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How to select, interview and hire the best people
Ben Crenca
Human Resources Intern
Objectives: Why are we here?
 To learn and put into practice Behavioral Descriptive
Interviewing
 To engage in discussio...
Program Overview
 Session 1 – Theory and Discussion
 Welcome!
 Competencies and Behaviors
 Ins and Outs of BDI
 The S...
What is a Competency?
Competency
 A competency is an individual’s ability to do something
 “Core competencies are key, essential job duties th...
KSAO
 KSAOs are Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and Other
 Made famous by an I/O psychologist by the name of
David McClella...
Keswick’s Mission Statement And Core Values
 Keswick’s mission is to provide compassionate, quality care to the residents...
What is Behavioral
Descriptive Interviewing?
Behavioral Descriptive Interviewing
 Behavioral interviewing consists of a series of probing
questions designed to discov...
Why BDI?
 Effective - Past behavior predicts future performance
 Objective - What you did and how you did it
 Legal - c...
Why BDI?
For Selection Accuracy
 To improve selection accuracy, we need to avoid Type 1
and Type 2 hiring errors
 Bad Hi...
Cost Analysis of Interviewing
Unstructured Interviews Structured BD Interviews
 120 hires in the next two years
 $734.36...
Why BDI?
For Interview Relevance
 Because of the consistency, BD interviews stay relevant
and to the point
 All applican...
Why BDI?
For Interview Fairness
 BDI approach adopts the spirit of job relatedness for
selection fairness
 Focus on the ...
Job Related, Structured Interview
 Most effective questions are a reflection of what needs to
be done
 Desirable Traits!...
The STAR
Method
The S.T.A.R Method
 The STAR method is a structured manner of
responding to a behavioral-based interview question
by disc...
S  Situation
 Specific, Specific, Specific
 A description of the situation of the goal that needed
to be accomplished
...
T  Task
 What was the task?
 What was the plan?
 Bad STAR: “I wanted to help with the understaffing”
 Good STAR: “We ...
A  Action
 What did the applicant do to reach this goal?
 What were their specific contributions
 Look for them using ...
R  Result
 Describe the outcome of your actions
 What did you learn? What did you accomplish?
 Look for a selfish answ...
Exercise in STAR
 Following are going to be some answers an employee
can give in an interview.
 I want you to tell me if...
Someday I plan to get a masters degree so I can move
up in my company.
BAD STAR
I was really good at taking care of family member
complaints. I dealt with the problems early before they
became bigger pr...
Yesterday, the printer stopped accepting the roll of paper
and I had to send a FAX immediately. I opened the back
of the m...
I was not able to fulfill my goal. If I had to do it all over
again, I would have got with more experienced managers
to le...
It was my job to finish rounds for the night shift. I
realized that a resident was not in their room.
Immediately I report...
Recognizing Behavioral Questions and
Statements
 Answer Yes or No to the items on the Handout
 Are they a good behaviora...
How to Plan, Open, Conduct, and Close Behavioral Descriptive
interviews
Planning- Question Writing
 Maximum vs. Typical Performance
 For the core competency, we need to figure out the
importan...
Opening the Interview
 Greeting the Applicant
 Smile
 Firm Handshake
 Physical Layout
 Welcoming environment
 Can yo...
A Structured Statement
 Set the tone and put the applicant at ease
 Example
 Shall we get started? My job title here is...
Conducting the Interview – What to look for
Successful Applicant Unsuccessful Applicant
 Listens carefully to the
questio...
Unlawful Questions
 Lawful or Unlawful
1) Would you be able to work on weekends?
2) Tell me about your experiences at Smi...
Probing
 Asking follow-up questions to gain more insight on a
specific topic
 Sometimes you will need to ask more questi...
“Silent Sam”
 Situation: You ask your BDI question, and the
applicant is either non-responsive or can not think of
an ans...
“Betty Bluff”
 Situation: You ask this candidate a question and they
act like certain situations happen to everyone but
t...
“Slippery Sue”
 Situation: You ask a question and the candidate “slips”
away from the question being asked. What do you d...
Lets Practice!
 Interruption Game
 I need half the group to turn around away from the screen,
the other half facing them...
BETTY BLUFF
 Remember to act as if nothing happens to you
 Try to get them to use question restatement or
sympathetic pe...
SLIPPERY SUE
 Answer questions as generally as possible.
 USE BAD STAR TECHNIQUES
 Typical and not specific
 We want t...
SILENT SAM
 Just don’t answer, seem uncomfortable
 We want the interviewer to use a “You’re Okay”
statement or question ...
Now Switch Positions!
SLIPPERY SUE
 Answer questions as generally as possible.
 USE BAD STAR TECHNIQUES
 Typical and not specific
 We want t...
SILENT SAM
 Just don’t answer, seem uncomfortable
 We want the interviewer to use a “You’re Okay”
statement or question ...
BETTY BLUFF
 Remember to act as if nothing happens to you
 Try to get them to use question restatement or
sympathetic pe...
What did we learn? Thoughts?
Effective Note Taking
 We must record information if we are digging out
crucial behavioral descriptive information
 This...
Closing the Interview
 Does not need to be lengthy, but should be precise and
informative
 Ask the candidate closing que...
Questions? Thoughts?
 After this we will move into putting what we learned
into practice
 Divide up into teams of 2-3
 ...
1) Creating BDI Questions
 Let’s say we are interviewing a GNA
 Create 4-6 BDI Questions that you would ask a GNA
 Reme...
2) Ask Questions
 Once you are done, switch questions with group next
to you
 Each person take turn asking another perso...
3) Group Think
 Let’s now come back together and discuss
 What are some core competencies, performance
measures, etc… th...
Feedback? Thoughts? Concerns?
References
 Career Services at University of Deleware. (2014). Behavioral interviewing. http://www.udel.edu/CSC
 Departm...
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BDI Training

  1. 1. How to select, interview and hire the best people Ben Crenca Human Resources Intern
  2. 2. Objectives: Why are we here?  To learn and put into practice Behavioral Descriptive Interviewing  To engage in discussion with each other  Understand what is needed to hire quality candidates  Describe and define the behaviors needed to be a good caretaker at Keswick-Multicare
  3. 3. Program Overview  Session 1 – Theory and Discussion  Welcome!  Competencies and Behaviors  Ins and Outs of BDI  The STAR Method  Good STAR/Bad STAR  Recognizing Behavioral Questions and Statements  Planning and Opening the Interview  Unlawful Questions  Probing  Effective Note Taking  Closing the Interview  Session 2 – Practice  Quick Recap  Six Steps to a Successful Interview  Divide into Teams of 2 or 3  Put into practice what we discussed in the first session  Best Practices  Feedback/Discussion
  4. 4. What is a Competency?
  5. 5. Competency  A competency is an individual’s ability to do something  “Core competencies are key, essential job duties that must be performed in a highly satisfactory manner by the person(s) performing the job.” (UTSA, 2014)  What are some core competencies that we can think of for Nurses, GNAs, etc… ?  http://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/29-1141.00
  6. 6. KSAO  KSAOs are Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and Other  Made famous by an I/O psychologist by the name of David McClelland in the 1960s  KSAOs give you a broad description of the individuals enduring characteristics  Allow the organization to hire based on the specific mission  Let’s take a look at Keswick’s Mission Statement….
  7. 7. Keswick’s Mission Statement And Core Values  Keswick’s mission is to provide compassionate, quality care to the residents and individuals served, along with sensitivity and understanding to family members. Our goal is to provide a complete continuum of long-term care that encompasses the community/home, assisted living, day care, and nursing care. Keswick is committed to providing quality care through innovative and futuristic approaches to older adults of all races and creeds. Core Values  Commitment To Quality Care  Integrity and Accountability  Compassion, Sensitivity, Respect  Improving Our Community The question remains, is this what we are hiring for?
  8. 8. What is Behavioral Descriptive Interviewing?
  9. 9. Behavioral Descriptive Interviewing  Behavioral interviewing consists of a series of probing questions designed to discover if you have used the behaviors identified in your competency profile. It is based on the premise that if you have used a behavior (competency) in the past, you will most likely use it again in the future.  “Past behavior is the best predictor of future success” – Dr. Jody Inglefield
  10. 10. Why BDI?  Effective - Past behavior predicts future performance  Objective - What you did and how you did it  Legal - candidates are assessed on the same skills and competencies  Transparent - Openness about skills and competencies sought
  11. 11. Why BDI? For Selection Accuracy  To improve selection accuracy, we need to avoid Type 1 and Type 2 hiring errors  Bad Hires = more stress for you!
  12. 12. Cost Analysis of Interviewing Unstructured Interviews Structured BD Interviews  120 hires in the next two years  $734.36 per hire  $734.36 x 120 hires x 2 years tenure = 176, 246.40 Total Dollar Cost  Take time to interview each of the 3 applicants per position at 1 hour per applicant  1 hour x $25 an hour x 360 applicants = $9,000 + $8,000 for HR and Training $17,000 total dollar cost
  13. 13. Why BDI? For Interview Relevance  Because of the consistency, BD interviews stay relevant and to the point  All applicants are asked the same questions  Top-quality applicants appreciate an interview that probes their specific accomplishments
  14. 14. Why BDI? For Interview Fairness  BDI approach adopts the spirit of job relatedness for selection fairness  Focus on the accomplishments and keep the interviewed structured
  15. 15. Job Related, Structured Interview  Most effective questions are a reflection of what needs to be done  Desirable Traits!  What we need: 1. Up-to-date Job description 2. Developed core competencies and organize tasks 3. Convert job tasks into meaningful questions Example:  Standard Question: What are your goals?  BDI Questions: What is your primary goal and what did you do to achieve it last year?
  16. 16. The STAR Method
  17. 17. The S.T.A.R Method  The STAR method is a structured manner of responding to a behavioral-based interview question by discussing the specific situation, task, action, and result of the situation you are describing.  Let’s use the question we posed in a few slides before for an example of The STAR method What is your primary goal and what did you do to achieve it last year?
  18. 18. S  Situation  Specific, Specific, Specific  A description of the situation of the goal that needed to be accomplished  Bad STAR: “I wanted to be a better employee so I did”  Good STAR: “It was my goal to become a better employee at work when we were understaffed for the summer months”
  19. 19. T  Task  What was the task?  What was the plan?  Bad STAR: “I wanted to help with the understaffing”  Good STAR: “We had a lot of turnover last year so I cleared most of my schedule to help out more around my workplace”.
  20. 20. A  Action  What did the applicant do to reach this goal?  What were their specific contributions  Look for them using “I” instead of “we”  No TEAM in BDI, but there are a few I’s  Bad STAR: “We worked longer hours”  Good STAR: “I picked up some shifts that I normally would not be available for to make-up for the staffing issue. I wanted to make sure things ran smoothly at work”
  21. 21. R  Result  Describe the outcome of your actions  What did you learn? What did you accomplish?  Look for a selfish answer  Bad STAR: “We fixed the problem with staffing”  Good STAR: “Even though it proved to be a lot physically and mentally, the staffing problem was fixed when administration hired new people. I was rewarded with my efforts with a pay raise and a promotion within my organization.
  22. 22. Exercise in STAR  Following are going to be some answers an employee can give in an interview.  I want you to tell me if the statement indicates a:  Complete STAR  Bad STAR (feelings, opinions, unclear statements, hypothetical statements, theoretical statements).
  23. 23. Someday I plan to get a masters degree so I can move up in my company. BAD STAR
  24. 24. I was really good at taking care of family member complaints. I dealt with the problems early before they became bigger problems. BAD STAR
  25. 25. Yesterday, the printer stopped accepting the roll of paper and I had to send a FAX immediately. I opened the back of the machine and found a disconnected wire. I pushed it back in and that seemed to do the trick. I was then able to send my materials on time. GOOD STAR
  26. 26. I was not able to fulfill my goal. If I had to do it all over again, I would have got with more experienced managers to learn how they would handle the problem. BAD STAR
  27. 27. It was my job to finish rounds for the night shift. I realized that a resident was not in their room. Immediately I reported a Code Silver to the switchboard. Within about 5 minutes the resident was found walking outside. GOOD STAR
  28. 28. Recognizing Behavioral Questions and Statements  Answer Yes or No to the items on the Handout  Are they a good behavioral statement/question or not?
  29. 29. How to Plan, Open, Conduct, and Close Behavioral Descriptive interviews
  30. 30. Planning- Question Writing  Maximum vs. Typical Performance  For the core competency, we need to figure out the importance of the maximum vs typical performance  For the interview  Typical performance dimensions  Create question stems that best reflect the core competencies of the job  “Dealing with Family Members of a Resident”  After we ask that, we can ask some probing questions to get more out of the applicant (more on this later)
  31. 31. Opening the Interview  Greeting the Applicant  Smile  Firm Handshake  Physical Layout  Welcoming environment  Can you name some behaviors we should use while opening the interview?  Small Talk? 2-3 minutes tops
  32. 32. A Structured Statement  Set the tone and put the applicant at ease  Example  Shall we get started? My job title here is Unit Manager for Coggins 4 North. I have been with Keswick for 5 years now. As you know, I’m interviewing you today for a nursing opening. I would like to spend the next 30-45 minutes going over your background and qualifications. Than I will leave some time at the end for you to ask any questions you may have about Keswick. Sound good? One last thing: The questions we structured often ask you about a specific event in your past. Take your time when recalling such events. We are using these events to get to know you better….
  33. 33. Conducting the Interview – What to look for Successful Applicant Unsuccessful Applicant  Listens carefully to the question  Honesty  Accepts responsibilities for past actions  Knows how to ask follow-up questions  Answers questions thoroughly but knows when to stop talking  Passive and cautious  Vaguness  Quick to answer w/o thinking  Poor communication skills  Poor appearance  No relevant experience
  34. 34. Unlawful Questions  Lawful or Unlawful 1) Would you be able to work on weekends? 2) Tell me about your experiences at Smith Healthcare. 3) Do you have a significant other? 4) Which religious holidays do you observe? 5) Have you been convicted of a felony? 6) Can you drive?
  35. 35. Probing  Asking follow-up questions to gain more insight on a specific topic  Sometimes you will need to ask more questions because of the applicant’s demeanor  Example: “Tell me a time you received constructive criticism”  Follow-up: “What were the steps you took to correcting the problem?”
  36. 36. “Silent Sam”  Situation: You ask your BDI question, and the applicant is either non-responsive or can not think of an answer. What do you do?  Answer: Don’t rush! Let the employee think. Take a calculated pause (10-15 seconds). If the applicant looks uneasy, use an “you’re OK” statement.  If this still does not work, try to restate the question  Use different wording or emphasis
  37. 37. “Betty Bluff”  Situation: You ask this candidate a question and they act like certain situations happen to everyone but themselves. What do you do?  Answer: 1) Restate the question 2) Sympathetic Persistence  Politely insist on obtaining BD information
  38. 38. “Slippery Sue”  Situation: You ask a question and the candidate “slips” away from the question being asked. What do you do?  Answer: Assumed Responsibility and a “youre okay” statement  Do not use Assumed Responsibility more than twice in an interview. Usually Applicant should be able to get the message of what you want after the first time you use it.
  39. 39. Lets Practice!  Interruption Game  I need half the group to turn around away from the screen, the other half facing them while also facing the screen  Group facing the screen, you are the applicant.  Group facing away from screen, you are the interviewer  Interviewer- ask a BDI question (If you need an example let me know), use Question Restatement, You’re okay statement, sympathetic persistence, or assumed responsibility to get the answer you need  Applicant- One of the three interview personas will pop up on the screen. Act out these personas so that the interviewer can practice using their probing techniques
  40. 40. BETTY BLUFF  Remember to act as if nothing happens to you  Try to get them to use question restatement or sympathetic persistence
  41. 41. SLIPPERY SUE  Answer questions as generally as possible.  USE BAD STAR TECHNIQUES  Typical and not specific  We want the interviewer to use Assumed Responsibility
  42. 42. SILENT SAM  Just don’t answer, seem uncomfortable  We want the interviewer to use a “You’re Okay” statement or question restatement
  43. 43. Now Switch Positions!
  44. 44. SLIPPERY SUE  Answer questions as generally as possible.  USE BAD STAR TECHNIQUES  Typical and not specific  We want the interviewer to use Assumed Responsibility
  45. 45. SILENT SAM  Just don’t answer, seem uncomfortable  We want the interviewer to use a “You’re Okay” statement or question restatement
  46. 46. BETTY BLUFF  Remember to act as if nothing happens to you  Try to get them to use question restatement or sympathetic persistence
  47. 47. What did we learn? Thoughts?
  48. 48. Effective Note Taking  We must record information if we are digging out crucial behavioral descriptive information  This can either be done by taping the individual or by manual note taking  Two principles of Note-Taking  Do not try to record everything  Keep notes limited to what applicant said/did
  49. 49. Closing the Interview  Does not need to be lengthy, but should be precise and informative  Ask the candidate closing questions  “Do you have any other questions for us?”  Answer any closing questions the candidate may have courteously and precisely  Remember! It’s not over until its over. Everything the applicant says or does should be recorded from the greeting until you walk the candidate out of the door
  50. 50. Questions? Thoughts?  After this we will move into putting what we learned into practice  Divide up into teams of 2-3  Wait for following instructions
  51. 51. 1) Creating BDI Questions  Let’s say we are interviewing a GNA  Create 4-6 BDI Questions that you would ask a GNA  Remember we need to develop competencies/traits for the job and convert those competencies into questions.  Questions must be able to let applicant paint a picture for us
  52. 52. 2) Ask Questions  Once you are done, switch questions with group next to you  Each person take turn asking another person 2 questions from the list.  Third group member, look out for the STAR method as well as probing opportunities when the “candidate” is answering their questions
  53. 53. 3) Group Think  Let’s now come back together and discuss  What are some core competencies, performance measures, etc… that we can use in questions
  54. 54. Feedback? Thoughts? Concerns?
  55. 55. References  Career Services at University of Deleware. (2014). Behavioral interviewing. http://www.udel.edu/CSC  Department of Laboring, Licensing, and Regulation. (2009). Guidelines for pre-employment inquiries technical assistance guide - Interviews and applications for employment. DLLR’s Office of Fair Practices. Reviewed on March 17th 2015. http://www.dllr.maryland.gov/oeope/preemp.shtml  Green, P. C., (2012) Understanding behavior based interviewing. Excerpted from: Action Speaks!: The Newest Ideas in Behavioral Interviewing. Media Learning International  Janz, T., Hellervik, L., & Gilmore, D. C., (1986) Behavior Descriptive Interviewing: New, Accurate, Cost Effective. Allyn and Bacon Inc. Boston, MA.  Keswick Mission Statement and Core Values (2014) www.choosekeswick.org  Nestle Purina Careers. (2012) Behavioral Interviewing Slide Show. Nestle Purina Inc.  Raven, J., & Stephenson, J. (Eds.). (2001). Competency in the Learning Society. New York: Peter Lang.  Stewart, C. J., & Cash Jr., W. B. (2008) Interviewing: Principles and practices. McGraw-Hill, New York.  UTSA Career Center (2010). http://www.utsa.edu/careercenter/  WQG Consulting Inc. (2010) Reviewed on February 17, 2015

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