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Latin america final


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Latin america final

  1. 1. Modern Latin America <br />A PowerPoint: By Ben Ely<br />
  2. 2. Britain and Latin America<br />The first real concession between Latin America and Britain happened in Brazil roughly around 1810 where British government negotiated preferential trading privileges in Brazil in return for its support for the Portuguese royal family <br />Merchants with cargoes of manufactured goods, particularly cotton textiles, established themselves in large numbers in ports along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts<br />While in London citizens invested their savings in loans to young governments and the mining facilities promising a new “El Dorado”<br />British and European continental markets were tied in with Latin America, as the shipping rats between them began to fall, their economic dependence on each other intensified greatly<br />British interest thus came to focus more on Brazil and the three southern republics, Argentina, Uruguay and Chile<br />
  3. 3. Britain and Latin America<br />Between 1870 and 1914 British relations with Latin America reached their peak<br />The First World War permitted the United States to gain ground in Latin America at the expense of the European powers<br />By the 1940’s the majority of Latin America’s market was funneled through New York<br />The second world war reduced further trade and put Britain into noticeably significant debt to the Latin Americas<br />Over the next few years many of the pre-1914 investments, which had become almost worthless, were surrendered to Latin American governments in exchange for a cancellation of Britain's debts.<br />
  4. 4. Britain and Latin America<br />Mexico on the other hand faced numerous simultaneous problems and obstacles <br />an invasion from Spanish forces in 1829<br /> the secession of Texas in 1835-3<br />A French intervention in 1838,<br />and war with the United States in 1846-47.<br />Mexico, Peru and Bolivia all provided extreme examples of instability. Between May 1833 and August 1855 the Mexican presidency changed hands thirty-six times<br /><ul><li>This central government’s inability to maintain control and essentially collect revenues made it impossible for any leader to establish a coalition powerful enough to maintain any order.
  5. 5. Through Paraguay things were run differently as Jose Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia created a nationoverthecourse of 30 yearsthatwaslargelyisolatedfromtheoutside world bringing instability toLatinAmericauponhisdeath in 1840
  6. 6. Through British eyesthereweretwoeconomicalassets of LatinAmericathatseemedtoholdtheirground and maintainstabilitywhichwereBrazil, and Chile, givingthemtremendouseconomicaladvantagesthroughthesupport of the British</li></li></ul><li>Britain and Latin America<br />In Mexico, this rebellion in the countryside made way for some unique political changes<br />There was no clear pattern to the subsequent political developments. In Argentina, a coalition known as the Concordancia, essentially consisting of leading landowners and military officers, maintained conservative politicians in power through fraudulent elections until the overthrow of President Castillo in a military coup in 1943<br />This lasted until 1946 as Juan Domingo Peron emerged and used a powerful nationalist rhetoric to aid his connections to the urban working class resulting in him winning the presidential election in 1946<br />In Brazil around this time, Rio Grand De solul’s former governor successfully led a revolt and instituted an important and constitutional regime<br />This lasted until 1937 where he took advantage of the military and used it to close congress and even commence a period of authoritarian rule historically known as the Estado Novo<br /><ul><li>while there was no clear pattern to the political changes which occurred in Latin America the economic role of the state grew, as governments themselves took control of more of the infrastructure, in particular even, the transport systems in which the British had invested so heavily.</li></li></ul><li>“The Second World”<br />In the 2nd world by ParagKhanna it is theorized that “manifest destiny” was not merely a westward expansion to the pacific ocean, as is often supposed, rather it was also a vision of northern and southern hemispheric control<br />This ties into the fate of the Latin Americas greatly, being directly south of the U.S.<br />On April 21st of 1898 United states declared war on Spain, supposedly to liberate Cuba and initiate it’s democratic evolution<br />Roosevelt’s own words sum up the true motivation of attack efficiently “Peace cannot be had until the civilized nations have expanded in some shape over the barbarous nations”<br />Yet none of the forty governments America has overthrown in Latin America since 1898 became democratic- quite simply because the plan was to implant democracy in form only. In the tension between opening markets and spreading democracy, Imperialism always won<br />
  7. 7. “The Second World”<br />On January 1st, 1994 The North American Free Trade Agreement to propel Mexico into the first world was put into effect but ironically proved that Mexico and America will continue to suffer until they find better ways to pull Mexico out of the second world<br />Mexico’s joining of NAFTA represented the release of any privilege of leading an independent Latin America<br />This resulted in an exposition of a rural-urban split of mexico revealing four mexicos:<br />Northern region where pesos and dollars intertwine<br />Central region the capital and central breadbasket<br />Isthmus region being economically Distute<br />“New Maya” region being overwhelmingly poor<br />
  8. 8. “The Second World”<br />It will take more than “NAFTA-nomics” to save Mexico and make a country out of it, the U.S. even bailed out the peso during a Mexican financial crisis<br />With all of this in mind, the reality of the situation is that Mexicans are the only immigrant group with a historical claim to U.S. territory, the waves of Hispanic migration to the United States have been dubbed the “Reconquista”<br />This is no one way trade has elderly Americans have been known to migrate to Mexico for it’s affordable health care<br />Only through schemes like Mexico’s “Puebla to Panama” that Central America can take advantage of its geographical location and become a significant corridor on intercontinental globalization<br />
  9. 9. “The Second World”<br />If any country of Latin America represents a relative powerhouse as the united States does, it Is defiantly Brazil<br />Taking up about half the continent with no pretensions to being a military power brazil’s role in the world is based entirely on its environmental resources and massive economy<br />With exports nearing $100 billion per year. Agriculture actually only accounts for 10 percent of Brazil’s economy<br /><ul><li>This status does not come at a cost as it has taken three revolutions for Brazil to become Latin America’s great power
  10. 10. Brazils domestic and incredibly diplomatic evolution separates it from any other Latin American country and prevails it as a natural leader of the world</li></ul>Half of Brazil’s exports actually now go to developing countries and boosts trade with all Chinese and Arab nations.<br />
  11. 11. Latin American Art<br /><ul><li>Beyond the rich tradition of indigenous art, the development of Latin American visual art owed much to the influence of Spanish, Portuguese and French Baroque painting</li></ul>An important artistic movement generated in Latin America isMuralismrepresented in Mexico by:<br /><ul><li>Diego Rivera
  12. 12. David Alfaro Siqueiros
  13. 13. José Clemente Orozco
  14. 14. Rufino Tamayo</li></ul>And in Columbia by:<br /><ul><li> Santiago Martinez Delgado
  15. 15. and Pedro Nel Gómez </li></ul>Muralism is technically speaking any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other large permanent surface<br />The strongest style in Mexican culture was combining aspects of Realism, Symbolism, and Surrealism<br />
  16. 16. Latin American Media<br />Once Latin America was introduced to cinema Latin American film flourished<br />This added an interesting linguistic barrier to the Hollywood industry<br />Mexican cinema could be said to have started as early as 1896 and boasted a huge industry comparable to Hollywood at the time with stars such as María Félix, Dolores del Rio, and Pedro Infante<br /><ul><li>Argentine cinema has also been prominenent since the first half of the 20th century and today averages over 60 full-length titles yearly</li></ul>In Brazil, the Cinema Novo movement created a particular way of making movies with critical and intellectual screenplays, a clearer photography related to the light of the outdoors in a tropical landscape, and a political message.<br /><ul><li>Most notable is the fact that even in the modern day film industry many Latin Americans have achieved significant and extraordinary success leaving their Latin mark on American culture</li>