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Pedro Encarnação: Development of an Integrated Manipulation and Communication Assistive Technology to Support Academic Activities

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Pedro Encarnação: Development of an Integrated Manipulation and Communication Assistive Technology to Support Academic Activities

  1. 1. Knowledge Database • Slide Presentation for the lecture of: Pedro Encarnação Catholic University of Portugal, Portugal • Topic of lecture: Development of an Integrated Manipulation and Communication Assistive Technology to Support Academic Activities • The lecture was given at Beit Issie Shapiro’s 6th International Conference on Disabilities - Israel • Year: 2015
  2. 2. Development of an Integrated Manipulation and Communication Assistive Technology to Support Academic Activities Pedro Encarnação pme@ucp.pt Project UARPIE 2013-2015
  3. 3. This is a team work... Pedro Encarnação Gonçalo Piedade Margarida Ribeiro Al Cook Kim Adams Luís Azevedo Margarida Nunes da Ponte Anabela Caiado Joana Pereira Teresa Leite Clarisse Nunes Mônica Silva Alexandra Martins Ana Londral
  4. 4. Motivation • Play is the most prevalent activity in childhood and has a central role in child development, fostering learning of cognitive, language and social skills • Through play, children reveal their internal emotions and cognitive skills Besio, 2008; Ferland, 2005
  5. 5. Motivation • Motor experience plays a critical role in development • Physical and cognitive development are intrinsically related • Early experiences shape development Butler, 1986; Piaget, 1954
  6. 6. Motivation • Play-like activities foster knowledge acquisition Sandberg and Heden (2011) • Active participation by doing hands-on activities and communicating about them has a large impact on a person's retention of learning Dale, 1946 • For learning math concepts, in particular, several authors stressed the importance of manipulation and of being able to “verbalize to internalize”, ask for help, or talk aloud so teachers can ascertain their level of understanding Bisanz et al., 2005; Ginsburg et al., 1998; Bley&Thornton, 1994
  7. 7. Motivation • In Portugal, as in most countries today, children with special educational needs are, to the maximum possible extent, placed in regular schools • In regular classrooms, students with disabilities should be involved in academic activities along with their typically developing peers, taking into consideration their individual needs
  8. 8. Motivation • Physical disabilities and communication impairments can thus have a strong impact on children’s learning by compromising active participation in learning activities Eriksson et al., 2007; Schlosser et al., 2000
  9. 9. Background • Work by Kim Adams & Al Cook on access to Math activities for children with disabilities by controlling Lego robots via AAC devices Adams & Cook, 2014
  10. 10. Project UARPIE • Goal: develop an integrated augmentative manipulation and communication assistive technology (IAMCAT) to enable children to manipulate educational items and communicate about their learning experience www.uarpie.anditec.pt Project UARPIE 2013-2015
  11. 11. IAMCAT - physical The robot is controlled through cells in The Grid 2 software communication boards. The child interacts with the system through his/her computer access method Manipulation is via a Lego Mindstorms car-like robot with a gripper and a pen attached Project UARPIE 2013-2015
  12. 12. IAMCAT - virtual A virtual robot with virtual objects on a computer screen was also developed. Rationale:  Decrease cost  Facilitate the use by non technical persons  Facilitate dissemination of the assistive technology Project UARPIE 2013-2015
  13. 13. IAMCAT tests • Nine children with disabilities integrated in regular classes used the IAMCAT to perform pre-school and first grade language, mathematics, science & social studies activities • Before using it in the classroom, children were trained to control the robot using the IAMCAT Project UARPIE 2013-2015
  14. 14. ParticipantsParticipant Gender Age(years) Grade Robot Access method #1 F 5 Pre-school level 3 Physical Direct (Track-ball) #2 F 5/6 Pre-school level 3 / First grade Virtual Direct (Track-ball) #3 M 6 First grade Physical Direct (Eye-tracking) #4 F 6 Pre-school level 3 Virtual Direct (Track-ball) #5 M 6 First grade Virtual Direct (Track-ball) #6 M 5 Pre-school level 3 Physical Direct (Track-ball) #7 M 4 Pre-school level 2 Physical Direct (Track-ball) #8 M 3 Pre-school level 1 Physical Direct (Eye-tracking) #9 M 3 Pre-school level 1 Physical Direct (Eye-tracking) Project UARPIE 2013-2015 2013/ 2014 2014/ 2015
  15. 15. Training protocol • Goal of the robot training protocol: develop the following skills – driving to any workspace location – picking and placing objects – using the pen to trace lines, and – communicating using the Grid system while controlling the robot Encarnação et. al. (2014) Project UARPIE 2013-2015
  16. 16. Classroom sessions • Participants used the system in their regular classes to perform pre-school and first grade language, mathematics, science & social studies activities • A portfolio of IAMCAT-adapted activities was presented to the teachers for them to better understand the capabilities of the IAMCAT • Activities were prepared with the participant’s teachers Project UARPIE 2013-2015
  17. 17. Classroom sessions • Activities were proposed to the entire class: each participant had the opportunity to perform the activities using the IAMCAT and his/her peers did the activities with pencils on paper or cutting and gluing, as required by the particular activity Project UARPIE 2013-2015
  18. 18. Classroom sessions • All necessary physical materials or the virtual scenarios were prepared by the research team (in one case by the teachers) • In general, classes were conducted by the regular teachers • The special education teacher or one of the researchers provided technical support for the robot, and academic and robot control support to the study participant Project UARPIE 2013-2015
  19. 19. Classroom sessions • Three classroom sessions were organized for each child, one dedicated to each curricular area • Classroom sessions were videotaped • To evaluate teacher’s perceptions, participants’ teachers were interviewed and a content analysis of the interviews was performed using the Atlas.ti® 6.2 software Roberts, 1997 Project UARPIE 2013-2015
  20. 20. Classroom sessions Physical – driving through neighborhoodVirtual – solar system Physical – choosing the answer & communicating Virtual – placing apples Project UARPIE 2013-2015
  21. 21. Results – teachers’ perceptions • The use of the IAMCAT by the participants – Enabled the participation in the same activities that the other students were doing, though requiring more time to complete them – Increased the communication with their peers – Contributed to accessing new knowledge and to demonstrating skills – Had a significant impact in their social and academic performance Project UARPIE 2013-2015
  22. 22. Results – teachers’ perceptions • The use of the IAMCAT by the participants – Contributed to their self-assertion within class – Contributed to a greater appreciation by peers • The use of the IAMCAT by the participants’ peers – Helped them to realize the difficulties children with disabilities have to face everyday Project UARPIE 2013-2015
  23. 23. Results – teachers’ perceptions • Integration of the IAMCAT in classes – Requires training regular teachers on the use of assistive technologies – Requires a difficult balance between the attention given to child with disabilities, that needs more time to complete the activity, and the rest of the group. This was facilitated by the presence of another teacher or teaching assistant in class Project UARPIE 2013-2015
  24. 24. Conclusions • Teachers considered the IAMCAT a valuable resource that can be integrated in regular classes and that is compatible with the teachers’ curricular planning and management • However they pointed out the need for proper training and for the presence of another teacher / teaching assistant in class Project UARPIE 2013-2015
  25. 25. Acknowledgements Contacts Pedro Encarnação pme@ucp.pt www.uarpie.anditec.pt
  26. 26. References • Adams, K., & Cook, A. (2014) Access to hands-on mathematics measurement activities using robots controlled via speech generating devices: Three case studies. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 9(4), pp. 286-298. • Besio, S. (Ed.) (2008) Analysis of critical factors involved in using interactive robots for education and therapy of children with disabilities. Italy: Editrice UNI Service. • Bisanz, J., Sherman, J. L., Rasmussen, C., & Ho, E. (2005) Development of arithmetic skills and knowledge in preschool children. In J. I. D. Campbell (Ed.), Handbook of Mathematical Cognition (pp. 143-162). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. • Bley, N. S., & Thornton, C. A. (1994) Accommodating special needs. In C. A. Thornton & N. S. Bley (Eds.), Windows of opportunity: Mathematics for students with special needs (pp. 137-166). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. • Butler, C. (1986) Effects of powered mobility on self- initiated behaviours of very young children with locomotor disability, Dev Med Child Neurol, 28, pp. 325–332. • Dale, E. (1946) The cone of experience. In Audio-visual methods in teaching (Vol. 1, pp. 37-51). New York, NY: Dryden Press. • Encarnação et. al. (2014) Training on the use of an integrated augmentative manipulation and communication assistive technology for academic activities, Presented at RAatE 2014, Birmingham, UK. • Eriksson, L., Welander, J., & Granlund, M. (2007) Participation in everyday school activities for children with and without disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 19, pp. 485–502. • Ferland, F. (2005) The Ludic Model, 2nd ed., P. A. Scott, Trans. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: CAOT publications ACE. • Ginsburg, H. P., Klein, A., & Starkey, P. (1998) The development of children's mathematical thinking: Connecting research with practice. In I. E. Siegel & K. A. Renninger (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 4, Child psychology in practice (5th ed., pp. 401-476). New York: John Wiley and Sons. • Piaget, J. (1954) The Construction of Reality in the Child. Great Britain: Routledhe. • Roberts, C. (Ed.). (1997) Text Analysis for the Social Sciences: Methods for Drawing Inferences from Texts and Transcripts. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. • Sandberg, A., Heden, R. (2011) Play’s importance in school. Education 3-13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 39(3), pp. 317-329. • Schlosser, R. W., McGhie-Richmond, D., Blackstien-Adler, S., Mirenda, P., Antonius, K., & Janzen, P. (2000). Training a school team to integrate technology meaningfully into the curriculum: Effects on student participation. Journal of Special Education Technology, 15(1), pp. 31-44.
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