中國   China Benjamin Arno, O’Reggio Bennet, and Ruby Lavin Ms. Reginer Pr. 7
Introduction  <ul><ul><li>China has been one of the most   prosperous ancient civilizations  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kn...
Geography <ul><li>In Eastern Asia. Between the East China Sea, Korean Bay, South China Sea, and Yellow Sea. </li></ul><ul>...
SHANG DYNASTY 1600-1100 B.C. <ul><li>Power and Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Line of hereditary kings rule  -- 31 kings in 1...
Zhou Dynasty 1100-256 B.C.
ZHOU DYNASTY 1100-256 B.C. <ul><li>Power and Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Overthrew the Shang Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Hie...
Mandate of Heaven <ul><li>Zhou rulers claimed that the gods had become livid with the Shang cruelty.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ov...
Dynastic Cycle <ul><li>The pattern of the rise, fall, and replacement of dynasties is  called the Dynastic Cycle by histor...
Period of the Warring States   戰國時代  475-271 B.C. <ul><li>Power and Authority: </li></ul><ul><li>Seven main States: Zhao, ...
Qin  Dynasty 秦朝  221 - 206 B.C. <ul><li>Power and Authority: </li></ul><ul><li>Most notable emperor Qin Shi Huangdi, the f...
Han  Dynasty 漢朝   206 B.C.-220 A.D. <ul><li>Power and Authority: </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled using the Civil Service System --...
PERIOD OF DISUNITY 220-589 A.D <ul><li>Power and Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Empire fragmented.  Almost four centuries of ...
SUI  DYNASTY 589-618 A.D. <ul><li>Power and Authority </li></ul><ul><li>China reunited after almost 400 years of division ...
Tang Dynasty (618-907) <ul><li>Tang's first ruler was Tang Taizang. He managed to expand China by conquering northern and ...
Tang's Decline <ul><li>By the mid 700s the Tang Dynasty was beginning to weaken. </li></ul><ul><li>They brought back taxes...
Song Dynasty (960-1276) <ul><li>Zhao Kuangyin united China after the decline of the Tang Dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>Althou...
Technology of the Song Dynasty <ul><li>The Song Dynasty came up with the idea of rice cultivation . They were able to plan...
Chinese Social Structure <ul><li>During the Tang and Song Dynasties they had a strict social structure. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Cultural Diffusion Among China <ul><li>Japanese culture is greatly based on the adaptation of Chinese culture. </li></ul><...
The Yuan Dynasty(1279-1368 A.D.) <ul><li>One of the most militaristic groups of foreigners, The Mongols, evaded and later ...
Troubles Bubble in the Yuan <ul><li>Since the beginning of their rule the Mongols were simple unable to understand the Chi...
Ming  Dynasty   明朝   1368-1644 A.D.   <ul><li>Power and Authority: </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful navy, a million soldiers. </...
QING DYNASTY 1644-1911 A.D. <ul><li>Power and Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Manchu conquers from north and establish last dy...
People's Republic Of China <ul><li>The People's Republic of China is China today.  </li></ul><ul><li>China today is broken...
Works Consulted <ul><li>“ Ancient China :Timeline of Chinese Dyansties.”19 Nov. 2008 < http:// www.mnsu.edu/emuseun/prehis...
Works Consulted  <ul><li>Goldberg, Steven , and Judith C. Dupre.  Global History and Geography Regents Review Book.  Bosto...
Works Consulted <ul><li>&quot;Ancient China: The Mongolian Empire: The Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368 .&quot;  Washington State U...
Works Consulted <ul><li>Goldberg, Steven , and Judith C. Dupre.  Global History and Geography Regents Review Book.  Boston...
Works Consulted http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/archives/fireworks%20materials.jpg http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/warri...
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  • Ruby Lavin
  • China

    1. 1. 中國 China Benjamin Arno, O’Reggio Bennet, and Ruby Lavin Ms. Reginer Pr. 7
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><ul><li>China has been one of the most prosperous ancient civilizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>known to man. China was generous enough to share their ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>throughout the rest of the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through cultural diffusion China most efficiently publicized their </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concepts to the rest of the world, in ancient times up to today. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China’s geography greatly contributed to their success as an </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>empire. their natural resources and the physical features of their </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>land allowed them to become powerful militaristically and in trade. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For over thousands of years China was defined by the rise and fall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of dynasties. Each dynasty brought new tenets about power and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>authority, science and technology, and culture to the Chinese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>civilization. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Geography <ul><li>In Eastern Asia. Between the East China Sea, Korean Bay, South China Sea, and Yellow Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Tibetan plateau -- large, flat land. Other plateaus as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Mountains -- Himalayas create natural barrier. </li></ul><ul><li>Many rivers, Huang He and Yangtze biggest. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate ranges from subtropical to sub arctic. </li></ul><ul><li>Included Mount Everest, the world’s tallest mountain. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resources include aluminum, antimony, coal, iron ore, lead, magnetite, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, natural gas, petroleum, tin, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. </li></ul>
    4. 4. SHANG DYNASTY 1600-1100 B.C. <ul><li>Power and Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Line of hereditary kings rule -- 31 kings in 17 generations </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent wars with neighboring settlements and nomadic herdsmen </li></ul><ul><li>Walled cities </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp divisions between nobles and peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Development of writing system </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze technology required centralized coordination of large labor force and technically skilled artisans </li></ul><ul><li>Silk cloth weaving </li></ul><ul><li>Horse-drawn war chariots </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Worshiped supreme god, Shang Di, and many lesser gods </li></ul><ul><li>Kings consulted gods through oracle bones, animal bones, tortoise shells </li></ul>
    5. 5. Zhou Dynasty 1100-256 B.C.
    6. 6. ZHOU DYNASTY 1100-256 B.C. <ul><li>Power and Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Overthrew the Shang Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical political and social system: aristocratic families are lords of domains or principalities (analogous to European feudalism) </li></ul><ul><li>Longest dynasty. Divided into two periods: Western and Eastern Zhou </li></ul><ul><li>Mandate of Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Create new ways of wars. Competition for power between rival semi-autonomous states </li></ul><ul><li>New class of civil servants , the Mandarins </li></ul><ul><li>Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Produce cast iron and create weapons and agricultural tools </li></ul><ul><li>Coin money </li></ul><ul><li>Build roads, canals and bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Share language and culture of Shang and extend it through much of China Proper north of Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) </li></ul><ul><li>Classical age of philosophy: Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism </li></ul><ul><li>Confucius develops a system of moral values and responsible behavior that influenced China for more than 2,000 years. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Mandate of Heaven <ul><li>Zhou rulers claimed that the gods had become livid with the Shang cruelty. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, this justification became a belief that royal authority came from heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>A ruler with divine approval was known as the Mandate of Heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>A nefarious king could lose the Mandate of Heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>Floods, riots or other disasters could be signs that spirits were upset with a king’s rule. This might cause the Mandate of Heaven to pass onto another noble family. </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles might claim in bad times that they have claimed the Mandate of Heaven, and try to over throw the king. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Dynastic Cycle <ul><li>The pattern of the rise, fall, and replacement of dynasties is called the Dynastic Cycle by historians, </li></ul><ul><li>New dynasty begins with strong ruler, the dynasty expands and makes contributions to the culture and technology. </li></ul><ul><li>In later years, rulers may be corrupt and/or inefficient which weakens dynasty, leads to social unrest and rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>The old dynasty loses the Mandate of Heaven and the new dynasty claims it. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Period of the Warring States 戰國時代 475-271 B.C. <ul><li>Power and Authority: </li></ul><ul><li>Seven main States: Zhao, Zei, Han, Wei, Chu, Qi, Yan. </li></ul><ul><li>Barbaric State of Qin conquers all. </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles change from </li></ul><ul><li>warriors to scholars. </li></ul><ul><li>Science and Technology: </li></ul><ul><li>Iron replaces bronze in weaponry. </li></ul><ul><li>Infantry replaces chariots. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Qin Dynasty 秦朝 221 - 206 B.C. <ul><li>Power and Authority: </li></ul><ul><li>Most notable emperor Qin Shi Huangdi, the first emperor of China. </li></ul><ul><li>Palaces the size of Manhattan. </li></ul><ul><li>Science and Technology: </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized coins, writing, axle widths. </li></ul><ul><li>Burned books, buried Confucian scholars alive. </li></ul><ul><li>Arts and Culture: </li></ul><ul><li>Famous Terracotta Army made to guard Qin Shi Huangdi in the afterlife. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Han Dynasty 漢朝 206 B.C.-220 A.D. <ul><li>Power and Authority: </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled using the Civil Service System -- a combination of Legalism and Confucianism. </li></ul><ul><li>The Silk Road </li></ul><ul><li>encourages trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Science and Technology: </li></ul><ul><li>Many advances </li></ul><ul><li>in earth science. </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of </li></ul><ul><li>paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Arts and Culture: </li></ul><ul><li>The making of silk and glazing of ceramics was perfected. </li></ul>
    12. 12. PERIOD OF DISUNITY 220-589 A.D <ul><li>Power and Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Empire fragmented. Almost four centuries of rule by warlords </li></ul><ul><li>North dominated by invaders from the steppes and borderland. </li></ul><ul><li>South ruled by successive “Chinese” dynasties </li></ul><ul><li>Era of three kingdoms Wei, Shu, and Wu </li></ul><ul><li>Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of gunpowder used in fireworks </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of wheel barrel </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in medicine, astronomy and cartography </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism spread </li></ul>
    13. 13. SUI DYNASTY 589-618 A.D. <ul><li>Power and Authority </li></ul><ul><li>China reunited after almost 400 years of division </li></ul><ul><li>Short by dynastic standards </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy taxes and compulsory labor </li></ul><ul><li>Civil service strengthened </li></ul><ul><li>Unsuccessful military campaigns against Northern Korea and A Southern Manchurian kingdom contributed to demise </li></ul><ul><li>Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Completion of Grand Canal, major engineering accomplishment, linked Yangtze Valley with Northern China </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction of Great Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Yang Jian, Sui founder, called Wendi, the ‘Cultivated Emperor’ </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative reform begins modeled after Han institutions </li></ul>
    14. 14. Tang Dynasty (618-907) <ul><li>Tang's first ruler was Tang Taizang. He managed to expand China by conquering northern and western lands of China. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Tang Dynasty China experienced it's Gold Age. </li></ul><ul><li>Tang lowered taxes for peasants and gave them land. He promoted foreign trade and made improvements in agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>They also started the civil service. They opened schools around the country to teach them Confucianism. For exams. Those who passed the exams became known as scholar officials. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Tang's Decline <ul><li>By the mid 700s the Tang Dynasty was beginning to weaken. </li></ul><ul><li>They brought back taxes, and peasants left the villages and became bandits. The Tang had lost control of the great Empire they built. </li></ul><ul><li>A group of Arabs attacked China at its Western Frontier . </li></ul><ul><li>They murdered Tang's last ruler who was a child. </li></ul>During the Tang upper class women had to tie 10 feet of bandages around their feet. This process called foot binding left them paralyzed for the rest of their lives.
    16. 16. Song Dynasty (960-1276) <ul><li>Zhao Kuangyin united China after the decline of the Tang Dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>Although strong, the Song Dynasty weren't as prosperous as the Tang Dynasty. They were not able to win back the western frontier lost in the Tang. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Early 1100s people called the Jerchen conquered northern China and forced Song to retreat south. </li></ul><ul><li>The Song Dynasty was now broken up into North and South. </li></ul><ul><li>Southern China had the best economy. Merchant became rich, and their population grew to as much as 1 million people in each of the ten cities. </li></ul><ul><li>The Song Dynasty was weakened by invaders named the Mongols. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Technology of the Song Dynasty <ul><li>The Song Dynasty came up with the idea of rice cultivation . They were able to plant two rice crops a year. They had a surplus of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Artisan of the Song Dynasty made porcelain and calligraphy for writing. </li></ul><ul><li>The also came up with the spinning wheel to make thread, and movable type printing machines. </li></ul><ul><li>They also created the magnetic compass to help with navigation on the seas. </li></ul><ul><li>All these inventions later spread to Korea, Japan, and Europe. All except porcelain that remain China's personal secret. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Chinese Social Structure <ul><li>During the Tang and Song Dynasties they had a strict social structure. </li></ul><ul><li>On top were the gentry. They were wealth landowners, who were scholarly. They valued Confucianism. </li></ul><ul><li>Under them are the Peasants. Most Chinese were peasants. They farmed and lived off their crops. They also sold crafts . </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants held a lower social structure because their wealth came from the labor of others. Merchants strove to rank to gentry. </li></ul><ul><li>Women held great authority in the Tang and Song Dynasties. They managed family finances, disciplined children, and watched over servants. </li></ul><ul><li>However, they still were ranked under the men. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Cultural Diffusion Among China <ul><li>Japanese culture is greatly based on the adaptation of Chinese culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Korea acted as a bridge between China and Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 600BC Japan sent nobles, to study in China, who brought back Chinese traditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 500BC Korea brought the Chinese writing system to Japan, who made it their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Koreans also brought Buddhism from China. </li></ul><ul><li>European traveler Marco Polo brought Chinese noodles back to Italy. </li></ul>
    20. 20. The Yuan Dynasty(1279-1368 A.D.) <ul><li>One of the most militaristic groups of foreigners, The Mongols, evaded and later took over China. </li></ul><ul><li>With help from Kublai Khan, the Yuan Dynasty was founded, and conquered China for the first time as foreigners. </li></ul><ul><li>Kublai Khan, in order to establish the respect as a foreigner, built a strong central government during his reign. </li></ul><ul><li>Kublai Khan also, founded the capital Beijing. As a job well done he built the most beautiful palace in Beijing for himself, Forbidden City. </li></ul><ul><li>The forbidden city contained Arabic, Mongolian, western Asian, and Chinese elements. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Troubles Bubble in the Yuan <ul><li>Since the beginning of their rule the Mongols were simple unable to understand the Chinese language, which made it pretty hard to rule them. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese never really found the respect for the Mongols they still looked at them as bandits. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of lack of respect, Chinese scholars refused to teach in schools, to educate the foreigners. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mongols also traded strangely. They gave more than they took. This brought down the Chinese economy drastically. </li></ul><ul><li>Mongols tried to wage war on japan, but were highly unstable in their reign, so japan ruin many Chinese warships that could have been used for trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade was made very difficult since the Chinese were able to communicate with the other nations. </li></ul><ul><li>As China depleted more and more, The Mongols lost interest in conquering them and left China in poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>A mighty China was reduced to a poor China from the time of the Tang to the Yuan. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Ming Dynasty 明朝 1368-1644 A.D. <ul><li>Power and Authority: </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful navy, a million soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Science and Technology: </li></ul><ul><li>Laid basis for trigonometry. </li></ul><ul><li>Smallpox inoculation becomes common. </li></ul><ul><li>Arts and Culture: </li></ul><ul><li>Novel becomes a viable form of writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Current version of the Great Wall of China finished. </li></ul><ul><li>Known for their vases. </li></ul>
    23. 23. QING DYNASTY 1644-1911 A.D. <ul><li>Power and Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Manchu conquers from north and establish last dynasty. Rule for 300 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly incorporates substantial new territories </li></ul><ul><li>Rules through existing Chinese bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Confucian civil service system continues </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Prosperity and complacency </li></ul><ul><li>Population boom </li></ul><ul><li>Famous novel: Dream of the Red Chamber </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian structure eventually not able to meet cultural and political challenges of the West. </li></ul>
    24. 24. People's Republic Of China <ul><li>The People's Republic of China is China today. </li></ul><ul><li>China today is broken up into two parts, regular China, and Taiwan. </li></ul><ul><li>Effort were made to untied the two, but Taiwan prefers to be independent. </li></ul><ul><li>The republic of China is in the mainland of China, and is a communist state. </li></ul><ul><li>Established in 1949, the People's Republic of China is the most populated in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Under the leader Mao Zedong Communists rose to power in China during the cultural revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Communists overcame because of their appeal to peasants and women, and experienced military ability. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Works Consulted <ul><li>“ Ancient China :Timeline of Chinese Dyansties.”19 Nov. 2008 < http:// www.mnsu.edu/emuseun/prehistory/china/timeline.html > </li></ul><ul><li>Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, and Dahia Ibo Shabaka. World History: Patterns of Interaction. 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Chinese History- Timeline.”19 Nov. 2008 < http:// www.chinavoc.com/history/index.asp > </li></ul><ul><li>“ Chinese History- The Qin Dynasty (221-207 B.C.).” 20 Nov. 2008 < http:// www.chinavoc.com/history/timeline.htm > </li></ul><ul><li>“ Chinese History- The Qing Dynasty (AD 1644-1911).” 20 Nov. 2008 < http:// www.chinavoc.com/history/qing.htm > </li></ul><ul><li>Dynastic Cycle Diagram. 23 Nov. 2008 < http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/goldenages/IMAGES/dynasticcycle.gif > </li></ul><ul><li>“ Exploring Chinese History :: History :: Ancient Chinese History :: Outline.” 20 Nov. 2008< http://www.ibiblio.org/chinesehistory/contents/01his/c01s02.html > </li></ul><ul><li>“ History of China: Table of Contents.” 19 Nov. 2008 < http://www- chaos.umd.edu/history/toc.html > </li></ul><ul><li>“ History Timeline” 19 Nov. 2008 < http://www- chaos.umd.edu/history/time_line.html > </li></ul>
    26. 26. Works Consulted <ul><li>Goldberg, Steven , and Judith C. Dupre. Global History and Geography Regents Review Book. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Mandate of Heaven Diagram. 23 Nov. 2008 < http://www.mckinnonsc.vic.edu.au/projects/asia/asiaunits/china/cyclicpattern.gifs > </li></ul><ul><li>Period of Disunity Map. 24 Nov. 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>< http://www.kidspast.com/images/shang-dynasty.gif > </li></ul><ul><li>Qing Dynasty Map. 24 Nov. 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>< http:// www.chinatownconnection.com/images/qingdynastymap.gif > </li></ul><ul><li>Shang Dynasty Map. 24 Nov. 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>< http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/mhi/T028709A.gif > </li></ul><ul><li>Sui Dynasty Map. 24 Nov. 2008 http://www.chinatownconnection.com/images/suidynastymap.gif > </li></ul><ul><li>“ Timeline of Chinese History” 19 Nov. 2008 < http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/webcourse/key_points/china_timeline.htm > </li></ul><ul><li>World Book Encyclopedia . 2006 edition. </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou Dynasty Map. 24 Nov. 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>< http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/images/threekingdomsmap.gif </li></ul>
    27. 27. Works Consulted <ul><li>&quot;Ancient China: The Mongolian Empire: The Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368 .&quot; Washington State University - Pullman, Washington. 16 Nov. 2008 <http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CHEMPIRE/YUAN.HTM>. </li></ul><ul><li>Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, and Dahia Ibo Shabaka. World History: Patterns of Interaction . Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littel, 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;China & Japan COMPLETE.&quot; Williams History. 25 Nov. 2008 <http://williamshistory.net/Homework/Review3ChinaJapanCOMPLETE.htm> </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Social Structure .Chart.16.Nov.2008 </li></ul><ul><li><http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/goldenages/IMAGES/classtriangle.gif> </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diffussion In China, Korea, and Japan. Chart.16. Nov. 2008 <http://williamshistory.net/Homework/Review3ChinaJapanCOMPLETE.htm> </li></ul><ul><li>>. </li></ul><ul><li>Yuan Dynasty . Map. 16.Nov.2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/later_imperial_china/yuan.html> </li></ul><ul><li>Foot Binding Shoe. Photo.16.Nov.2008 < http://www.naz.edu:9000/~bio226w/cultural/cultures/shoe.jpg> </li></ul>
    28. 28. Works Consulted <ul><li>Goldberg, Steven , and Judith C. Dupre. Global History and Geography Regents Review Book. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Leinwand, Gerald. The Pageant of World History. Boston: Allyn And Bacon Inc., 1977. </li></ul><ul><li>Song Dynasty. Map.16.Nov.2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/classical_imperial_china/song.html> </li></ul><ul><li>Song Pottery. Photo.16.Nov.2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/classical_imperial_china/song.html> </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;T'ang Dynasty.&quot; Minnesota State University, Mankato. 14 Nov. 2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/classical_imperial_china/tang.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Tang Dynasty. Map. 16.Nov. 2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/classical_imperial_china/tang.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Northern and Southern Song dynasties. &quot; Minnesota State University, Mankato . 14 Nov. 2008 </li></ul><ul><li><http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/classical_imperial_china/song.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Yuan.&quot; Minnesota State University, Mankato. 16 Nov. 2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/later_imperial_china/yuan.html </li></ul>
    29. 29. Works Consulted http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/archives/fireworks%20materials.jpg http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/warringstates.htm http://mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/early_imperial_china/qin.html http://mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/early_imperial_china/han.html http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ming/hd_ming.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D5KbloCv4UQ http://www.murrayhudson.com/antique_maps/continent_maps/04737m.jpg http://www.wuhan.com/cmarter/files/20051205-HHOn-44Hu-vdel.JPG?id=22288,1495952606 http://www.abc.net.au/reslib/200804/r242836_987334.jpg http://www.chinareview.com/images/attractions-great-wall.jpg https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/ch.html .

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