factors Influencing Behaviors:
– External pressures from stockholders/stakeholders for increased
organizational financial performance.
– Internal pressures from top management to lower-level managers to
increase the organization’s competitive performance and profitability.
– Societal, cultural, and environment demands on the organization.