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LINKed2015 - SERIF - A Semantic ExeRcise Interchange Format

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LINKed2015 - SERIF - A Semantic ExeRcise Interchange Format

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Spec online at edutab.test.iminds.be/specs/serif.

More and more users obtain new knowledge using e-learning systems, and often assess their understanding of this new knowledge using corresponding assessment items. However, the distribution of content items and assessment items in a learning object is tightly bound. To publish assessment items, independently of the corresponding content items, it is required to wrap these assessment items into separate learning objects,
which introduces a large overhead. Moreover, current learning objects are closely coupled with their execution environment. A stand-alone and lightweight format to describe assessment items is needed. This way their publication is facilitated and their discoverability can be increased.
This presentation proposes some important features for such a format and introduces SERIF: a Semantic ExeRcise Interchange Format, whose underlying data model is based on the QTI data model, and that can be distributed into different RDF serializations. SERIF was applied successfully in three proof-of-concept applications, where we assessed how SERIF is decoupled from the execution environment and extendable to other content and interaction types. In future work, we will exploit its defined semantics for automatic discovery and combination of assessment items.

Spec online at edutab.test.iminds.be/specs/serif.

More and more users obtain new knowledge using e-learning systems, and often assess their understanding of this new knowledge using corresponding assessment items. However, the distribution of content items and assessment items in a learning object is tightly bound. To publish assessment items, independently of the corresponding content items, it is required to wrap these assessment items into separate learning objects,
which introduces a large overhead. Moreover, current learning objects are closely coupled with their execution environment. A stand-alone and lightweight format to describe assessment items is needed. This way their publication is facilitated and their discoverability can be increased.
This presentation proposes some important features for such a format and introduces SERIF: a Semantic ExeRcise Interchange Format, whose underlying data model is based on the QTI data model, and that can be distributed into different RDF serializations. SERIF was applied successfully in three proof-of-concept applications, where we assessed how SERIF is decoupled from the execution environment and extendable to other content and interaction types. In future work, we will exploit its defined semantics for automatic discovery and combination of assessment items.

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LINKed2015 - SERIF - A Semantic ExeRcise Interchange Format

  1. 1. SERIF A Semantic ExeRcise Interchange Format Ben De Meester Hajar Ghaem Sigarchian, Tom De Nies, Ruben Verborgh, Frank Salliau, Erik Mannens, Rik Van De Walle University Ghent – iMinds – Multimedia Lab ben.demeester@ugent.be | @Ben__DM LINKed2015@ISWC | October 11th 2015 | Bethlehem, PA <insert proceedings here> Icon made by SimpleIcon, CC BY 3.0
  2. 2. So, you want to practice something new? Give me all the exercises!
  3. 3. So, you want to practice something new?
  4. 4. So, you want to practice something new? It’s not that simple…
  5. 5. On the menu: Learning online is complicated. SCORM, QTI, LMS, … But why? Overhead, coupled, rigid, vendor lock-in, … Can we solve that? SERIF
  6. 6. Learning Record Store The E-Learning Ecosystem Learning Management System Server Client Execution Environment
  7. 7. Learning Record Store The E-Learning Ecosystem Learning Management System Server Client Execution Environment
  8. 8. Learning Record Store The E-Learning Ecosystem Learning Management System Server Client Execution Environment
  9. 9. Learning Record Store The E-Learning Ecosystem Learning Management System Server Client Execution Environment Activities
  10. 10. Technology overview LMS Moodle, Blackboard LRS Tin Can API Learning Resource SCORM, Common Cartridge (IMS) Assessment items QTI (IMS), GIFT, Aiken, Blackboard format Metadata LOM
  11. 11. Learning Resources IMS Global (CC) Learning Object Assessments (QTI) Execution Logging SCORM Learning Object Assessments Execution Logging (Tin Can)
  12. 12. Learning objects are complex So complex handling is necessary However… assessments do not need this complexity.
  13. 13. Problems Overhead Packaging a single exercise in a package Coupling between execution, content and visualization Makes sense for learning objects, not for assessments Not extendable Content is already complex for learning objects Vendor lock-in Hard to conform to complex specs
  14. 14. Solutions No overhead No packaging needed Decoupling execution, content and visualization Data model decoupled from execution Extendable Extensible in terms of media types and interaction types Discoverable Open format, discoverable and reusable
  15. 15. SERIF Data model, based on QTI, decoupled from execution Generic MIME type support Extendable interactions Described in RDF
  16. 16. Example exercise
  17. 17. Example exercise Assessment Item LOM Metadata InfoControl (Hint) ItemBody Interaction ScoreMap
  18. 18. Data model (based on QTI) http://edutab.test.iminds.be/specs/serif/ http://semweb.mmlab.be/ns/serif AssessmentItem type Identifier title metadata ItemBody value value-mimetype infoControlIdentifier InfoControl type identifier value value-mimetype Item type identifier infoControlIdentifier ScoreMap value score Property key value Option label value value-mimetype * * * * * *
  19. 19. LOM metadata ex:test1 a serif:AssessmentItem . ex:test1 <http://schema.org/name> "Example exercise" . ex:test1 lom:educationalDifficulty "easy" . ex:test1 lom:educationalLanguage "fr" . ex:test1 lom:classification _:b0 . ex:test1 lom:classification _:b3 . _:b0 lom:classificationPurpose "discipline" . _:b0 lom:taxonPath _:b1 . _:b1 lom:classificationTaxon _:b2 . _:b2 lom:taxonEntry "French" . _:b3 lom:classificationPurpose "educational objective" . _:b3 lom:taxonPath _:b4 . _:b4 lom:classificationTaxon _:b5 . _:b5 lom:taxonEntry "Grammaire/Le pronom/Le pronom personnel" . http://data.opendiscoveryspace.eu/lom_ontology_ods.owl AssessmentItem type Identifier title metadata
  20. 20. Support for multiple mimetypes ItemBody value value-mimetype infoControlIdentifier InfoControl type identifier value value-mimetype Item type identifier infoControlIdentifier Option label value value-mimetype * { "value": "$x=frac{1+y}{1+2z^2}$", "value-mimetype": "application/x-tex" }, { "value": "<p>What do you see here? <img src="/dolphin.jpg"/></p>", "value-mimetype": "text/html" }
  21. 21. Additional info AssessmentItem type Identifier title metadata ItemBody value value-mimetype infoControlIdentifier InfoControl type identifier value value-mimetype Item type identifier infoControlIdentifier * * *
  22. 22. Scoring Item type identifier infoControlIdentifier ScoreMap value score *
  23. 23. Extensible Interaction types Item type identifier infoControlIdentifier Property key value Option label value value-mimetype * * Currently supported: • ChoiceInteraction Multiple choice • TextEntryInteraction Fill in the blank • AssociateInteraction Find connections • OrderInteraction Order multiple options • AudioInteraction The response is an audio clip • VideoInteraction The response is a video clip • CanvasInteraction The response is a digital drawing
  24. 24. { "@context": "http://edutab.test.iminds.be/specs/serif/context.jsonld", "identifier": "http://www.example.com/test1", "type": "AssessmentItem", "title": "Example exercise", "itemBody": { "value": "<p>How much is two times five?<br />{{http://www.example.com/interaction1}}</p>", "value-mimetype": "text/html" }, "infoControl": [{ "type": "Hint", "identifier": "http://www.example.com/infocontrol1", "value": "Two times a number is equal to 'number + number'" }], "item": [{ "type": "ChoiceInteraction", "identifier": "http://www.example.com/interaction1", "infoControlIdentifier": "http://www.example.com/infocontrol1", "properties": [ { "key": "maxChoices", "value": 1 }, { "key": "shuffle", "value": false } ], "scoreMap": [ { "value": 10, "score": 1 } ], "options": [ { "label": "four", "value": 4 }, { "label": "seven", "value": 7 { "label": "eight", "value": 8 }, { "label": "ten", "value": 10
  25. 25. Use Case SERIF
  26. 26. Comparison Format Coupled Content Type Interaction Integration Overhead SCORM 1 ∞ - ++++ CC 1 ++ - ++++ QTI 1 ++ - +++ GIFT 1 + + + AIKEN 1 + + + Blackboard 1 + + + SERIF ∞ ∞ +++ ++
  27. 27. Learning Record Store The E-Learning Ecosystem Activities Learning Management System Execution Environment Server Client
  28. 28. Learning Record Store The Future E-Assessments Ecosystem Activities Server Client Execution Environment
  29. 29. http://edutab.test.iminds.be/specs/serif/ Our project EduTablet <insert proceedings> Our partners:

Editor's Notes

  • Talk about SERIF, why we need it, how we made it, and what we can do with it.
  • Learning, practicing, needs exercises
  • A lot of exercises exist on the web (custom, MOOCs, etc.)
  • However, all in their own package, and the user needs to 1. find all platforms, and 2. practice inside that platform
  • First, guide you through current e-learning
    Second, show you why there are improvements possible
    Third, show you how we tackled those problems in SERIF, a Semantic ExeRcise Interchange Format
  • User interacts with a certain environment where the content is loaded (usually via web browser).
    Content is learning resources  learning object (theory) and assessments (practice)
    LMS keeps content
    LRS saves the actions of the user (e.g., started, completed, succeeded, etc)
    LMS and LRS can be in one platform, but doesn’t need to be.
  • User requests content from LMS
  • User interacts with content.
    This content has execution instruction inside it (because it can be so complex). Execution environment mostly reacts to triggers initiated by the content itself
    e.g., when a user clicks on a video inside the content, it is the content’s responsibility to inform the exec env that a video was started
  • The exec env then catches these activities and sends them to the LRS
  • E.g.: moodle is LMS, has content saved in the SCORM format, sends to moodle front-end. Activities are logged using the tin can api, and sent to the SCORM backend
    All results in pretty much locked in system
    At least the top part. The bottom part is good
  • Reuse calculator!
  • So that was the SERIF story. The specifications are online so please let me know if you have any remarks or ideas.
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