Issues PowerPoint


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Issues PowerPoint

  1. 1. Issues in language teachingIssues in language teaching Cultural awareness & learningCultural awareness & learning stylesstyles
  2. 2. The articleThe article • Towards intercultural communicativeTowards intercultural communicative competence in ELT by Cem Alptekincompetence in ELT by Cem Alptekin
  3. 3. About the authorAbout the author • Cem Alptekin, Associate Professor ofCem Alptekin, Associate Professor of Applied Linguistics at Bogaziçi UniversityApplied Linguistics at Bogaziçi University (Istanbul), publishes internationally in the(Istanbul), publishes internationally in the areas of second language learning andareas of second language learning and teaching, neurolinguistics, and contrastiveteaching, neurolinguistics, and contrastive rhetoric. He also taught ESL in the Unitedrhetoric. He also taught ESL in the United States, and EFL in Turkey and NorthStates, and EFL in Turkey and North CyprusCyprus •
  4. 4. The issue in a nutshellThe issue in a nutshell • ““It is vital that our field move beyondIt is vital that our field move beyond its colour-blind vision imagining itself toits colour-blind vision imagining itself to be inherently filled with understandingbe inherently filled with understanding and sensitivity toward diverse culturesand sensitivity toward diverse cultures and people.”and people.” (Ryuko Kubota, Tesol quarterly, Vol. 40,(Ryuko Kubota, Tesol quarterly, Vol. 40, No.3, Sept. 2006)No.3, Sept. 2006)
  5. 5. Overview of the articleOverview of the article • The validity of the pedagogic model &The validity of the pedagogic model & it’s portrayal of a monolithic perceptionit’s portrayal of a monolithic perception of native speaker’s language & culture.of native speaker’s language & culture.
  6. 6. The components of the modelThe components of the model • Grammatical competenceGrammatical competence • Sociolinguistic competenceSociolinguistic competence • Discourse competenceDiscourse competence • Strategic competenceStrategic competence
  7. 7. Sociolinguistic competenceSociolinguistic competence • ““..........refers to the culture-specific context..........refers to the culture-specific context embedding the norms, values, beliefs, andembedding the norms, values, beliefs, and behaviour patterns of a culture.”behaviour patterns of a culture.” • ““Studies inStudies in contrastive rhetoriccontrastive rhetoric provide ampleprovide ample evidence for culture-specific thoughtevidence for culture-specific thought patterns and organizational differences thatpatterns and organizational differences that lead to serious misunderstandings.” (p. 58)lead to serious misunderstandings.” (p. 58)
  8. 8. Contrastive rhetoricContrastive rhetoric • the study of how a person’sthe study of how a person’s first language and culture influence hisfirst language and culture influence his or her writing in a secondor her writing in a second ......
  9. 9. Intercultural differencesIntercultural differences • Germans – more direct, language patternGermans – more direct, language pattern transference may sound rude or aggressivetransference may sound rude or aggressive • Americans – refusing requests, sympathy,Americans – refusing requests, sympathy, regret, specific excuseregret, specific excuse • Japanese – regret, vague excuseJapanese – regret, vague excuse • English – more inclined to apologize thanEnglish – more inclined to apologize than speakers of Hebrew –speakers of Hebrew – William Littlewood, (InterculturalWilliam Littlewood, (Intercultural Differences in Ways of Communicating, p.p. 6&7)Differences in Ways of Communicating, p.p. 6&7)
  10. 10. DifferencesDifferences • ““Learning styles focus on individuals, culturesLearning styles focus on individuals, cultures focus on groups…..”focus on groups…..” Luciano Mariani, TESOL-ItalyLuciano Mariani, TESOL-Italy Conference-Rome 2004Conference-Rome 2004 • ““I believe that getting to know who’sI believe that getting to know who’s different helps us to feel the same.”different helps us to feel the same.” Parent of aParent of a primary school child after using primary school portfolio developed inprimary school child after using primary school portfolio developed in PiedmontPiedmont • ““For us, a dragon carries the idea of “danger”,For us, a dragon carries the idea of “danger”, but in China dragons bring good fortune.”but in China dragons bring good fortune.”
  11. 11. Learning StylesLearning Styles • ““learning styles are the unique ways in whichlearning styles are the unique ways in which individual people perceive, interact with andindividual people perceive, interact with and respond to a learning experience.”respond to a learning experience.” Luciano MarianiLuciano Mariani Donald L. Tucker, Understanding learning stylesDonald L. Tucker, Understanding learning styles and study strategies of Korean students inand study strategies of Korean students in American Colleges and Universities.American Colleges and Universities.
  12. 12. Cultural JudgementsCultural Judgements • ““2 lovely Chinese students, 2 lovely2 lovely Chinese students, 2 lovely Vietnamese students & 2 arrogantVietnamese students & 2 arrogant Korean students”Korean students” ESL teacherESL teacher
  13. 13. What he discoveredWhat he discovered • That Koreans did not participate inThat Koreans did not participate in classroom discussion & rarely took notesclassroom discussion & rarely took notes • Studied in groupsStudied in groups • The word “no” seemed to have no realThe word “no” seemed to have no real meaningmeaning • Preferred oral exams rather thanPreferred oral exams rather than writtenwritten • Were not direct (P.4)Were not direct (P.4)
  14. 14. On the other hand….On the other hand…. • Mariani discovered that VietnameseMariani discovered that Vietnamese students were quite verbal, respondingstudents were quite verbal, responding to teachers in unison or in teachers in unison or in chorus. (Sullivan,(Sullivan, 1996)1996) • Whilst Koreans showed a minorWhilst Koreans showed a minor preference for kinaesthetic & tactile,preference for kinaesthetic & tactile, Vietnamese showed a major preference.Vietnamese showed a major preference. • Koreans are very visual.Koreans are very visual. (Park, 1997, Reid, 1987)(Park, 1997, Reid, 1987)
  15. 15. So it is possible……So it is possible…… • That the perception of arrogance couldThat the perception of arrogance could stem from the cultural responses of thestem from the cultural responses of the Korean students.Korean students.
  16. 16. It may surprise you to know…It may surprise you to know… • ““The Inuits live in the northern part ofThe Inuits live in the northern part of North America and Siberia. They’reNorth America and Siberia. They’re often called Eskimos, but they dislikeoften called Eskimos, but they dislike this name and actually regard it asthis name and actually regard it as offensive.”offensive.” LucianoLuciano Mariani (2004)Mariani (2004)
  17. 17. So who do we ask?So who do we ask? • ““So it becomes essential to get to knowSo it becomes essential to get to know how cultures actually make meaning ofhow cultures actually make meaning of the world. To do this, one obvious firstthe world. To do this, one obvious first step could be to ask the learnersstep could be to ask the learners themselves.”themselves.” • Learning Styles Across Cultures – Luciano MarianiLearning Styles Across Cultures – Luciano Mariani
  18. 18. Other articlesOther articles • - learning styles across cultures – Luciano- learning styles across cultures – Luciano MarianiMariani • 003.pdf003.pdf - Intercultural Differences in Ways- Intercultural Differences in Ways of Communicating – William Littlewood.of Communicating – William Littlewood.