Linguistics is a science that implies a serious and deep study of languages It aims to demonstrate how peoples have used, deal with So on as a system of hums and develop a language day bycommunication and from an day in order to face and internal point of view overcome, different socio- linguistic obstacles PRELIMINARY NOTIONS It may be said that linguistics the Deneen (1966,1) and Richard cientifics study of language in (1999,215) “Linguistics” is the general, and the language in Scientifics study of languages as a particular system of human communication”
LINGUISTICS BACKGROUND Linguistics was used in the Philology is a branch of middle of the 19th century. It is Scholars such as Jacob Linguistics that studies a newer approach to the study Grimm,Franz Boop and languages change and of languages August Schleicher. languages relationship. Anthropological Linguistics: It deals with theSociolinguistic: It studies how dialects differ relationship between languages and culturebetween groups separated by certain sociial and has also been a major among linguisticsvariables such as religion gender etc Socio-Ethnic Linguistics: It focuses on the functions of languages in ourPsycholinguitics: It is a discipline concerned societies, especially characterized by thewith relations between messages and the deep differences of class, ethnicity, gendercharacteristics of individual who select and and generation i n order to promoteinterpret them research into multilingual and multicultural Computational Linguistics: It also known as natural languages processing, is branch of artificial intelligence that deals analyzing, understanding and generating the languages that humans naturally
It provides the theoretical and descriptive foundations for the investigation and solution of languages-related problems, especially those of languages educationKaplan argues that “early applied linguistics was dominantly associated with language teaching” but “while the relationship continues in the present the field has diversified”. Applied linguistics: An emerging discipline for the twenty-firstWilliam Grabe examines the growing diversity of the field, and relationship of applied linguisticsto linguistics, in some detail. He notes the importance of the concept that “applies linguistics is driven first by real-world problem s rather than theoretical explorations”
CONTRASTIVE OR COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS The term contrastive analysis stands for applied contrastive studies, ACS, which deal with the practical Theoretical contrastive studies can consequences of differences between contrasted be performed on the eleven of languages for teaching purposes, bilingual analysis or phonology, lexicon, syntax, semantic translation. s, pragmatics or text linguistics.It is possible to refer tothe study, contrast or As a matter ofcomparison of two or facts, comparative or The main problem of TCS is how tomore language contrastive linguistics contrast languages. Two objects ofstructures, whose subject appears. analysis may appear either similarmatter is more specific or different. But it is obvious that each level of linguistics analysis will have its own criterion of comparison
• It compares languages usually with the aim of assisting language learning by identifying important differences between the learner s native and target languages.CONTRASTIVE • Contrastive linguistics deals merely with present-day languages • Originally known as comparative philology is a branch of historical or diachronic linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages in order to establish their historical relatedness.COMPARATIVE • To maintain a clear distinction between attested and reconstructed forms, comparative linguistic prefix an asterisk to any form that is not found in surviving texts
FUNDAMENTALS FOR TEACHINGStudents of applied linguistics intending to teach a foreignlanguages. Such as English, French, Italian and so on as it istheir concern.Students of modern FLs will benefit from languagespecific, descriptive L courses will serve as an aid to theirown more autonomous learning and as a background to theself-diagnosis and remediation of their errors, spoken andwriting
CONTRASTIVE LINGUISTICS SYLLABUS It is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than which is C onstractive Analysis od+f explicitly stated sound systems involve CONTRASTIVE PRAGMATICS phonogical or phonetic contrasts, relevant to identyfying types of foreign The ability to understand accent. another speaker´s intended meaning is calles pragmatic competence. Syntax sees contrasts of three kinds: structural, categorical and functional. Students enjoy Contrastive rhetoric a popular investigating and useful contrasts between component of ways that different languages textualise which in the CL genres such as news class in bulletins, orbituaries, contrastive genre ans so on. analysis.
Other languages which are not derived The fundamental technique In principle, every difference orfrom the same ancestor aim not use the contrastive linguistics is to match similarity between two or more related contrastive method. Lexicostaatistics is up tolanguages by using a languages should be explicable in terms a method based on statistical analysis technique known as the contastive of isolation or context analysis of vocabulary method. METHODOLOGY OF CONTRASTIVE LINGUISTICS Semantic systems might be done in Syntactical systems have to be The phonological systems isolation or in context analyzed in context due to the Morphological systems migth be done in isolated due the denotation nature of the internal have must, they are to be or contextualized and connotation components of the issues. done in isolation parametres dimensions
Fries (1945):”The most It reveals what is general and efficient materials are thosewhat is languages specific and is that are based upon athe reforms important both the scientific description of the understanding of language in languages.general and for the study of theindividual languages compared CONTRASTIVE Lado (1957) The basis of theJohansson and Hofland (1994) contrastive analysis approach “Language comparison is of ANALYSIS METHOD as the assumption that we cangreat interest in the theoretical predict and describe as well as an applied perspective” The term contrastive analysis is It was thought that a comparison on especially associated with applied different levels contrastive studies. (phonology, morphology, syntax,lexis ,culture) would identify points of difference and provide results that would be important in languages teaching Advocated as a means of predicting or explaining difficulties of second languages learners tongue in learning a particular target language
Microlguistic: (James 1980:61)phonology, grammar, lexis. Macrolinguistic: (James 1980:98) text linguistics, discourse analysis. What are the vowel and consonant phonemes in MT and TL? How is cohesion expressed in TM and TL? NEWTRENDS How do they differ in their inventory, realization, and distribution? How are the speech acts of apologizing and requesting expressed in TM and TL? What are the verbs of saying in MT and TL? How are conversations opened and closed in MGT and TL?
THE ROLE OF CORPORA It is a body a texts, utterances, or other specimens considered more or less representative of a language characteristic It supplies references to It develops listening The non-contrasts or near descriptions of linguistics decoding and identities should like wise phenomena in the students transcription notation be identified, described mother tongue and ranked for strength Descriptions of problems It does transfer analysis An error survey should be of the same observable among languages to undertaken to verify fact in the foreign bring into play corrective whether learners do languages. phonology indeed commit the errors predicted The contrasts identifiedIt recognizes and uses the should be categorized and For teaching purposes, the IPA conventional register. ranked in strength reflecting intending teachers are to relative learning difficulty move directly on to the design of remedial classroom activities and materials.
LANGUAGES Lists about 6912 living languages in the world up 2005. The etchnologue now uses the standard, called ISO 639-3, include 7299 codes dealing with languages. The number of languages and speakers throughout symbols, morphemes, words and sentences used for human the world are: •Asia It is an arbitrary structured system of utterances- sounds, gestures, signs, and movements, written Ethnology •Africa •Pacific •Americans •Europe communication. The Summer To distribute language all over the Institute, Etchnologue Survey lists world six factors may be in descendent order the top considered languages by number of native speakers. Most spoken language population of the world English (115) Chinese Portuguese French (35) Spanish Russian Arabic (24) English Japanese Spanish (20) Bengali German Russian (16) Hindu French German (9) Arabic Mandarin (5).
BRIEF CLASIFICATION OF LANGUAGES Verbal languages Language Family Individual Language It is a group of languages related by descent from common ancestor, called the proto-languages of It is a language as a whole from the same family. that family Idiolect Dialect It is individual voice quality ,pitch, speech rhythm or writes the overall system of a particular languages-Particular way to using languages regional and social Colloquialism Jargon It is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used Used by people who work in a particular in formal speech or writing area or who have a common interest. Example: Lawyers. Slang It is a language and its informal, using expressions that many would consider to be grammatically imperfect and sometimes rude. It is not standard Example: teen´s languages
NO VERBAL LANGUAGES It is a system of permanent written symbols. The three main sorts of writing systems are: Idiographic It´s a writing system which uses ideograms(symbols) to Writing language represent whole words or concepts. Example ChineseSyllabic Writing language It´s based or syllables which are represented by separate symbols. Example Japanese. Alphabetical It´s based on sounds- pronunciation and deals with alphabetical Writing language symbols which represent consonant or vowel
Articulated Language Deals with Phonetic Spelling. Few are the language whose writing systems, are based on alphabets and phonetic alphabets. SPANISH LANGUAGE ENGLISH LANGUAGESpanish belongs the romance branch of English to belong to the western group of the Indo-European language family the Germanic branch of the Indo- Spoken a first language 352 million European language family. English might second language speakers be considered the third-or fourth-largest native langue in the world
LANGUAGE INCONSISTENCES1. The same letter combination can refer to different sounds. ‹ consonant letter› cerda [ˈserda] casa[ˈkasa] ‹ vowel letter› steak [ˈsteyk˙] head[ˈhɛːd]2. The same sound can be written with different letters or letter combination wimen [ˈwɪmɪn] busy [ˈbɪzɪ] bosque [ˈboske] Vaso [ˈbaso] 3. Different dialects pronounce the same word differently. pan [ˈpãn] Quito pan [ˈpãŋ] Tulcan water [ˈwɔtə] british english water[ˈwɔɾːɚ ] ameriacan english
CLUSTER Is a group of the same or similar elements gathered or occurring closely together. Linguistically, a cluster occurs when there are two or more successive vowels or consonants in spelling or utterance VOWEL CLUSTER CONSONANT CLUSTERThis deals with pronunciation that students giveto synthetic word containing orthographic A consonant cluster also know as a consonant bled is avowel cluster the pronunciations associated group or sequence of consonants that appear together inwith vowel cluster spelling are among the most syllable without vowel between themunpredictable letter sound correspondences.
INITIAL CLUSTERS MEDIAL CLUSTERS FINAL CLUSTERS Two consonants may occur in both Intrasyllabic medial cluster Spanish has no English and Spanish. CCV clusters in final position while English words containing from/p, b, k, g, f/ + /l/ two up to four final Intersyllabic meial clustersSpanish /p, t, k, b, g, f/ + /ɾ/ consonant cluster.English /p, t, k, b, g, f/ + /ɹ / EXAMPLES EXAMPLES Three consonants may occur in English. CCCV -V CC- /ˈo.bɾa/ /ˈo.bɾa/ -V CCV- -VCCC-/spl/ /spl/ -VCCCV- /səbˈ.stæʃəl/ /səbˈ.stæʃəl//spɹ / /spʁ / -VCCCCV- -VCCCC- /skɹ / /skʁ / /ˈkons.tɾuk.ˈsyon/ /ˈkons.tɾuk.ˈsyon//stɹ / /stʁ / -VCCCCCV- /ˈkɔɹk.skɹuw/
PHONOLOGY It studies the relevant, distinctive and significant elements in a language which are used to establish difference in meaning. Phonemics Phoneme is the smallest basic and theoretical unit of language that signals, establishes , and creates entirely differences in meaning.Is the study of the system of phonemes of a language It´s the study and description of the speech sounds made by the human Phonetics voice. The unit of phonetic is the allophone.
DiacriticIt´s a mark placed over under or though a letter(or phonetic symbol) to show that it has a sound value different from that of the same letter (or phonological symbol)
AlphabetIt is a system of characters arranged in a fixed conventional order tosymbolize sounds or letters used in a writing to represent speechLATIN ALPHABETLATIN ALPHABET AND INTERNACIONAL STANDARS
THE INTHERNACIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) Was proposed and mainly accepted by linguistic, and created by the internationalphonetic association (whose original members were language teachers in France 1886. Published officially the first version in 1888. Its main aim is promote the scientific study of phonetics and thevarious practical applications of this science and its principle is one symbol per every distinctive and relevant sounds. The latest version of the international phonetic alphabet was revised and updated by association in 2005
TRANSCRIPTION It is a system of notation that represents utterances or partial utterances of a language pronounced by people in general. There are two kinds of transcription: Phonemic or Broad Transcription and Phonemic or Narrow Transcription NARROW TRANSRIPTION BROAD TRANSCRIPTION It is a notation that represents variantsAlso identified as Phonemic Transcription it is of a specific phoneme. It captures asthe notation that represents utterances of a many as possible details which arelanguage by indicating only the significant represented by the diacritics provided inand underlying sounds (phonemes) that the IPA. It is written between squaremake up a word. it is written between slant brackets (phonemic brackets). [ ]lines: // STRESS /ˈstudənt/ /ˈhət/ /plæɪ//spɪn/ [pʰæɪ] [tʰiː][ m] [kj̊ʉːt] It is another important feature which is often represented in phonetic and phonemic. Every single word has a stressed syllable. The vowel sound of stressed syllable is often longer, louder and higher in pitch. Stressed syllable use ( ˈ ). Secondary stressed syllable is use ( ˌ )
SIMBOLS USED FOR TRANSCRIPTION STRESS MARK VERTICALE LINEIt shows the following syllable is stressed It shows a pause in phonetic transcription. I(ˈ) ANGLE BRACKETS DIVISION MARKERThey are used to enclose the spelling of It shows the boundaries between syllables. ·the orthographic notation. ‹ › SLANT BRACKETS DIACRITICS Phonemic transcription uses them. / / It shows the variation in the vowel or consonant quality. Nasal or dark quality ̴ SQUARE BRACKETS they are used around detailed phonetic transcription. [ ]