SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 26
Note for instructors:
• If you make significant improvements/additions to this slide deck, I would
love for you to share your improvements with me!
(waggonerdenton@psych.utoronto.ca)
• These slides provide a summary of some recent research on the use/access
of technology (e.g., laptops, phones) during class time and study sessions.
• This is not a comprehensive list of all research done in this area!
• The slides themselves have limited text on them, as they are meant to be
‘ready to show’ to students in the context of a lecture. However, I have
included additional information (including full abstracts of key papers
referenced) in the notes sections of the slides.
• While the slides focus on results, I also highly recommend using this opportunity to
discuss research methods, potential confounds, appropriate inference, etc.!
www.TeachReflectRepeat.com
Additional Resources:
• For instructors (from the Learning Scientists):
• Links to pro & con opinion pieces on cell phone use in the classroom:
http://www.learningscientists.org/blog/2017/9/17/weekly-digest-77
• Guest post on Technology in the Classroom:
http://www.learningscientists.org/blog/2017/9/17/weekly-digest-77
• For students (a wonderful article that includes the technology advice
advocated here, as well as a lot more!):
• Putnam et al. (2016). Optimizing learning in college: Tips from cognitive
psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11, 652-660.
https://uwaterloo.ca/psychology/sites/ca.psychology/files/uploads/files/howt
osucceedinuniversity.pdf
Making Informed Decisions:
Laptops, Smartphones, and Your Studies
Laptop Use in the Classroom
• Laptops are (gasp!) not always used solely for note-taking
• Email, unrelated websites, videos, shopping, social media, etc.
• School-unrelated laptop use during class time has been associated
with lower academic satisfaction, lower end-of-semester GPAs, and
lower course performance relative to classmates (Gaudreau, Miranda, & Gareau, 2014)
Laptop Use in the Classroom: Multitasking
Sana, Weston & Cepeda, 2013
• Simulated classroom environment (45 minute ‘introduction to
meteorology’ lecture)
• Multitasking condition: given 12 online tasks similar to those that students
regularly engage in (e.g., answering a question that can be found with a
relatively quick Google search)
• No multitasking condition: Just used their laptops to take notes
• Lecture was immediately followed by a comprehension test (both
knowledge and application questions)
The multitasking students
scored an average of 11%
lower on the test!
The notes taken by the
multitaskers were also of
poorer quality – e.g.,
missing the verbal
information provided by
the lecturer not included
on the lecture slides
(Fig. 1 from Sana, Weston & Cepeda, 2013)
Laptop Use in the Classroom: Multitasking
Sana, Weston & Cepeda, 2013
• Study 2: Examined effect of
multitasking on nearby peers
(rather than the multitaskers
themselves)
• Participants themselves took
paper-and-pencil notes (no
multitasking)
• Participants in both conditions took
notes of similar quality
How well do you think each group
performed on the test?
(Fig. 2 from Sana, Weston & Cepeda, 2013)
• Study 2: Examined effect of
multitasking on nearby peers (rather
than the multitaskers themselves)
• Participants themselves took paper-
and-pencil notes (no multitasking)
• Participants in both conditions took
notes of similar quality.
How do you think they did on the test?
• (Fig. 1 from Sana, Weston & Cepeda, 2013)
Students in view of
multitasking peers scored
17% lower on the test!
Importantly, these
students did NOT realize
the effect that others’
behavior was having on
them – e.g., they
believed their learning
was “barely hindered” by
their peers.
(Fig. 3 from Sana, Weston & Cepeda, 2013)
Laptop Use in the Classroom: Notetaking
Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014 (updated 2018)
• What if you use your laptop solely for notetaking?
• Simulated classroom environment (watched 5 TED Talks), instructed
to take notes “as they normally would in the classroom” either using
a laptop or a notebook (longhand notes)
• Note: laptops were disconnected from the Internet!
• After distractor tasks and a 30-min delay, participants took a test that
included factual-recall and conceptual-application questions based on
the talks
Laptop Use in the Classroom: Notetaking
Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014 (updated 2018)
• Study 1: Laptop note-takers performed worse on conceptual-
application questions; took longer notes, but more transcription-like
(taking notes verbatim)
• Study 2: Specifically instructed to not take notes verbatim. Laptop
note-takers still performed worse, and still took more verbatim notes
than longhand note-takers.
• Study 3: Maybe laptop notes are better for studying? Nope -
participants who took longhand notes AND were able to study from
them performed better than anyone else.
Laptop Use in the Classroom: Notetaking
Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014 (updated 2018)
Laptop Use in the Classroom: Notetaking
Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014 (updated 2018)
Because we are able to type
much quicker than we write, it is
much easier to take verbatim
(word for word) notes with a
laptop.
ME (Instructor)
YOU (student)
Laptop Use in the Classroom: Notetaking
Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014 (updated 2018)
Because we are able to type
much quicker than we write, it is
much easier to take verbatim
(word for word) notes with a
laptop.
Unfortunately,
transcription ≠ better learning!
Laptop Use in the Classroom
• What are the key take-aways of this research?
• Potential solutions?
• What are some practical rules/guidelines we should establish for
laptop use in this classroom?
Laptops and tablets and cell phones – oh my!
• Of course, laptops are not the only potential
source of distraction
• Multitasking on cell phones and tablets is (not
surprisingly) also detrimental to learning!
• And again, the research indicates that it’s not only
the USER of the device whose learning is impaired
– but everyone’s performance suffers when
electronic devices are permitted in the classroom
(e.g., Lee et al., 2017; Glass & Kang, 2018)
Glass & Kang, 2018
• Classroom experiment, using two identical back-to-back sections of
an upper-year cognitive psychology course which met twice a week
• In one section, electronic devices were banned on Tuesdays
• In the other section, electronic devices were banned on Thursdays
• Examined student performance on same-day in-class questions, unit
exam (test) questions, and final exam questions
Glass & Kang, 2018: Results
Glass & Kang, 2018: Results
Glass & Kang, 2018: Final Thoughts
• Just because you can answer a question correctly in class, does not
mean that your cellphone or laptop use is not impairing your
learning!
"This is one of the occasional cases in human cognition where our
intuitions mislead us, because even though they can divide their
attention well enough to remember in the moment … what happens is
that a week later, they’ve pretty much forgotten what happened in
class," Glass said. "What’s the point of going to class in the first place if
a week later you don’t remember it?” (Inside Higher Ed, July 27 2018)
Glass & Kang, 2018: Final Thoughts
• The devices are not the enemy – after all, even on the “not allowed”
days, these devices were used to answer the in-class questions!
• It is the misuse of these devices and subsequent distraction that is
problematic, along with the fact that it can be very difficult for us to
recognize the negative effects that the devices are having on us
• If we don’t recognize something as being a problem, it is very difficult to
be motivated to find a solution!
Classroom Guidelines for Electronics Use
Electronic Devices Outside of the Classroom
• Of course, the classroom is not the only place where learning occurs!
• Electronic devices can impair learning outside of the classroom as well
Electronic Devices Outside of the Classroom
• Research has shown that individuals who report having a strong
dependence on their cellphones perform significantly better on
cognitive tasks when their cellphone was out of sight (Ward et al., 2017)
• Even if the phone was turned off, its mere presence impaired
performance
• Again, people appear to be largely unaware of this – participants do not
report consciously thinking about or being distracted by their phones!
Products/apps you may wish to look into if you
find yourself unable to control technological
distractions (all have free options)
• https://getcoldturkey.com/
• Can block yourself out of certain websites, the entire Internet, apps, etc.,
during specific time windows (e.g., when you have a class!)
• http://selfcontrolapp.com/ (for Mac users)
• StayFocusd (Google Chrome extension)
• Limits time spent on distracting websites
• Freedom (available in the app store) – same idea, works on your iPhone, iPad
• https://www.boomeranggmail.com/
• If you use Gmail and email is a major distraction during class/studying

More Related Content

Similar to Laptops smartphones-and-your-studies

IoP Talk Sam Nolan Paul Hatherly
IoP Talk Sam Nolan Paul HatherlyIoP Talk Sam Nolan Paul Hatherly
IoP Talk Sam Nolan Paul HatherlySam Nolan
 
YACRS (Yet Another Classroom Response System
YACRS (Yet Another Classroom Response SystemYACRS (Yet Another Classroom Response System
YACRS (Yet Another Classroom Response SystemUofGlasgowLTU
 
Effective Multidisciplinary Active Learning Techniques for Students
Effective Multidisciplinary Active Learning Techniques for StudentsEffective Multidisciplinary Active Learning Techniques for Students
Effective Multidisciplinary Active Learning Techniques for StudentsIzzah Dan
 
Chlders&Rott Final Presentation
Chlders&Rott Final PresentationChlders&Rott Final Presentation
Chlders&Rott Final Presentationjscypinski
 
M Learn2009shortpaper
M Learn2009shortpaperM Learn2009shortpaper
M Learn2009shortpaperorchardplace
 
The why and what of testa
The why and what of testaThe why and what of testa
The why and what of testaTansy Jessop
 
Enhancing Student Learning through Proactive Feedback Based Adaptive Teaching...
Enhancing Student Learning through Proactive Feedback Based Adaptive Teaching...Enhancing Student Learning through Proactive Feedback Based Adaptive Teaching...
Enhancing Student Learning through Proactive Feedback Based Adaptive Teaching...IJITE
 
The Use of iPads to Enhance English Language Learning in Higher Education: Le...
The Use of iPads to Enhance English Language Learning in Higher Education: Le...The Use of iPads to Enhance English Language Learning in Higher Education: Le...
The Use of iPads to Enhance English Language Learning in Higher Education: Le...Marc LeBane
 
University of Michigan CRLT Study of LectureTools and Laptop Use
University of Michigan CRLT Study of LectureTools and Laptop UseUniversity of Michigan CRLT Study of LectureTools and Laptop Use
University of Michigan CRLT Study of LectureTools and Laptop UseLectureTools
 
Winter TELFest - LectureTools - Nik Reeves-McLaren
Winter TELFest - LectureTools - Nik Reeves-McLarenWinter TELFest - LectureTools - Nik Reeves-McLaren
Winter TELFest - LectureTools - Nik Reeves-McLarentelshef
 
Enhancing student learning through
Enhancing student learning throughEnhancing student learning through
Enhancing student learning throughIJITE
 
Integrative research and development: workspaces
Integrative research and development: workspacesIntegrative research and development: workspaces
Integrative research and development: workspacesSarah Lee
 
Connecting Technology with Instruction: Using iPads in Pre-Service Teacher Tr...
Connecting Technology with Instruction: Using iPads in Pre-Service Teacher Tr...Connecting Technology with Instruction: Using iPads in Pre-Service Teacher Tr...
Connecting Technology with Instruction: Using iPads in Pre-Service Teacher Tr...ohedconnectforsuccess
 
From E-Learning to Active Learning: Transforming the Learning Environment
From E-Learning to Active Learning: Transforming the Learning EnvironmentFrom E-Learning to Active Learning: Transforming the Learning Environment
From E-Learning to Active Learning: Transforming the Learning EnvironmentClive Young
 
Zubaidah AlamerJul 25, 2019Paper Assignment Costly Cell .docx
Zubaidah AlamerJul 25, 2019Paper Assignment Costly Cell .docxZubaidah AlamerJul 25, 2019Paper Assignment Costly Cell .docx
Zubaidah AlamerJul 25, 2019Paper Assignment Costly Cell .docxodiliagilby
 
Comparative & non comparative studies
Comparative & non comparative studiesComparative & non comparative studies
Comparative & non comparative studiesahmed
 

Similar to Laptops smartphones-and-your-studies (20)

IoP Talk Sam Nolan Paul Hatherly
IoP Talk Sam Nolan Paul HatherlyIoP Talk Sam Nolan Paul Hatherly
IoP Talk Sam Nolan Paul Hatherly
 
YACRS (Yet Another Classroom Response System
YACRS (Yet Another Classroom Response SystemYACRS (Yet Another Classroom Response System
YACRS (Yet Another Classroom Response System
 
Effective Multidisciplinary Active Learning Techniques for Students
Effective Multidisciplinary Active Learning Techniques for StudentsEffective Multidisciplinary Active Learning Techniques for Students
Effective Multidisciplinary Active Learning Techniques for Students
 
Chlders&Rott Final Presentation
Chlders&Rott Final PresentationChlders&Rott Final Presentation
Chlders&Rott Final Presentation
 
M Learn2009shortpaper
M Learn2009shortpaperM Learn2009shortpaper
M Learn2009shortpaper
 
The why and what of testa
The why and what of testaThe why and what of testa
The why and what of testa
 
Enhancing Student Learning through Proactive Feedback Based Adaptive Teaching...
Enhancing Student Learning through Proactive Feedback Based Adaptive Teaching...Enhancing Student Learning through Proactive Feedback Based Adaptive Teaching...
Enhancing Student Learning through Proactive Feedback Based Adaptive Teaching...
 
The Use of iPads to Enhance English Language Learning in Higher Education: Le...
The Use of iPads to Enhance English Language Learning in Higher Education: Le...The Use of iPads to Enhance English Language Learning in Higher Education: Le...
The Use of iPads to Enhance English Language Learning in Higher Education: Le...
 
University of Michigan CRLT Study of LectureTools and Laptop Use
University of Michigan CRLT Study of LectureTools and Laptop UseUniversity of Michigan CRLT Study of LectureTools and Laptop Use
University of Michigan CRLT Study of LectureTools and Laptop Use
 
Winter TELFest - LectureTools - Nik Reeves-McLaren
Winter TELFest - LectureTools - Nik Reeves-McLarenWinter TELFest - LectureTools - Nik Reeves-McLaren
Winter TELFest - LectureTools - Nik Reeves-McLaren
 
Enhancing student learning through
Enhancing student learning throughEnhancing student learning through
Enhancing student learning through
 
dyknow
dyknowdyknow
dyknow
 
Integrative research and development: workspaces
Integrative research and development: workspacesIntegrative research and development: workspaces
Integrative research and development: workspaces
 
Connecting Technology with Instruction: Using iPads in Pre-Service Teacher Tr...
Connecting Technology with Instruction: Using iPads in Pre-Service Teacher Tr...Connecting Technology with Instruction: Using iPads in Pre-Service Teacher Tr...
Connecting Technology with Instruction: Using iPads in Pre-Service Teacher Tr...
 
From E-Learning to Active Learning: Transforming the Learning Environment
From E-Learning to Active Learning: Transforming the Learning EnvironmentFrom E-Learning to Active Learning: Transforming the Learning Environment
From E-Learning to Active Learning: Transforming the Learning Environment
 
Zubaidah AlamerJul 25, 2019Paper Assignment Costly Cell .docx
Zubaidah AlamerJul 25, 2019Paper Assignment Costly Cell .docxZubaidah AlamerJul 25, 2019Paper Assignment Costly Cell .docx
Zubaidah AlamerJul 25, 2019Paper Assignment Costly Cell .docx
 
Comparative & non comparative studies
Comparative & non comparative studiesComparative & non comparative studies
Comparative & non comparative studies
 
Edu 710 chapter 3
Edu 710  chapter 3Edu 710  chapter 3
Edu 710 chapter 3
 
EDU 710 Chapter 3
EDU 710  Chapter 3EDU 710  Chapter 3
EDU 710 Chapter 3
 
Interviews appendix 1
Interviews  appendix 1Interviews  appendix 1
Interviews appendix 1
 

More from Benedictine University Library

Introduction to Open educational Resources 11.16.22.pptx
Introduction to Open educational Resources 11.16.22.pptxIntroduction to Open educational Resources 11.16.22.pptx
Introduction to Open educational Resources 11.16.22.pptxBenedictine University Library
 
How to search_free_crystallography_databases_benedictine_university final 111...
How to search_free_crystallography_databases_benedictine_university final 111...How to search_free_crystallography_databases_benedictine_university final 111...
How to search_free_crystallography_databases_benedictine_university final 111...Benedictine University Library
 

More from Benedictine University Library (16)

Chemical_Bonds_and_Compounds.ppt
Chemical_Bonds_and_Compounds.pptChemical_Bonds_and_Compounds.ppt
Chemical_Bonds_and_Compounds.ppt
 
MLK - Spring 2023 Campus Events
MLK - Spring 2023 Campus EventsMLK - Spring 2023 Campus Events
MLK - Spring 2023 Campus Events
 
Introduction to Open educational Resources 11.16.22.pptx
Introduction to Open educational Resources 11.16.22.pptxIntroduction to Open educational Resources 11.16.22.pptx
Introduction to Open educational Resources 11.16.22.pptx
 
Public health research guide update
Public health research guide updatePublic health research guide update
Public health research guide update
 
Public health research guide update
Public health research guide updatePublic health research guide update
Public health research guide update
 
How to do a pico search nurs 3330
How to do a pico search nurs 3330How to do a pico search nurs 3330
How to do a pico search nurs 3330
 
How to search_free_crystallography_databases_benedictine_university final 111...
How to search_free_crystallography_databases_benedictine_university final 111...How to search_free_crystallography_databases_benedictine_university final 111...
How to search_free_crystallography_databases_benedictine_university final 111...
 
How to do_a_pico_search_final 11072021
How to do_a_pico_search_final 11072021How to do_a_pico_search_final 11072021
How to do_a_pico_search_final 11072021
 
#Personal statements
#Personal statements#Personal statements
#Personal statements
 
Open textbooks presentation_public
Open textbooks presentation_publicOpen textbooks presentation_public
Open textbooks presentation_public
 
Summer reading f17
Summer reading f17Summer reading f17
Summer reading f17
 
Copyright and image use
Copyright and image useCopyright and image use
Copyright and image use
 
Using Animated GIFs
Using Animated GIFsUsing Animated GIFs
Using Animated GIFs
 
2017 03 open-access_public
2017 03 open-access_public2017 03 open-access_public
2017 03 open-access_public
 
2017 03 open-access_public
2017 03 open-access_public2017 03 open-access_public
2017 03 open-access_public
 
Fake News Defined
Fake News DefinedFake News Defined
Fake News Defined
 

Recently uploaded

BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17
Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17
Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxneillewis46
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Denish Jangid
 
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptx
ANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptxANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptx
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptxPoojaSen20
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....Ritu480198
 
Book Review of Run For Your Life Powerpoint
Book Review of Run For Your Life PowerpointBook Review of Run For Your Life Powerpoint
Book Review of Run For Your Life Powerpoint23600690
 
Implanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading Room
Implanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading RoomImplanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading Room
Implanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading RoomSean M. Fox
 
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptxdemyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptxMohamed Rizk Khodair
 
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...Krashi Coaching
 
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptxThe Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptxVishal Singh
 
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...Gary Wood
 
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxheathfieldcps1
 
Chapter 7 Pharmacosy Traditional System of Medicine & Ayurvedic Preparations ...
Chapter 7 Pharmacosy Traditional System of Medicine & Ayurvedic Preparations ...Chapter 7 Pharmacosy Traditional System of Medicine & Ayurvedic Preparations ...
Chapter 7 Pharmacosy Traditional System of Medicine & Ayurvedic Preparations ...Sumit Tiwari
 
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppImproved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppCeline George
 
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 

Recently uploaded (20)

BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
 
Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17
Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17
Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
 
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdfIncluding Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
 
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptx
ANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptxANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptx
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptx
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
 
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE .
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE                       .“O BEIJO” EM ARTE                       .
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE .
 
Book Review of Run For Your Life Powerpoint
Book Review of Run For Your Life PowerpointBook Review of Run For Your Life Powerpoint
Book Review of Run For Your Life Powerpoint
 
Implanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading Room
Implanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading RoomImplanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading Room
Implanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading Room
 
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
 
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptxdemyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
 
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
 
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptxThe Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
 
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
 
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
 
Chapter 7 Pharmacosy Traditional System of Medicine & Ayurvedic Preparations ...
Chapter 7 Pharmacosy Traditional System of Medicine & Ayurvedic Preparations ...Chapter 7 Pharmacosy Traditional System of Medicine & Ayurvedic Preparations ...
Chapter 7 Pharmacosy Traditional System of Medicine & Ayurvedic Preparations ...
 
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
 
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppImproved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
 
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
 

Laptops smartphones-and-your-studies

  • 1. Note for instructors: • If you make significant improvements/additions to this slide deck, I would love for you to share your improvements with me! (waggonerdenton@psych.utoronto.ca) • These slides provide a summary of some recent research on the use/access of technology (e.g., laptops, phones) during class time and study sessions. • This is not a comprehensive list of all research done in this area! • The slides themselves have limited text on them, as they are meant to be ‘ready to show’ to students in the context of a lecture. However, I have included additional information (including full abstracts of key papers referenced) in the notes sections of the slides. • While the slides focus on results, I also highly recommend using this opportunity to discuss research methods, potential confounds, appropriate inference, etc.! www.TeachReflectRepeat.com
  • 2. Additional Resources: • For instructors (from the Learning Scientists): • Links to pro & con opinion pieces on cell phone use in the classroom: http://www.learningscientists.org/blog/2017/9/17/weekly-digest-77 • Guest post on Technology in the Classroom: http://www.learningscientists.org/blog/2017/9/17/weekly-digest-77 • For students (a wonderful article that includes the technology advice advocated here, as well as a lot more!): • Putnam et al. (2016). Optimizing learning in college: Tips from cognitive psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11, 652-660. https://uwaterloo.ca/psychology/sites/ca.psychology/files/uploads/files/howt osucceedinuniversity.pdf
  • 3. Making Informed Decisions: Laptops, Smartphones, and Your Studies
  • 4.
  • 5. Laptop Use in the Classroom • Laptops are (gasp!) not always used solely for note-taking • Email, unrelated websites, videos, shopping, social media, etc. • School-unrelated laptop use during class time has been associated with lower academic satisfaction, lower end-of-semester GPAs, and lower course performance relative to classmates (Gaudreau, Miranda, & Gareau, 2014)
  • 6. Laptop Use in the Classroom: Multitasking Sana, Weston & Cepeda, 2013 • Simulated classroom environment (45 minute ‘introduction to meteorology’ lecture) • Multitasking condition: given 12 online tasks similar to those that students regularly engage in (e.g., answering a question that can be found with a relatively quick Google search) • No multitasking condition: Just used their laptops to take notes • Lecture was immediately followed by a comprehension test (both knowledge and application questions)
  • 7. The multitasking students scored an average of 11% lower on the test! The notes taken by the multitaskers were also of poorer quality – e.g., missing the verbal information provided by the lecturer not included on the lecture slides (Fig. 1 from Sana, Weston & Cepeda, 2013)
  • 8. Laptop Use in the Classroom: Multitasking Sana, Weston & Cepeda, 2013 • Study 2: Examined effect of multitasking on nearby peers (rather than the multitaskers themselves) • Participants themselves took paper-and-pencil notes (no multitasking) • Participants in both conditions took notes of similar quality How well do you think each group performed on the test? (Fig. 2 from Sana, Weston & Cepeda, 2013)
  • 9. • Study 2: Examined effect of multitasking on nearby peers (rather than the multitaskers themselves) • Participants themselves took paper- and-pencil notes (no multitasking) • Participants in both conditions took notes of similar quality. How do you think they did on the test? • (Fig. 1 from Sana, Weston & Cepeda, 2013) Students in view of multitasking peers scored 17% lower on the test! Importantly, these students did NOT realize the effect that others’ behavior was having on them – e.g., they believed their learning was “barely hindered” by their peers. (Fig. 3 from Sana, Weston & Cepeda, 2013)
  • 10. Laptop Use in the Classroom: Notetaking Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014 (updated 2018) • What if you use your laptop solely for notetaking? • Simulated classroom environment (watched 5 TED Talks), instructed to take notes “as they normally would in the classroom” either using a laptop or a notebook (longhand notes) • Note: laptops were disconnected from the Internet! • After distractor tasks and a 30-min delay, participants took a test that included factual-recall and conceptual-application questions based on the talks
  • 11. Laptop Use in the Classroom: Notetaking Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014 (updated 2018) • Study 1: Laptop note-takers performed worse on conceptual- application questions; took longer notes, but more transcription-like (taking notes verbatim) • Study 2: Specifically instructed to not take notes verbatim. Laptop note-takers still performed worse, and still took more verbatim notes than longhand note-takers. • Study 3: Maybe laptop notes are better for studying? Nope - participants who took longhand notes AND were able to study from them performed better than anyone else.
  • 12. Laptop Use in the Classroom: Notetaking Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014 (updated 2018)
  • 13. Laptop Use in the Classroom: Notetaking Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014 (updated 2018) Because we are able to type much quicker than we write, it is much easier to take verbatim (word for word) notes with a laptop.
  • 15. Laptop Use in the Classroom: Notetaking Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014 (updated 2018) Because we are able to type much quicker than we write, it is much easier to take verbatim (word for word) notes with a laptop. Unfortunately, transcription ≠ better learning!
  • 16. Laptop Use in the Classroom • What are the key take-aways of this research? • Potential solutions? • What are some practical rules/guidelines we should establish for laptop use in this classroom?
  • 17. Laptops and tablets and cell phones – oh my! • Of course, laptops are not the only potential source of distraction • Multitasking on cell phones and tablets is (not surprisingly) also detrimental to learning! • And again, the research indicates that it’s not only the USER of the device whose learning is impaired – but everyone’s performance suffers when electronic devices are permitted in the classroom (e.g., Lee et al., 2017; Glass & Kang, 2018)
  • 18. Glass & Kang, 2018 • Classroom experiment, using two identical back-to-back sections of an upper-year cognitive psychology course which met twice a week • In one section, electronic devices were banned on Tuesdays • In the other section, electronic devices were banned on Thursdays • Examined student performance on same-day in-class questions, unit exam (test) questions, and final exam questions
  • 19. Glass & Kang, 2018: Results
  • 20. Glass & Kang, 2018: Results
  • 21. Glass & Kang, 2018: Final Thoughts • Just because you can answer a question correctly in class, does not mean that your cellphone or laptop use is not impairing your learning! "This is one of the occasional cases in human cognition where our intuitions mislead us, because even though they can divide their attention well enough to remember in the moment … what happens is that a week later, they’ve pretty much forgotten what happened in class," Glass said. "What’s the point of going to class in the first place if a week later you don’t remember it?” (Inside Higher Ed, July 27 2018)
  • 22. Glass & Kang, 2018: Final Thoughts • The devices are not the enemy – after all, even on the “not allowed” days, these devices were used to answer the in-class questions! • It is the misuse of these devices and subsequent distraction that is problematic, along with the fact that it can be very difficult for us to recognize the negative effects that the devices are having on us • If we don’t recognize something as being a problem, it is very difficult to be motivated to find a solution!
  • 23. Classroom Guidelines for Electronics Use
  • 24. Electronic Devices Outside of the Classroom • Of course, the classroom is not the only place where learning occurs! • Electronic devices can impair learning outside of the classroom as well
  • 25. Electronic Devices Outside of the Classroom • Research has shown that individuals who report having a strong dependence on their cellphones perform significantly better on cognitive tasks when their cellphone was out of sight (Ward et al., 2017) • Even if the phone was turned off, its mere presence impaired performance • Again, people appear to be largely unaware of this – participants do not report consciously thinking about or being distracted by their phones!
  • 26. Products/apps you may wish to look into if you find yourself unable to control technological distractions (all have free options) • https://getcoldturkey.com/ • Can block yourself out of certain websites, the entire Internet, apps, etc., during specific time windows (e.g., when you have a class!) • http://selfcontrolapp.com/ (for Mac users) • StayFocusd (Google Chrome extension) • Limits time spent on distracting websites • Freedom (available in the app store) – same idea, works on your iPhone, iPad • https://www.boomeranggmail.com/ • If you use Gmail and email is a major distraction during class/studying

Editor's Notes

  1. Additional note: In the notes sections, I have also included some suggestions on how to present the material (e.g., questions to pose to students, etc.).
  2. Our current technologies, like any tool, have the potential to greatly enhance our lives or make them miserable. E.g., A hammer is a wonderful tool to have when we need to put a nail into a wall, but might be downright infuriating if we are trying to cut down a tree. Now, imagine that you are watching someone trying to cut down a tree with a hammer. And there is a saw right there in front of them. You would want to suggest the saw, right? Maybe they haven’t noticed it or they don’t realize what it can do. This is what I want to do here. Your electronic devices are not the enemy, just like the hammer isn’t the enemy. It’s just not ubiquitously helpful. I just want to make sure that we are all making good, informed decisions about when and how best to use these things!
  3. Ask or survey students what they have used their laptop for during class, and/or to estimate what proportion of class time they end up doing non-school related things Who has a laptop with them right now? Who has a window open that is not school related? Ask the students what type of study this is; what are some potential third variables? (note: see abstract for list of variables the authors controlled for) ARTICLE: Gaudreau, P., Miranda, D., & Gareau, A. (2014). Canadian university students in wireless classrooms: What do they do on their laptops and does it really matter? Computers & Education, 70, 245-255. AVAILABLE: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.08.019 ABSTRACT: Two studies were conducted to examine what undergraduate students do on their laptops during class time and the extent to which laptop usage behaviors are associated with academic success. In Study 1, a sample of 1129 students from a Canadian university completed a survey measuring prototypical behaviors emitted on laptops during class time. Results of factor analyses indicated that laptop behaviors can be regrouped in two dimensions: School related and school unrelated laptop utilization. School unrelated laptop behaviors were significantly associated with lower levels of self-reported academic achievement and satisfaction. School related laptop behaviors were positively associated with academic satisfaction. These results were invariant across different faculties on campus. In Study 2, another sample of 88 students was recruited to examine the longitudinal association between laptop behaviors and semester grade point average obtained at the end of the semester. Results of Study 2 showed that school unrelated laptop behaviors were prospectively associated with lower semester grade point average, even after controlling for a series of potentially confounding influences (i.e., self-regulation failure, motivational deficit, disorganized learning, internet addiction, and school disenchantment). Overall, these results provide theoretically important support to suggest that in-class laptop utilization is a unique and contemporary mode of learning that should not be treated as an epiphenomenon merely accountable and reducible to other sources of psychological influences.
  4. ARTICLE: Sana, F., Weston, T.., & Cepeda, N.J. (2013). Laptop multitasking hinders classroom learning for both users and nearby peers. Computers & Education, 62, 24-31. AVAILABLE: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.003 ABSTRACT: Laptops are commonplace in university classrooms. In light of cognitive psychology theory on costs associated with multitasking, we examined the effects of in-class laptop use on student learning in a simulated classroom. We found that participants who multitasked on a laptop during a lecture scored lower on a test compared to those who did not multitask, and participants who were in direct view of a multitasking peer scored lower on a test compared to those who were not. The results demonstrate that multitasking on a laptop poses a significant distraction to both users and fellow students and can be detrimental to comprehension of lecture content. Experiment 2: paper and pencil, in view of paper and pencil peers or multitasking peers  no difference in quality of notes taken, but those in view of a multitasking peer performed 17% lower on the comprehension quiz
  5. At this point students might argue (or you can bring up) that maybe if they had had time to study (tests aren’t normally given immediately after a lecture), the difference would go away and it wouldn’t matter what they were doing during class time – then put up the finding regarding the quality notes, and say that we will return to this issue in a moment. Note: Notes from the multitasker were rated by a blind experimenter most familiar with the lecture information and scored from 1 (missing things from slides, disorganized, etc.) to 5 (all verbal and written information included in notes). 3 indicates notes that include all information from the slides themselves. Multitaskers: M = 2.7, SD = 1.2; Non Multitaskers: M = 4.1, SD = 1.0)
  6. ARTICLE: Sana, F., Weston, T.., & Cepeda, N.J. (2013). Laptop multitasking hinders classroom learning for both users and nearby peers. Computers & Education, 62, 24-31. AVAILABLE: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.003 ABSTRACT: Laptops are commonplace in university classrooms. In light of cognitive psychology theory on costs associated with multitasking, we examined the effects of in-class laptop use on student learning in a simulated classroom. We found that participants who multitasked on a laptop during a lecture scored lower on a test compared to those who did not multitask, and participants who were in direct view of a multitasking peer scored lower on a test compared to those who were not. The results demonstrate that multitasking on a laptop poses a significant distraction to both users and fellow students and can be detrimental to comprehension of lecture content. Experiment 2: paper and pencil, in view of paper and pencil peers or multitasking peers  no difference in quality of notes taken, but those in view of a multitasking peer performed 17% lower on the comprehension quiz
  7. ARTICLE: Sana, F., Weston, T.., & Cepeda, N.J. (2013). Laptop multitasking hinders classroom learning for both users and nearby peers. Computers & Education, 62, 24-31. AVAILABLE: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.003 ABSTRACT: Laptops are commonplace in university classrooms. In light of cognitive psychology theory on costs associated with multitasking, we examined the effects of in-class laptop use on student learning in a simulated classroom. We found that participants who multitasked on a laptop during a lecture scored lower on a test compared to those who did not multitask, and participants who were in direct view of a multitasking peer scored lower on a test compared to those who were not. The results demonstrate that multitasking on a laptop poses a significant distraction to both users and fellow students and can be detrimental to comprehension of lecture content. Experiment 2: paper and pencil, in view of paper and pencil peers or multitasking peers  no difference in quality of notes taken, but those in view of a multitasking peer performed 17% lower on the comprehension quiz
  8. Okay, so multitasking on your computer during class is likely detrimental to both your learning and the learning of those seated around you. So, what if you ONLY use your laptop for notetaking? ARTICLE: Mueller, P. A., & Oppenheimer, D. M. (2014). The pen is mightier than the keyboard: Advantages of longhand over laptop note taking. Psychological Science, 25, 1159–1168. ACCESS HERE for 2018 Corrigendum: DOI: https://doi.10.1177/0956797618781773 AVAILABLE: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0956797614524581 ABSTRACT: Taking notes on laptops rather than in longhand is increasingly common. Many researchers have suggested that laptop note taking is less effective than longhand note taking for learning. Prior studies have primarily focused on students’ capacity for multitasking and distraction when using laptops. The present research suggests that even when laptops are used solely to take notes, they may still be impairing learning because their use results in shallower processing. In three studies, we found that students who took notes on laptops performed worse on conceptual questions than students who took notes longhand. We show that whereas taking more notes can be beneficial, laptop note takers’ tendency to transcribe lectures verbatim rather than processing information and reframing it in their own words is detrimental to learning.
  9. Participants who took longhand notes AND were able to study from them performed better than anyone else
  10. When typing, it can actually be difficult not to take verbatim notes (we end up mindlessly recording the lecture, just like a courtroom transcriber, without actually thinking about the material at all!)
  11. E.g., if you take notes on your laptop during class, perhaps you can redo them in longhand form later that day – making sure to put things into your own words E.g., if you might be tempted to multitask during class, sit at the back of the room where you’ll be less likely to distract your classmates
  12. Ask students: How many of you have looked at your phone since the lecture began? (In the last 10 minutes? 5 minutes? 1 minute? Right now? :) NOTE: The following article is not elaborated on in the slides, but it is worth reading and potentially discussing with your students! ARTICLE: Lee, S., et al (2017). The effects of cell phone use and emotion-regulation style on college students’ learning. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31, 360-366. AVAILABLE: https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3323 ABSTRACT: Cell phones are becoming an inevitable part of the classroom, but extant research suggests that using cell phones in the classroom impairs academic performance. The present study examined the impact of different cell phone policies on learning and emotion‐regulation style. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: cell phone usage allowed, cell phone possession allowed but without usage, cell phones removed, and a no‐instruction control group. All participants watched a 20‐minute lecture and were sent text messages to mimic classroom distractions. Afterward, participants took a multiple‐choice test and filled out questionnaires assessing their level of obsessiveness, nomophobia, and mindfulness. Participants who had their cell phone taken away performed best on the test with no other differences. None of the emotional‐regulation measures moderated the results. These findings provide important insight as to how cell phone policies can optimize learning in the classroom.
  13. ARTICLE: Glass, A. L., & Kang, M. (2018) Dividing attention in the classroom reduces exam performance, Educational Psychology, DOI: 10.1080/01443410.2018.1489046 AVAILABLE: https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2018.1489046 ABSTRACT: The intrusion of internet-enabled electronic devices (laptop, tablet, and cell phone) has transformed the modern college lecture into a divided attention task. This study measured the effect of using an electronic device for a non-academic purpose during class on subsequent exam performance. In a two-section college course, electronic devices were permitted in half the lectures, so the effect of the devices was assessed in a within-student, within-item counterbalanced experimental design. Dividing attention between an electronic device and the classroom lecture did not reduce comprehension of the lecture, as measured by within-class quiz questions. Instead, divided attention reduced long-term retention of the classroom lecture, which impaired subsequent unit exam and final exam performance. Students self-reported whether they had used an electronic device in each class. Exam performance was significantly worse than the no-device control condition both for students who did and did not use electronic devices during that class.
  14. Ask students to explain the figure/results Key finding: use of the electronic devices impaired long-term retention (i.e., real learning)
  15. Subsequent analyses looked at student reports of whether they actually used their devices on days when they were allowed (versus did not use) Again, key result is for the final exam  best performance when NO ONE is using their electronics. When they were allowed, a majority of students chose to use their devices, bringing down their own performance, as well as the performance of the few students who chose NOT to use their devices.
  16. Link to Inside High Ed Article: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/07/27/class-cellphone-and-laptop-use-lowers-exam-scores-new-study-shows
  17. As a class, you may wish to brainstorm some ideas/guidelines for cellphone/device use in class. E.g., allow students the option of dropping off their smartphone at the front of the class as they come in. Or set up a norm where everyone turns off their phone at the beginning at class and keeps in hidden away. Whatever solutions you and your students come up with!
  18. Can ask students to share some of their solutions for how they reduce distractions while studying.
  19. NOTE: The 13-items used to measure cellphone attachment/dependence are included in the Appendix available here: https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/suppl/10.1086/691462/suppl_file/2016022Appendix.pdf (You could have students complete the measure – other similar measures also exist, such as The Nomophobia Questionnaire NMP-Q; Yildirim & Correia, 2015) ARTICLE: Ward, A. F., Duke, K., Gneezy, A., & Bos, M. W. (2017). Brain drain: The mere presence of one’s own smartphone reduces available cognitive capacity. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 2, 140-154. AVAILABLE: https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/691462 ABSTRACT: Our smartphones enable—and encourage—constant connection to information, entertainment, and each other. They put the world at our fingertips, and rarely leave our sides. Although these devices have immense potential to improve welfare, their persistent presence may come at a cognitive cost. In this research, we test the “brain drain” hypothesis that the mere presence of one’s own smartphone may occupy limited-capacity cognitive resources, thereby leaving fewer resources available for other tasks and undercutting cognitive performance. Results from two experiments indicate that even when people are successful at maintaining sustained attention—as when avoiding the temptation to check their phones—the mere presence of these devices reduces available cognitive capacity. Moreover, these cognitive costs are highest for those highest in smartphone dependence. We conclude by discussing the practical implications of this smartphone-induced brain drain for consumer decision-making and consumer welfare.
  20. Note: Most of these (except for boomerang, which I use) were found via an Internet search – I have not used them and this is certainly not meant as an endorsement. I just chose ones that were free and seemed relatively popular or well-reviewed! You and/or your students may know of better (or certainly additional) options!