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English in Europe and Euro-English


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Short presentation about the role of English within the countries of the European Union. Including a discussion on 'Euro-English' as a (possibly) emerging new variety of English.

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English in Europe and Euro-English

  1. 1. World Englishes English in Europe & “Euro-English” Bettina Beinhoff [email_address]
  2. 2. English in Europe <ul><ul><li>Europe in the English-speaking world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English in the European Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is Euro-English? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Strevens’s World Map of English
  4. 4. Kachru’s Model
  5. 5. “ Euro-English […] is now an established term, and notably the Euro- element has become shorthand for the European Union rather than for Europe as a whole.” McArthur 2003: 57.
  6. 6. Photo by Lynn Irving:
  7. 7. English in the EU ( Eurobarometer Survey )
  8. 8. English in the EU <ul><li>Percentage of pupils learning English in secondary school (2005/06 data): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest in Lithuania and Hungary with 60% and 64% respectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest in Denmark & Sweden (100%), closely followed by Finland (99.3%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 90% in 16 out of 28 participating regions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>( Eurydice : Key data on teaching languages at school in Europe ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. English in the EU Business Science & Academia Technology Media Education (primary, secondary, higher education) Main working language of the EU
  10. 10. What is Euro-English? <ul><li>Is this Euro-English? </li></ul><ul><li>Or this? </li></ul>
  11. 11. “ Because of the current role of ‘Euro-English’ in the EU, it would be naive, certainly, to assume that legitimatisation, codification, and standardisation processes will not take place.” Modiano 2001:13 Or: “ Euro-English […] the Yeti of English varieties: everyone has heard of it, but no one has ever seen it.” Mollin 2006:1
  12. 12. What makes a World English? Structure Social impact <ul><li>Phonology/phonetic structure </li></ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul><ul><li>Lexicon/Idioms </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Actual use of English within a given society: </li></ul><ul><li>How widely is it used & for what purpose(s)? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it establish local identity and culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance? </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The label European English identifies those uses of English that are </li></ul><ul><li>not British, American, Canadian, Australian or any other native variety, </li></ul><ul><li>but are distinctly European and distinguish European English speakers from speakers of other varieties. (cf. Berns 1995: 7) </li></ul>Euro-English: The social dimension
  14. 14. Euro-English = Unifying or dividing? <ul><li>English = a bridge between the 23 official languages in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Divide between countries with high overall English usage and proficiency among population (e.g. The Netherlands and Sweden) and those with lower overall English usage and proficiency . </li></ul>Figure taken from Berns (1995: 9)
  15. 15. <ul><li>“ Given that ‘Euro-English’ is in its infancy, it is not yet possible to describe its accents with confidence. Nevertheless, there are certain indications as to the direction in which ‘Euro-English’ accents are evolving.” Jenkins 2001: 16 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Euro-English accents <ul><li>Mutual intelligibility is the main factor determining pronunciation. </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of the first language: </li></ul><ul><li>Segmental: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ live’ pronounced as ‘leave’ (loss of contrast) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ these’  ‘dese’ or ‘zese’ or ‘vese’ (substitution of consonants) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suprasegmental: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. intonation, stress. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>“ If ‘Euro-English’ is indeed an emerging variety as a European lingua franca, then it should be possible to describe it systematically, and eventually also to provide a codification […].” Seidlhofer 2001: 14 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Lexicogrammar of Euro-English <ul><li>Universal features? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the same form for all present tense verbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ who’ and ‘which’ can be interchangeable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of one universal tag question ‘isn’t it?’. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omission of definite or indefinite article before nouns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Seidlhofer 2001: 16) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Lexicogrammar of Euro-English <ul><li>Evidence from ‘Swedish English’ (Modiano 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of progressive instead of simple present in ‘Where are you from?’ – ‘I’m coming from Sweden.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary and idiom: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Swedish idioms, e.g. ‘he is blue eyed’ from Swedish ‘han har bl å ögon’ meaning ‘he is naïve’. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Lexicogrammar of Euro-English <ul><li>Evidence from ‘Dutch English’ (Edwards 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass nouns as countable (‘advices’, ‘informations’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjectives instead of adverbs (‘the meeting went good’) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary and idiom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ actual’ to mean ‘topical’ or ‘current’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ cucumber time’ to mean ‘off-season’ </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Euro-English a World English? ?
  22. 22. Euro-English: One or many? And how many?
  23. 23. Thank you! Any questions? This presentation is available online: Bettina Beinhoff [email_address]
  24. 24. Bibliography <ul><li>Berns, M. (1995) ‘English in the European Union’. English Today 11.2, 3-13. </li></ul><ul><li>Berns, M. (2009) ‘English as a lingua franca and English in Europe’. World Englishes 28/2, 192-199. </li></ul><ul><li>Berns, M./Claes, M.-T./de Bot, K./Evers, R./Hasebrink, U./Huibregtse, I./Truchot, C./van der Wijst, P. (2007) ‘English in Europe’. In: Berns, M./de Bot, K./Hasebrink, U. (eds) In the Presence of English: Media and European Youth . New York: Springer, 15-42. </li></ul><ul><li>Bhatt, R.M. (2001) ‘World Englishes’. Annual Review of Anthropology 30, 527-550. </li></ul><ul><li>Brutt-Griffler, J. (2002) World English: A Study of its Development . Clevendon: Multilingual Matters. </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal, D. (2003). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Davies, A. (2003). The Native Speaker: Myth and Reality . Clevendon: Multilingual Matters. </li></ul><ul><li>Edwards, A. (2010) ‘Dutch English: tolerable, taboo, or about time too?’ English Today 101/26.1, 19-25. </li></ul><ul><li>Erling, E. (2005) ‘Who is the ‘Global English’ speaker? A profile of students of English at the Freie Universität Berlin’. In: Gnutzmann, C./Intemann, F. (eds), The Globalisation of English and the English Language Classroom . Tübingen: Narr, 215-230. </li></ul><ul><li>European Commission (2006) Eurobarometer – Europeans and Languages . Available online: </li></ul>
  25. 25. Bibliography <ul><li>European Commission/Eurydice Network (2008) Key Data on Teaching Languages at School in Europe. Eurydice: Brussels. Available online: </li></ul><ul><li>Goethals, M. (1997) ‘English in Flanders (Belgium)’. World Englishes 16/1, 105-114. </li></ul><ul><li>Hoffmann, T./Siebers, L. (eds) (2009) World Englishes – Problems, Properties and Prospects . Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Jenkins, J. (2000). The Phonology of English as an International Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Jenkins, J. (2009) World Englishes . London: Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Jenkins, J./Modiano, M./Seidlhofer, B. (2001) ‘Euro-English’. English Today 68/17.4, 13-19. </li></ul><ul><li>Kachru, B.B. (1985) ‘Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: the English language in the Outer Circle’. In: Quirk, R./Widdowson, H.G. (eds), English in the World: Teaching and Learning the Language and Literatures . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 11-30. </li></ul><ul><li>Kachru, B.B./Kachru, Y./Nelson, C.L. (eds) (2006) The Handbook of World Englishes . Malden: Blackwell. </li></ul><ul><li>Kirkpatrick, A. (2007) World Englishes – Implications for International Communication and English Language Teaching . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>MacKenzie, I. (2003) ‘English as a lingua franca and European universities’. The European English Messenger 12, 59-62. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Bibliography <ul><li>McArthur T. (2003) ‘World English, Euro-English, Nordic English?’ English Today 73/19.1, 54-58. </li></ul><ul><li>McArthur, T. (2002) The Oxford Guide to World English . Oxford: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Mesthrie, R./Bhatt, R.M. (2008) World Englishes – The Study of New Linguistic Varieties . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Modiano, M. (2003) ‘Euro-English: A Swedish perspective’. English Today 74/19.2, 35-41. </li></ul><ul><li>Modiano, M. (2009) ‘Inclusive/exclusive? English as a lingua franca in the European Union’. World Englishes 28/2, 208-223. </li></ul><ul><li>Mollin, S. (2006) Euro-English. Assessing Variety Status . Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag. </li></ul><ul><li>Munro, M.J./Derwing, T.M./Morton, S.L. (2006) ‘The mutual intelligibility of L2 speech’. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 28/1, 111-131. </li></ul><ul><li>Prodromou, L. (2007) ‘Is ELF a variety of English’. English Today 90/23.2, 47-53. </li></ul><ul><li>Seidlhofer, B./Breiteneder, A./Pitzl, M.-L. (2006) ‘English as a lingua franca in Europe: Challenges for applied linguistics’. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 26, 3-34. </li></ul><ul><li>Taavitsainen, I./Pahta, P. (2003) ‘English in Finland: globalisation, language awareness and questions of identity’. English Today 76/19.4, 3-15. </li></ul><ul><li>van Essen, A. (1997) ‘English in mainland Europe – a Dutch perspective’. World Englishes 16/1, 95-103. </li></ul>