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  1. 1. Emma Riddiough
  2. 2.  The purpose of a documentary is to document, i.e. Report with evidence of something that has happened  It can show this by using actuality footage, or reconstruction; e.g. 9/11 attack recording, etc.  It can use a narrators voice over to anchor the meaning, or rely on the participants themselves, with occasional interjection by the narrator  The term documentary was coined by film director John Gearson in 1936 about the South Sea Island  He defined documentary as the creative treatment of actuality or reality  Documentaries are not just about facts. Instead facts are used to create socially critical arguments, making the audience come to there own conclusions
  3. 3.  Fully Narrated:- when the voice over is used to make sense of the visuals, and dominates there meaning; e.g. National History Documentaries  Fly on the Wall:- where the cameras film the subjects without interference; e.g. 24 hours in A+E  Mixed Documentary:- this uses a combination of interviews, observation and narration; e.g. The devil made me do it  Self-Reflective:- where the subjects of the documentary acknowledge the presence of the camera, and often speak directly to the film maker; e.g. Directly to the film makers role in constructing a view of reality – Teen Mom  Docudrama:- a reconstruction or a re-enactment as they gradually happened; e.g. Crime watch  Docusoaps:- these programmes follow the daily lives of particular individuals within an organisation; e.g. Airline  Reality TV:- is a combination of information and entertainment, and was first used for news magazine programs; e.g. Miami Ink
  4. 4. John Carner – there are five central elements to documentaries which are:  Observation:- the programme makers pretend that the camera is unseen or ignored by the people taking part in the events; e.g. It places the audience as an “eye witness” to the events  The Interview:- TV documentaries rely on interviews. The interviewee addresses the unseen interviewer instead of the audience. Interviews are intercut with images of observation to illustrate what they are talking about  Dramastation:- All documentaries use a sense of drama throughout the observation element  Mis-en-scene:- documentary makers carefully compose shots so that they contain images they want the audience to see  Explosion:- The line of argument, and the way the argument “unfolds”
  5. 5.  Gatekeeping is about the selection and rejection of information Gatekeeper = producers Selected Information Rejected Information
  6. 6. Open vs. Closed  Open – where there are questions left unanswered (soap opera)  Closed – where no questions are left unanswered (finding nemo) Single Strand vs. Multi-Strand  Single Strands – there is only one narrative thread (finding nemo)  Multi-Strands – more than one thread, and sometimes they do converge but not always (soap opera) Linear vs. Non-Linear  Linear – chronological order; e.g. Order of time – adverts  Non-Linear – doesn’t follow chronological order; e.g. Flash forward/ backward; e.g. The time travellers wife  Circular – at the end of the narrative has gone full circle; e.g. Dead of Night