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  1. 1. POWER LINE INSPECTIONS BY BIRDVIEW SRL. STAGE 2- Service Description and Inspection Principles
  2. 2. SUMMARY OF WORK • SENSORS: Their Description and Usage 1. Sensor Basics and Characteristics 2. Sensor Applications and Their Capabilities • FAULT DETECTION MEANS 1. Corona 2. Hi-Resolution Day Light 3. Thermometric Infrared «IR» Pictures • EQUIPMENT AND OPERATIONS • WORK PLATFORMS 1. Helicopters 2. Gyros 3. RPAS
  3. 3. When performing multispectral inspections, some basics in Remote Sensing have to be applied: • The sunlight is the RADIATION ENERGY SOURCE for every phenomena that we can characterize • Only part of sunlight reaches THE EARTH • Thermal IR emissions are present when equipment overheats and UV emission are caused due to ionization of electrical discharges in possibly faulty components • During an inspection, BIRDVIEW checks for both types of emissions
  4. 4. Several types of integrated sensors are utilized to obtain highly detailed images of all components in addition to different types of IR sensors: LWIR (Long Wave Infrared) Day Light UV (Air Ionization) UV emissions due to electrical discharges in equipment Thermal emissions by overheated objects Visible details of equipment This region may be affected by sunlight reflection USED USED USED DISCARDED EMISSION REFLECTION EMISSION + REFLECTION EMISSION
  5. 5. Our payload has been specifically designed to integrate all the necessary sensors needed for highly efficient Power Line Inspections and their subsequent reporting BIRDVIEW CAN OFFER THREE TYPES OF INSPECTIONS IN JUST ONE FLIGHT Daylight Camera Corona Camera Thermometric Camera fullHD Videocamera
  6. 6. The Corona Effect is an electrical discharge due to the ionization of the air surrounding an electrically charged surface Spontaneous corona discharges occur naturally in high-voltage systems, such as power-lines The energy leaps during the ionization process, release electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the ultraviolet Corona Camera CORONA CAMERA
  7. 7. High-Resolution images of the tower and its elements will give the client the complete mosaicking of the structure With the help of a state of the art Day Light Camera, BIRDVIEW records an HD Video to document all types of operations performed during the flight Day Light Camera DAY LIGHT CAMERA
  8. 8. When overheated components are present, it is necessary to take RADIOMETRIC PHOTOS in addition to high resolution pictures in order to perform a throughout analysis of the surface of a component BIRDVIEW records the video footage of the infrared inspection during the flight Thermal Infrared Camera THERMAL INFRARED CAMERA
  9. 9. • DAY LIGHT FRAME CAMERA: Nikon D800 (200mm) – Highly Detailed Images: < 1mm/pixel @ 35m – Well Balanced Frame: 6,3m x 4,2m FOV • THERMAL INFRARED CAMERA: Variocam HD800 (60mm) – High Definition: 1024x768 -> 1cm/px @ 35m – Frame Covers 10,1m x 7,8m FOV @ 35m – High Radiometric Definition: 0,1°C – Allows for THERMOGRAHPIC VIDEO RECORDING while performing thermometric frame capture BIRDVIEW’S CAMERAS
  10. 10. • CORONA UV VIDEOCAMERA: OFIL DayCor ROM – High Sensitivity: 1pC @ 10m (as attested by RWE Eurotech GmbH) – Frame Covers: 4,9m x 3,5m FOV @ 35m • FULL HD VIDEOCAMERA: Sony FCBEH6300 – 3.27 Megapixel HD Color Block Camera – 20x Optical Zoom – Live Cabin-Remoted Optical Zoom
  11. 11.  The optics of each camera have been designed to operate at the same distance and cover the same Field Of View (FOV)  The DL Videocamera and the recording of TIR videofootages provide full documentation of the flight operations  Audionotes recorded on-board help backoffice procedures The helicopter is about 25 M / 82 FT from the tower. Because the payload is mounted on its left, it flies on the right side of power line APPLICATION OF CAMERAS
  12. 12. USE OF CORONA – UV CAMERA The Corona Effect is an electrical discharge due to the ionization of the air surrounding an electrically charged surface Spontaneous corona discharges occur naturally in high-voltage systems such as power lines The energy leaps during the ionization process, release electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the ultraviolet FAULT DETECTION
  13. 13. Corona discharges are strictly related to the intensity of the electric field ( high voltage) and the geometry of the component Corona effect occurs only when electrodes have strong dimensional variations in shape (dispersing power of the tips)
  14. 14. Power transmission equipment is designed to minimize the formation of corona discharge In the above example, THE CORONA EFFECT can be minimized by applying a Corona Ring. The toroidal device spreads the electric field over a larger area and decreases the field gradient below the corona discharge threshold
  15. 15. CORONA DISCHARGES ARE UNDESIREABLE ON POWER LINES BECAUSE OF THE FOLLOWING EFFECTS THEY MAY HAVE: • Power Loss • Audible Noise • Electromagnetic Interference • Ozone Production • Insulation Damage Ionized gas compounds of a corona are chemically active and are mainly:  Ozone (O3)  Nitrogen Oxide (NO) Nitric Oxide (NO2)→ When water vapors (H2O) are present NO2 turns into nitric acid and these highly corrosive substances can accelerate the deterioration of the vital parts of the line, such as elastomer insulators and other metallic components
  16. 16. THE OBJECTIVE OF AN AIRBORNE CORONA-UV INSPECTION IS: 1. To detect and isolate the part where the corona effect is present due to surface and material degradation 2. To detect and isolate anomalies on components where "mechanical damage" has altered its original shape in a significant way and hence leading to faults. Below some examples: Broken strand on conductor Broken spacer
  17. 17. When sensors indicate that Corona Effect is present, the operator will scrutinize the area for Corona discharges The CORONA DISCHARGE appears as a «floating blob» of light It is necessary to obtain HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGES at the same time of making a VIDEO RECORDING in order to perform a throughout analysis of all areas where a Corona Discharge is present
  18. 18. The operator takes a series of High- Resolution photos of the tower and its elements in order to obtain the complete mosaicking of the structure During the flight the HD video will also be recorded to document all flight operations FAULT DETECTION USE OF DAYLIGHT CAMERA
  19. 19. Pictures at 36 MPIXEL resolution are taken from the front….. …and back of each structure
  20. 20. During BIRDVIEW’S POST PROCESSING, these images collected during the flight will be reviewed by specialist to search for and classify anomalies on: 1. Hardware 2. Clamps 3. Insulators 4. Components of the tower 5. Foundations of the tower 6. Dampers 7. ETC… High Resolution images allow for the highest level of detail. These images are inventoried and stored for client’s reference purposes.
  21. 21. When junctions are not properly tightened, the capability to transmit energy is reduced, hence producing heat due to «resistance» (Joule Effect). Infrared inspection is performed using the principles of the thermography, the measure of the temperature emitted by a given component For power-lines, the objective of an infrared inspection is to detect a HOT SPOT in the junction between: 1. Suspension Clamps 2. Joints of Conductors in Span 3. Switches in Sub Stations 4. Coils in Sub Station FAULT DETECTION USE OF THERMAL INFRARED – IR CAMERA
  22. 22. This “resistance” along the circuit creates a consistant loss of energy in addition to a very temperature that may cause any metal to melt and, consequently lead to the detachment of the conductor: THE DANGEREOUS EFFECTS COULD BE: • Complete black-out and interruption of service • Possibility of fire in the vicinity of the lines • Possibility of harm to people or property from falling infrastructure Infrared Inspection has become a standard and reliable method for the prevention of faults and line safety / integrity verification
  23. 23. With airborne inspections, the performance level of the camera is a key-factor for obtaining scientific results BirdView uses a camera with following characteristic: • Longwave Infrared Spectrum (7-14 nm) • Sensor Resolution of 1024 x 768 Pixel: 1. Better geometric resolution allows for the perception of details 2. Detection of slightest difference in temperature • Radiometric Picture Function
  24. 24. During the flight BV records an entire video of the infrared inspection. When a HOT SPOT is present, the operator will scrutinize the area and will adjust the camera to obtain sharper images Simultaneously, it is necessary take radiometric and high-resolution pictures as well in order to be able to perform a detailed analysis during post processing
  25. 25. Radiometric pictures captured during the flight will be analyzed with the help of a specialized software that allows the reporting of temperature measurements...
  26. 26. ……..and make a calculation of DELTA T to determine the severity of the anomaly DELTA T= 18,27°C
  27. 27. Assessment of severity according to ASTM E1934 Standard Guide for Examining Electrical and Mechanical Equipment with Infrared Thermography
  28. 28. Multispectral Gyro Stabilized Gimbal Nikon D800 (36Mpixel – 200mm) Corona Camera HD Sony (full HD) IR Camera HD (1024 x768 resolution) SWE400 QUAD sensors Our Equipment
  29. 29. The Gimbal is connected via a 3G module to our server for GPS REAL TIME TRACKING REAL TIME TRACKING is available through a website or on a mobile device
  30. 30. On Board Quad-Monitor ViewJoystick for the Operator From inside the cabin, a joystick enables the operator full control of the movement of external turret. Results from cameras and sensors are then visualized on the monitors On Board the Aircraft
  31. 31. A special APP on board allows the collection of data about flight. Such as, crew activity, flight time and progress of the inspection This data can be sent to the client via email, directly from the field!
  32. 32. Our equipment is certified and can be mounted on a AW119 and AS350 / 355 Ecureuil series in addition to Robinson R66 (*) When mounting CLIENT’S custom equipment, minor changes and little modifications could be necessary when changing to a different aircraft Gimbal Mounts