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The Perils of Fish Farming

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This presentation summarizes the problems with conventional fish farming approaches, and uses the precautionary principle as a framework to handle the issue.

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
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The Perils of Fish Farming

  1. 1. FISH FARMING The right solution to overfishing?
  2. 2. WHAT I WILL BE SHARING TODAY 1. The Overfishing Crisis 2. The Solution: Fish Farming – or is it? 3. The Dangers of Conventional Fish Farming 4. Making Fish Farming Safe and Environmental
  3. 3. THE PROBLEM Increasing Demand
  4. 4. THE PROBLEM Overfishing Increasing Demand
  5. 5. THE PROBLEM Fisheries Collapse Collapse of Atlantic cod stocks (East Coast of Newfoundland), 1992 Overfishing Increasing Demand
  6. 6. THE LOGICAL SOLUTION: FISH FARMING Fisheries Collapse Overfishing Increasing Demand Fish Farming
  7. 7. THE LOGICAL SOLUTION: FISH FARMING Fisheries Collapse Overfishing Increasing Demand Fish Farming More Serious Problems? Fish Farm in Thailand
  8. 8. TRENDS
  9. 9. PROBLEMS WITH THE SOLUTION The Precautionary Principle “In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capabilities. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.” - Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration
  10. 10. DIFFERENTIATING FISH FARMING • Open Water •Along rivers, lakes, seas, oceans •Ultimately lead to the ocean • Closed Water •Ponds, tanks, closed lakes • Intensive •Food from external sources •Maximise yield • Extensive •Food from sources inherent to habitat •Lower yield • Other Methods?
  11. 11. PROBLEMS WITH OPEN WATER FISH FARMING
  12. 12. PROBLEMS WITH OPEN WATER FISH FARMING Introduction of non-native species Antibiotics, Hormones Fish Meal and Fish Oil Fertilisers Incubation of local diseases and parasites New diseases and parasites introduced to the environment Fish Sewage: Uneaten food, waste products, diseases and pathogens GM Fish and non-native species that escape compete with native fish
  13. 13. PROBLEMS WITH OPEN WATER: POLLUTION
  14. 14. PROBLEMS WITH OPEN WATER: POLLUTION • Fertilisers • Nitrogen Compounds Phosphorus Compounds
  15. 15. PROBLEMS WITH OPEN WATER: POLLUTION • Fertilisers • Nitrogen Compounds Phosphorus Compounds Eutrophication
  16. 16. PROBLEMS WITH OPEN WATER: POLLUTION Incubation of parasites and disease Caligus louse feeding on young sockeye salmon taken from a fish farm
  17. 17. PROBLEMS WITH OPEN WATER: INVASION OF WILD HABITATS 18-month-old salmon, one genetically modified, the other not.
  18. 18. PROBLEMS WITH INTENSIVE FARMING
  19. 19. PROBLEMS WITH INTENSIVE FARMING Trophic Levels 1 kg of tuna = 10 kg of sardines, catfish = 100 kg of tilapia, oysters = 1000 kg of phytoplankton, seaweed
  20. 20. ALTERNATIVES
  21. 21. IMTA Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture • Modernised form of polyculture • Rearing marine organisms from different trophic levels, e.g. • Salmon (carnivorous) • Carp, Oysters (herbivorous) • Seaweed (autotrophs)
  22. 22. AQUAPONICS Plants utilize water filled with nitrogen-rich fish waste for their own growth, purifying the water for the fish in the process Aquaponics with catfish
  23. 23. IN CONCLUSION Any Questions?

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