StructureComparative AdjectivesComparative adjectives are used when describing thedifferences between ONLY two items. S + V to be + adj er + than S + V to be + more + adj + thanFor exampleH. habilis had a brain that was larger than the largestAutralopithecus brain, but smaller than the Homoerectus brain.
For exampleNeanderthals brain was larger than the brain of livinghumans, although its shape was longer from front toback and not as rounded in the front.The brain was enclosed in a skull that was morerounded than H. erectus.
Ardipithecus ramidusThe most primitive hominid yet found,this species has more chimpanzee-likefeatures than any other humanancestor.Ardipithecus ramidus may have walkedupright.Other fossils discovered with aramidus suggest that the species livedin the forest.4.4 million years agofirst fossils found 1992
Australopithecus anamensisExhibiting some chimp-likecharacteristics, A. anamensisjaws are more primitive thanthose of later hominids.And yet, its humerus (an armbone) is quite human-like.Characteristics of its tibia(a lower leg bone) indicate thatA. anamensis walked on two feet.4.2 - 3.9 million years agofirst fossils found 1965
Australopithecus afarensisThis species includes "Lucy," the 3.2million year old fossil found by DonaldJohanson. A. afarensis smallbraincases and relatively large teethand chewing muscles are similar tothose of chimpanzees. However, theirteeth, as well as their leg and pelvisbones, exhibit human-likecharacteristics. They ranged in heightfrom three and a half feet to five feetand walked upright.3.5 - 2.9 million years agofirst fossils found 1973
Australopithecus africanusAlthough similar in many ways to A.afarensis, this species had a slightlylarger brain (but still only slightlylarger than a chimps brain), smallercanine teeth, and larger molars.The wear of the teeth suggests thatA. africanus ate fruits and foliage.3.0 - 2.4 million years agofirst fossils found 1924
Australopithecus robustusBelieved to be roughly the samesize as A. afarensis, A. robustus hada large, "robust" (heavier, thicker)skull, as well as a jaw and largeteeth that were well adapted tochewing.Like some present-day apes, thisspecies had a "sagittal crest" (aridge running from front to back onthe top of the skull) from whichmuscles running to the jaw wereattached.2.1 - 1.6 million years agofirst fossils found 1938
Australopithecus boiseiA. boisei is similar to A. robustus,except that its skull and teeth are evenlarger.Some experts consider the two closelyrelated, both branching from anotherspecies called A. aethiopicus.Others believe A. robustus evolvedfrom A. africanus.Like all of the other Autralopithecusspecies, A. boisei walked upright.2.3 - 1.1 million years agofirst fossils found 1959
Homo habilisHomo habilis, which actually means"handy man," is apparently the firstspecies to make and use primitivestone tools.About five feet tall and weighing 100pounds, H. habilis had a brain that waslarger than the largest Autralopithecusbrain, but smaller than the Homoerectus brain.2.4 - 1.5 million years agofirst fossils found 1960
Homo erectusThe first example of Homo erectus, known as "Java Man," was discovered inIndonesia in 1893. Fossil remains of Homo erectus have since been foundthroughout Africa and Asia, making it the first wide-ranging hominid.Despite the primitive appearance of its skull, the erectus skeleton is verysimilar to that of modern humans, although more robust (thicker andheavier). Homo erectus was probably the first hominid to use fire.1.8 million years ago - 300,000 years agofirst fossils found 1893
Homo sapiens (archaic)Also known as Homo heidelbergensis, thisspecies has a brain that was larger than H.erectus and smaller than that of a modernhuman. The brain was enclosed in a skullthat was more rounded than H. erectus.Fossil remains of archaic Homo sapiens havebeen found in Africa and Europe.500,000 - 200,000 years agofirst fossil found in 1921
Homo sapiens neanderthalensisAveraging five and a half feet in heightand possessing short limbs,Neanderthals were well-adapted toliving in a cold climate. Attached totheir robust (thick and heavy) boneswere powerful muscles. TheNeanderthals brain was larger than thebrain of living humans, although itsshape was longer from front to backand not as rounded in the front.230,000 - 30,000 years agofirst fossil found in 1856
Homo sapiens (modern)Modern Homo sapiens, also known asHomo sapiens sapiens, have beenaround for the past 120,000 years.Homo sapiens living about 40,000 yearsago made elaborate tools out of bone,antler, ivory, stone, and wood, andproduced fine artwork in the form ofcarvings and cave paintings.120,000 years ago - presentfirst "Cro-Magnon" specimens found in1868
Role-play-make a group of 4-send 1 representative of your group to pick up a pieceof color paper-act to describe the all feathers about the name of agethat you have got-come in front of the class to perform