HEPC01HEPC01
Sport & ExerciseSport & Exercise
Physiology & AnatomyPhysiology & Anatomy
The Cardiovascular SystemThe Cardio...
Respiratory recapRespiratory recap
 Describe the passage of air through the
respiratory system
 How is gas breathed in a...
Aims/ObjectivesAims/Objectives
 The components of CV system
 Factors that affect the Heart’s output
 How blood is trans...
Oxygenated
Blood
Deoxygenated
Blood
Major Cardiovascular Functions
Delivery (O2 and nutrients)
Removal (CO2 waste products)
Transportation (Hormones)
Main...
The HeartThe Heart
The HeartThe Heart
 Wall comprised of 3 layersWall comprised of 3 layers

Outer layer:Outer layer: pericardiumpericardiu...
Valve FunctionValve Function
Atrioventricular (AV)Atrioventricular (AV)
valvesvalves
 Separate theSeparate the
atria from theatria from the
ventricles...
Semilunar valvesSemilunar valves
 Pulmonary
semilunar valves
 Aortic semilunar
valves
 Things that can go wrong
– Incom...
Contraction - Systole
Relaxation - Diastole
The CardiacThe Cardiac
cyclecycle
Cardiac Output (Q)Cardiac Output (Q)
SV = Stroke Volume (ml/beat)SV = Stroke Volume (ml/beat)
HR = Heart Rate (beats/min)H...
Factors Affecting SVFactors Affecting SV
 3 most important factors:3 most important factors:
–Preload
–ContractilityContr...
The Blood VesselsThe Blood Vessels
ARTERY
VEIN
CAPILLARY
Aorta  Arteries  Arterioles
 Capillaries
Capillaries  Venules...
Arterial systemArterial system
 High pressureHigh pressure
tubes, conduct Otubes, conduct O22
rich bloodrich blood
 Comp...
blood
to the
heart
backflow
preventedvein valve
open
vein valve
closed
The veinsThe veins
 CapacitanceCapacitance
vessels...
Blood pressureBlood pressure
 Surge of blood enters aorta with eachSurge of blood enters aorta with each
contractioncontr...
Arterial blood pressureArterial blood pressure
 BP = force exerted by blood againstBP = force exerted by blood against
ar...
Blood Pressure
Blood pressureBlood pressure
 SystolicSystolic blood ejected duringblood ejected during
ventricular systoleventricular sy...
Factors increasing BPFactors increasing BP
HypertensionHypertension
 <120/<80 – normal<120/<80 – normal
 140-159 / 90-99 – Stage 1 hypertension140-159 / 90-99 – St...
Mean Arterial PressureMean Arterial Pressure
 DBP +PP (pulse pressure)DBP +PP (pulse pressure)
 The pressure the arterie...
INTRINSIC
CONDUCTION
SYSTEM
Electrical ActivityElectrical Activity
SA node generates impulse; atrial excitation begins
Impulse delayed at AV node, the...
PHASES OF A RESTING ECG
TAKING AN EXERCISE ECG
Extrinsic Regulation of HRExtrinsic Regulation of HR
 ParasympatheticParasympathetic (( HR)HR)
– Acetylcholine
– Acts t...
What
What influences your heart rate?
Cardiac ArrythmiasCardiac Arrythmias
 1) Irregular heart rhythm1) Irregular heart rhythm
– Bradycardia (“slow heart”)Brad...
Cardiac ArrhythmiaCardiac Arrhythmia
 4) Ventricular tachycardia4) Ventricular tachycardia
– 3 or more premature contract...
Cardiovascular responseCardiovascular response
to exerciseto exercise
Anticipatory Heart Rate
The brain releases chemicals...
Blood Flow Changes During Exercise inBlood Flow Changes During Exercise in
cmcm33
/min/min
Short term response to exercise –Short term response to exercise –
Blood PressureBlood Pressure
250mmHg!!
115mmHg!!
+20mmH...
 HR response
– Incremental, proportional
– Cardiovascular drift
 SV response
– Increases then plateaus
 Q response
 Pl...
(McArdle, 2010)
Cardiac Dimensions
Cardiac Output
VO2max
Blood Pressure
Blood Volume
Blood Lipids & lipoproteins
Review of the Aims/ObjectivesReview of the Aims/Objectives
 The components of CV systemThe components of CV system
 Fact...
Further readingFurther reading
 LearningSpace for notes & review questionsLearningSpace for notes & review questions
Hepc01 cv system 2012
Hepc01 cv system 2012
Hepc01 cv system 2012
Hepc01 cv system 2012
Hepc01 cv system 2012
Hepc01 cv system 2012
Hepc01 cv system 2012
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Hepc01 cv system 2012

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Hepc01 cv system 2012

  1. 1. HEPC01HEPC01 Sport & ExerciseSport & Exercise Physiology & AnatomyPhysiology & Anatomy The Cardiovascular SystemThe Cardiovascular System To get the full experience of this lecture please download this FREE app You will also need a QR code reader app
  2. 2. Respiratory recapRespiratory recap  Describe the passage of air through the respiratory system  How is gas breathed in and out mechanically?  What factors affect the rate that we breath at?  What is FVC?  What happens if you hold your breath whilst exercising?
  3. 3. Aims/ObjectivesAims/Objectives  The components of CV system  Factors that affect the Heart’s output  How blood is transported around the body  Blood pressure and response  Electrical activity of the heart  Regulation of the heart’s activity  Some responses to activity
  4. 4. Oxygenated Blood Deoxygenated Blood
  5. 5. Major Cardiovascular Functions Delivery (O2 and nutrients) Removal (CO2 waste products) Transportation (Hormones) Maintenance (Body temperature, pH) Prevention (Infection—immune function) What are the functions?
  6. 6. The HeartThe Heart
  7. 7. The HeartThe Heart  Wall comprised of 3 layersWall comprised of 3 layers  Outer layer:Outer layer: pericardiumpericardium  Middle layer:Middle layer: myocardiummyocardium  Inner layer:Inner layer: endocardiumendocardium
  8. 8. Valve FunctionValve Function
  9. 9. Atrioventricular (AV)Atrioventricular (AV) valvesvalves  Separate theSeparate the atria from theatria from the ventriclesventricles – bicuspid (mitral)bicuspid (mitral) valve – left sidevalve – left side – tricuspid valve –tricuspid valve – right sideright side anterior
  10. 10. Semilunar valvesSemilunar valves  Pulmonary semilunar valves  Aortic semilunar valves  Things that can go wrong – Incompetent – does’nt close correctly – Stenosis – hardened, even calcified, and does not close correctly
  11. 11. Contraction - Systole Relaxation - Diastole The CardiacThe Cardiac cyclecycle
  12. 12. Cardiac Output (Q)Cardiac Output (Q) SV = Stroke Volume (ml/beat)SV = Stroke Volume (ml/beat) HR = Heart Rate (beats/min)HR = Heart Rate (beats/min) Q = Cardiac Output (ml/min)Q = Cardiac Output (ml/min)
  13. 13. Factors Affecting SVFactors Affecting SV  3 most important factors:3 most important factors: –Preload –ContractilityContractility –AfterloadAfterload amount ventricles are stretchedamount ventricles are stretched by contained bloodby contained blood cardiac cell contractile forcecardiac cell contractile force due to factors other than EDVdue to factors other than EDV back pressure exerted byback pressure exerted by blood in the large arteries leaving the heartblood in the large arteries leaving the heart
  14. 14. The Blood VesselsThe Blood Vessels ARTERY VEIN CAPILLARY Aorta  Arteries  Arterioles  Capillaries Capillaries  Venules  Veins  Vena Cava (S or I)
  15. 15. Arterial systemArterial system  High pressureHigh pressure tubes, conduct Otubes, conduct O22 rich bloodrich blood  Composed of layersComposed of layers of connective tissueof connective tissue and smooth muscleand smooth muscle  Thick walls so noThick walls so no gas exchangegas exchange occursoccurs  AortaAorta  ArteriolesArterioles  CapillariesCapillaries ARTERY
  16. 16. blood to the heart backflow preventedvein valve open vein valve closed The veinsThe veins  CapacitanceCapacitance vesselsvessels  Venous PoolingVenous Pooling
  17. 17. Blood pressureBlood pressure  Surge of blood enters aorta with eachSurge of blood enters aorta with each contractioncontraction  Peripheral vessels do not allow run off asPeripheral vessels do not allow run off as rapidly as it is ejected from heartrapidly as it is ejected from heart  Therefore a portion is stored in aortaTherefore a portion is stored in aorta  This creates pressure down arterial system toThis creates pressure down arterial system to remote branches (pulse)remote branches (pulse)
  18. 18. Arterial blood pressureArterial blood pressure  BP = force exerted by blood againstBP = force exerted by blood against arterial wallsarterial walls – How much blood is pumpedHow much blood is pumped – Resistance to blood flowResistance to blood flow  SphygmomanometerSphygmomanometer  Normal - 120 mmHgNormal - 120 mmHg 8080  Systolic / diastolicSystolic / diastolic
  19. 19. Blood Pressure
  20. 20. Blood pressureBlood pressure  SystolicSystolic blood ejected duringblood ejected during ventricular systoleventricular systole  DiastolicDiastolic ventricular relaxationventricular relaxation
  21. 21. Factors increasing BPFactors increasing BP
  22. 22. HypertensionHypertension  <120/<80 – normal<120/<80 – normal  140-159 / 90-99 – Stage 1 hypertension140-159 / 90-99 – Stage 1 hypertension  160 or higher / 100 or higher – Stage 2160 or higher / 100 or higher – Stage 2  Absolute contraindicaction -Absolute contraindicaction -
  23. 23. Mean Arterial PressureMean Arterial Pressure  DBP +PP (pulse pressure)DBP +PP (pulse pressure)  The pressure the arteries wouldThe pressure the arteries would sustain if blood flow was constantsustain if blood flow was constant See alsoSee also Rate-Pressure ProductRate-Pressure Product  The workload of the myocardiumThe workload of the myocardium  SBPxHR/100SBPxHR/100  Angina…Angina…
  24. 24. INTRINSIC CONDUCTION SYSTEM
  25. 25. Electrical ActivityElectrical Activity SA node generates impulse; atrial excitation begins Impulse delayed at AV node, then passed to ventricles Enters AV bundle branches, excitation begins at apex Purkinje Fibres spread throughout vent. (speed x6)
  26. 26. PHASES OF A RESTING ECG
  27. 27. TAKING AN EXERCISE ECG
  28. 28. Extrinsic Regulation of HRExtrinsic Regulation of HR  ParasympatheticParasympathetic (( HR)HR) – Acetylcholine – Acts through vagus nerve, affects atria – Reduced stimuli increases HR to 100  SympatheticSympathetic (( HR & force of contraction)HR & force of contraction) – Adrenaline / noradrenaline – Accelerates SA depolarization (chronotropic) (atria & vent) – Myocardial contractility x2 (inotropic) – Vasoconstriction around body Central RegulationCentral Regulation – Greatest control of HRGreatest control of HR in Ex.in Ex. – Anticipatory HRAnticipatory HR Peripheral InputPeripheral Input – ChemoreceptorsChemoreceptors – MechanoreceptorsMechanoreceptors – BaroreceptorBaroreceptor
  29. 29. What What influences your heart rate?
  30. 30. Cardiac ArrythmiasCardiac Arrythmias  1) Irregular heart rhythm1) Irregular heart rhythm – Bradycardia (“slow heart”)Bradycardia (“slow heart”) – Tachycardia (“fast heart”)Tachycardia (“fast heart”)  2) Premature Ventricular Contraction PVC2) Premature Ventricular Contraction PVC (skipped/extra beats)(skipped/extra beats) – Pulses outside SA nodePulses outside SA node  3) Atrial flutter + atrial fibrillation3) Atrial flutter + atrial fibrillation (200-400 beats/min)(200-400 beats/min) – Little blood pumpedLittle blood pumped
  31. 31. Cardiac ArrhythmiaCardiac Arrhythmia  4) Ventricular tachycardia4) Ventricular tachycardia – 3 or more premature contractions can3 or more premature contractions can lead to ventricular fibrillationlead to ventricular fibrillation – Heart cannot pump bloodHeart cannot pump blood – Cause of most cardiac deathsCause of most cardiac deaths – CPRCPR
  32. 32. Cardiovascular responseCardiovascular response to exerciseto exercise Anticipatory Heart Rate The brain releases chemicals when you think you are about to exercise. This increases HR before any physical activity is performed. Redirection of blood flow Vasodilation Vasoconstriction Increase in heart rate in line with intensity What would the maximum HR be? Short Term changes are seen when exercise is being performed.
  33. 33. Blood Flow Changes During Exercise inBlood Flow Changes During Exercise in cmcm33 /min/min
  34. 34. Short term response to exercise –Short term response to exercise – Blood PressureBlood Pressure 250mmHg!! 115mmHg!! +20mmHg!!
  35. 35.  HR response – Incremental, proportional – Cardiovascular drift  SV response – Increases then plateaus  Q response  Plasma volume  VO2 Cardiovascular responseCardiovascular response to exerciseto exercise
  36. 36. (McArdle, 2010) Cardiac Dimensions Cardiac Output VO2max Blood Pressure Blood Volume Blood Lipids & lipoproteins
  37. 37. Review of the Aims/ObjectivesReview of the Aims/Objectives  The components of CV systemThe components of CV system  Factors that affect the Heart’s outputFactors that affect the Heart’s output  How blood is transported around the bodyHow blood is transported around the body  Blood pressure and responseBlood pressure and response  Electrical activity of the heartElectrical activity of the heart  Regulation of the heart’s activityRegulation of the heart’s activity  Some responses to activitySome responses to activity
  38. 38. Further readingFurther reading  LearningSpace for notes & review questionsLearningSpace for notes & review questions

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