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Page 1 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V
A
Practical Training and Industrial Visit Report
On
“MULTI-STOREYRESIDENTIALBUILDI...
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ARYA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY &
MANAGEMENT
CERTIFICATE
(Session 2016-20...
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is a great pleasure for me to present this training report .I w...
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PREFACE
The summer training of an engineering student plays an important role in t...
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CONTENTS
1. Introduction: 10
1.1 About the Project 10
1.2 About the Building 12
1....
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5 Equipments and Machines: 37
5.1 Batching Machine 37
5.2 Concrete Mixer 37
5.3 Tr...
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LIST OF FIGURES
S.no Name Page no.
1.1 Multi-storey Residential Building 10
1.2 Un...
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LIST OF TABLES
S.
no
Name Page no.
1.1 Details About Project 10
3.1 Composition of...
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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 ABOUT THE PROJECT:
Table 1.1 Details about Project
Fi...
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Fig 1.2 Unit Plan
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1.2ABOUT THE BUILDING:
It project is a multi-storey residential building. This bu...
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1.3.3 Institutional Building
1.3.4 Industrial Building
RESIDENTIAL BUILDING:
In s...
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CHAPTER 2: CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING
Construction of the building is done in at le...
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2.1.1.1INDIVIDUAL FOOTINGS:
Fig 2.1 Individual footing Fig. 2.2 Plinth beam in fo...
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2.1.1.3RAFT OR MAT FOUNDATION:
Raft Foundations, also called Mat Foundations, are...
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Fig 2.3 Pile foundation
End Bearing Piles:
In end bearing piles, the bottom end o...
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2.2 SUPER STRUCTURE:
Super-structure is a part of structure that is above plinth ...
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ROOF:
Roof is made to cover room from upper face. Different types of roofs are us...
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CHAPTER 3 : MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION
3.1 CEMENT:
Cement was first discovered by...
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At the site Portland cement of 53 grades (JK SUPER CEMENT) is used.
The cost per ...
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Fig. 3.1 Coarse Aggregates
FUNCTION OF COARSE AGGREGATE:
The coarse aggregates ar...
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FUNCTION OF REINFORCEMENT:
Reinforcement working as a tension member because conc...
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CHAPTER 4 : MATERIAL TESTING
4.1 TESTS OF AGGREGATES:
Below are some of the impor...
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3. The cup is fixed firmly in position on the base of the machine and the whole o...
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Procedure:
The test sample consists of aggregates sized 10.0 mm 12.5 mm. Aggregat...
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4.1.3 LOS ANGLES ABRATION VALUE:
Standard: IS: 2386 (Part IV) – 1963
Equipment’s ...
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(iv) Place the aggregates and abrasive charge on the cylinder and fix the cover.
...
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Shape of particle:
1. Rounded (river gravel)
2. Flaky (laminated rock)
3. Elongat...
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Elongation:
These are the particles having length considerably larger than the ot...
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 The basket and the sample are then weighed while suspended in water at a temper...
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1. Compressive Strength Test.
2. Permeability Test.
3. Slump Test.
4. Flexural St...
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4.2.2 PERMEABILITYTEST:
Equipment’s used:
A concrete permeameter apparatus consis...
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approximately 2mm clearance at each end of the Room Temperature Vulcanizing (RTV)...
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Fig 4.3 Slump Test
Procedure:
1. The mold for the slump test is a frustum of a co...
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9. The decrease in height of concrete to that of mould is noted with scale. (Usua...
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CHAPTER 5: EQUIPMENTS AND MACHINES
5.1 BATCHING MACHINE:
The measurement of mater...
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5.3 TRANSPORTATION:
The process of carrying the concrete mix from the place of it...
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5.4 COMPACTORS:
When the concrete has been placed, it shows a very loose structur...
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CHAPTER 6 : BRICK MASONARY
The bricks are obtained by moulding clay in rectangula...
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6.2 SIZE AND WEIGHT OF BRICKS:
The bricks are prepared in various sizes. On the b...
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BAT:
This is piece of brick , considered in relation to the length of brick as ha...
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Stretcher Bond
Header Bond
English Bond
Flemish Bond
STRETCHER BOND :
The bricks ...
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Fig. 6.3 English Bond
FLEMISH BOND:
This is also widely used because it gives bet...
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Fig. 6.4 Thickness of Wall
6.8 PROCEDUREOF BRICKMASONRY:
In frame structure brick...
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CHAPTER 7: PLASTER
The term plastering is used to describe thin cover that is app...
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Fig. 7.1 Plastering
WATER PROOF MORTAR:
Water proof mortar is prepared by mixing ...
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7.3 METHOD OF PLASTERING:
According to the thickness of wall there are three meth...
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CHAPTER 8: BUILDING BYLAWS
For the construction of any building, certain restrict...
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S.no Area of plot Maximum permissible covered area
1 Less than 200 sq. m 66.66 % ...
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4.5 sq. m. A kitchen cum dining room should have a floor area not less than 9.5 s...
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iii. Ventilation ducts: Provided such ducts have 130 square cm of area for each s...
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of the outer surface of any rear wall of the building with the roof perpendicular...
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arrangement of pipe lines, booster pumps and water-tanks at various levels shall ...
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CONCLUSION
The general terms of construction are included in this study. Differen...
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REFERENCES
 J.P Chawla (Project Manager at site)
 Google.com
 Wikipedia
 I.S ...
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Multistorey residential building construction training report

It is the summer training report on multi storey residential building construction .

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Multistorey residential building construction training report

  1. 1. Page 1 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V A Practical Training and Industrial Visit Report On “MULTI-STOREYRESIDENTIALBUILDING” Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Department of Civil Engineering 2013 – 2017 (20 May 2016- 20 July 2016) Submitted to: Submitted by: Mr. Gori Shankar Soni Deepak Yadav Head of Depatment 13EAOCE018 Department of Civil Engineering 4th year(7th sem) DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING ARYA INSTITUTE OF ENGG. TECH. & MANAGEMENT F-29, OMAXE CITY, AJMER ROAD JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) RAJASTHAN TECHNICALUNIVERSITY, KOTA
  2. 2. Page 2 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V
  3. 3. Page 3 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V ARYA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT CERTIFICATE (Session 2016-2017) This is to certify that the work, which is being presented in the project “ MULTI-STOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING” submitted by Mr. Deepak Yadav (13EAOCE018), a student of 4th year(7th sem.) B.Tech in Civil Engineering in partial fulfillment for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology is a record of student’s work carried out and found satisfactory for submission. Mr. Gori Shankar Soni Ms. Geetanjali Ganguly Head of Department Seminar Co-ordinator Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
  4. 4. Page 4 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is a great pleasure for me to present this training report .I would be an undoing my job if don’t thank to everyone who helped me starting this report. First and foremost I would like to thank Sh. J.P. Chawla, Project Engineer who supported me through inspiring towards this report. He had provided me a nice industrial experience. I would like to express sincere thanks to Dr. I.C. Sharma Sir, Principal(AIETM) who always inspired me by his kind cooperation and extendible support. Words are inadequate in offering my thanks to Mr. Gori Shankar Soni Sir, HOD(Civil Engg. Department) whose helping and polite nature always help to Improve Knowledge and Skills. I am no less grateful to the other employees and members of the department for their kind co- operation and spontaneous response.
  5. 5. Page 5 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V PREFACE The summer training of an engineering student plays an important role in the development as well groomed professional. It allows a student to give theoretical concepts a practical stand. The training at “RAJASTHAN HOUSING BOARD” was a great experience. An opening experience to the concepts of engineering, which help me lot in understanding the concepts that are applied in the organization. This organization since its inception has progress a lot and is walking on the guidelines the success. As the organization is marching with the tenacious speed towards the horizon. In a period of 60 days exposer to corporate environment, I got a learning of organizational structure, its protocols, etc. Real learning places its worth only when it gives sweet fruits in future. Summer training is one way to learn at work. I enjoyed the interesting experience and every part of it. The report dealt with the practical knowledge of general theory and technical details of equipment, materials, which I have gained during the training period at RAJASTHAN HOUSING BOARD at JAIPUR.
  6. 6. Page 6 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V CONTENTS 1. Introduction: 10 1.1 About the Project 10 1.2 About the Building 12 1.3 Types of Buildings 12 2. CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING: 14 2.1Sub-structure 14 2.1.1 Shallow foundation 14 2.1.1.1 Individual footings 15 2.1.1.2 Strip footing 15 2.1.1.3 Raft or Mat foundation 16 2.1.2 Deep foundation 16 2.1.2.1 Pile foundation 16 2.2 Super-structure 18 3. Materials for Construction: 20 3.1Cement 20 3.2 Aggregate 21 3.2.1Fine Aggregate 21 3.2.2Coarse Aggregates 21 3.3 Water 23 3.4 R.C.C 23 4.Materials Testing: 24 4.1Tests of Aggregates 24 4.1.1 Crushing Strength Test 24 4.1.2 Impact Test 25 4.1.3 Los Angles Abration Value 27 4.1.4 Shape Test 28 4.1.5 Water Absorption Test 30 4.2 Tests of Concrete 32 4.2.1 Compressive Strength Test 32 4.2.2 Permeability Test 33 4.2.3 Slump Test 35 4.2.4 Flexural Strength Test 36
  7. 7. Page 7 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 5 Equipments and Machines: 37 5.1 Batching Machine 37 5.2 Concrete Mixer 37 5.3 Transportation 38 5.4 Compactors 39 6 Brick Masonary: 40 6.1 Class of Brick 40 6.2 Size & Weight of Bricks 41 6.3 Structure of Brick 41 6.4 Types of Brick Masonary 42 6.5 Tools Used in Brick Masonary 42 6.6 Bonds in Brick Work 42 6.7 Thickness of Wall 44 6.8 Procedureof Brick Masonary 45 7 Plaster: 46 7.1 Mortar for Plastering 46 7.2 Tools for Plastering 47 7.3 Methods of Plastering 48 8 Building By-Laws: 49 8.1 Objectives of Building By-Laws 49 8.2 Plinth Area Regulations 49 8.3 Height and Size Regulation for Rooms 50 8.3.1 Height Regulations 50 8.3.2 Size Regulations 50 8.4 Lighting and Ventilation Regulations 51 8.5 Open SpaceRegulations 52 8.6 Fire Protection Regulations 53 Conclusion: 55 Reference: 56
  8. 8. Page 8 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V LIST OF FIGURES S.no Name Page no. 1.1 Multi-storey Residential Building 10 1.2 Unit Plan 11 2.1 Individual Footing 15 2.2 Plinth Beam in Footing 15 2.3 Pile Foundation 17 2.4 Flooring 18 3.1 Coarse Aggregates 22 4.1 Los Angles Apparatus 27 4.2 Shape Testing Apparatus 28 4.3 Slump test 35 4.4 Flexural Strength Testing 36 5.1 Concrete Mixing Machine 37 5.2 Belt Conveyors 38 6.1 Bricks 40 6.2 Stretcher Bond 43 6.3 English Bond 44 6.4 Thickness of Wall 45 7.1 Plastering 47
  9. 9. Page 9 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V LIST OF TABLES S. no Name Page no. 1.1 Details About Project 10 3.1 Composition of Portland Cement 20 4.1 Observation for Impact Test 26 7.1 Different Coats of Plaster 48 8.1 Maximum Permissible Covered Area 50
  10. 10. Page 10 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 ABOUT THE PROJECT: Table 1.1 Details about Project Fig. 1.1 Multi storey Residential Building 1. NAME OF PROJECT MULTISTOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING (G+12) 2. PROJECT MANAGER MR. J.P. CHAWLA 3. COMPANY HOUSING BOARD , JAIPUR 4. LOCATION OF SITE B-2 BYPASS, MANSAROVER (JAIPUR) 5. DATE OF STARTING TRAINING 20-05-2016 6. DATE OF COMPLETING TRAINING 20-07-2016 7. DURATION OF TRAINING 60 DAYS
  11. 11. Page 11 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V Fig 1.2 Unit Plan
  12. 12. Page 12 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 1.2ABOUT THE BUILDING: It project is a multi-storey residential building. This building is constructing for middle class people. MIG (MIDDLE INCOME GROUP) : This group includes the flats of cost 51.50 lakhs. It is a Twelve storey building (G+12).Entire building is constructed in two combined apartments. The total no of flats in the building is 93. Each flat consists three bed rooms, a living room and a kitchen (3 BHK) with separate bathroom and toilet. The height of each floor is 3 meter. The dimensions of all flats were same. Dimensional detail of a flat: Living Room : (3.93*4.20) meter Bed Room (1) : (3.20*4.30) meter Bed Room (2) : (3.20*4.20) meter Bed Room (3) : (3.00*4.20)meter Kitchen : (2.40*3.30) meter Toilet : (2.4*1.50) meter Bath Room : (2.18*1.60) meter Balcony(1) : (2.77*1.50)meter Balcony(2) : (1.88*1.2)meter Balcony(3) : (1.5*1.2)meter Single window has provided in living room, bed rooms and kitchen .Each flat consists a balcony in front and rear sides of apartments. 1.3TYPES OF BUILDING: Buildings are classified on the basis of character of occupancy and type of use as – 1.3.1 Residential Building 1.3.2 Educational Building
  13. 13. Page 13 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 1.3.3 Institutional Building 1.3.4 Industrial Building RESIDENTIAL BUILDING: In such building sleeping accommodation is provided. It includes the Living room, Bed room, Kitchen, Hall, Toilet and Bath room. It may be a single storey building or apartments. EDUCATIONAL BUILDING: This includes any building using for school, college, assembly for instruction, education or recreation. INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING: These building are used for different purposes, such as medical or other treatment or care of a person suffering from a physical or mental illness etc. These building includes hospital, Sanitaria, Jail etc. INDUSTRIAL BUILDING: These are buildings in which products or material s of all kind of properties are fabricated, assembled, processed. For example refineries, gas plant, mills etc.
  14. 14. Page 14 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V CHAPTER 2: CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING Construction of the building is done in at least two steps. Which are following: • Sub Structure • Super Structure. 2.1 SUB STRUCTURE: Foundation is a part of the sub structure. Sub structure is constructed according to soil quality at that site. If soil have good bearing capacity than we use shallow foundation in construction. And if the bearing capacity of the soil is not good or suitable than we use deep foundation at that site. Sub structure is a load bearing structure and it is designed for load bearing. FOUNDATION: A foundation is the element of any structure which connects it to the ground, and transfers loads from the structure to the ground. Foundations are generally considered either shallow or deep. The low artificially built part of a structure which transmits the load of the structure to the ground is called foundation. Foundation is a load bearing structure which bearS all loadS coming on the building or any structure. Foundation is generally of two types: A. Shallow Foundation. B. Deep Foundation. Generally foundation in building construction is Shallow foundation (Raft Foundation) 2.1.1 SHALLOW FOUNDATION: Shallow foundations are also called spread footings or open footings. The 'open' refers to the fact that the foundations are made by first excavating all the earth till the bottom of the footing, and then constructing the footing. During the early stages of work, the entire footing is visible to the eye, and is therefore called an open foundation. The idea is that each footing takes the concentrated load of the column and spreads it out over a large area, so that the actual weight on the soil does not exceed the safe bearing capacity of the soil. It includes some types of shallow foundation such as:
  15. 15. Page 15 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 2.1.1.1INDIVIDUAL FOOTINGS: Fig 2.1 Individual footing Fig. 2.2 Plinth beam in footing Individual footings are one of the most simple and common types of foundations. These are used when the load of the building is carried by columns. Usually, each column will have its own footing. The footing is just a square or rectangular pad of concrete on which the column sits. To get a very rough idea of the size of the footing, the engineer will take the total load on the column and divide it by the safe bearing capacity (SBC) of the soil. For example, if a column has a vertical load of 10T, and the SBC of the soil is 10T/m2, then the area of the footing will be 1m2. In practice, the designer will look at many other factors before preparing a construction design for the footing. Individual footings are usually connected by a plinth beam, a horizontal beam that is built at ground or below ground level. 2.1.1.2STRIP FOOTINGS: Strip footings are commonly found in load-bearing masonry construction, and act as a long strip that supports the weight of an entire wall. These are used where the building loads are carried by entire walls rather than isolated columns, such as in older buildings made of masonry.
  16. 16. Page 16 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 2.1.1.3RAFT OR MAT FOUNDATION: Raft Foundations, also called Mat Foundations, are most often used when basements are to be constructed. In a raft, the entire basement floor slab acts as the foundation; the weight of the building is spread evenly over the entire footprint of the building. It is called a raft because the building is like a vessel that 'floats' in a sea of soil. Mat Foundations are used where the soil is week, and therefore building loads have to be spread over a large area, or where columns are closely spaced, which means that if individual footings were used, they would touch each other. 2.1.2 DEEP FOUNDATION: A deep foundation is a type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth farther down from the surface than a shallow foundation does, to a subsurface layer or a range of depths. 2.1.2.1PILE FOUNDATION: A pile is basically a long cylinder of a strong material such as concrete that is pushed into the ground so that structures can be supported on top of it. Pile foundations are used in the following situations: 1) When there is a layer of weak soil at the surface. This layer cannot support the weight of the building, so the loads of the building have to bypass this layer and be transferred to the layer of stronger soil or rock that is below the weak layer. 2) When a building has very heavy, concentrated loads, such as in a high rise structure. Pile foundations are capable of taking higher loads than spread footings. There are two types of pile foundations, each of which works in its own way.
  17. 17. Page 17 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V Fig 2.3 Pile foundation End Bearing Piles: In end bearing piles, the bottom end of the pile rests on a layer of especially strong soil or rock. The load of the building is transferred through the pile onto the strong layer. In a sense, this pile acts like a column. The key principle is that the bottom end rests on the surface which is the intersection of a weak and strong layer. The load therefore bypasses the weak layer and is safely transferred to the strong layer. Friction Piles: Friction piles work on a different principle. The pile transfers the load of the building to the soil across the full height of the pile, by friction. In other words, the entire surface of the pile, which is cylindrical in shape, works to transfer the forces to the soil. To visualise how this works, imagine you are pushing a solid metal rod of say 4mm diameter into a tub of frozen ice cream. Once you have pushed it in, it is strong enough to support some load. The greater the embedment depth in the ice cream, the more load it can support. This is very similar to how a friction pile works. In a friction pile, the amount of load a pile can support is directly proportionate to its length.
  18. 18. Page 18 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 2.2 SUPER STRUCTURE: Super-structure is a part of structure that is above plinth level (P.L). Generally, columns and walls are constructed in super structure. Following are the important parts of super-structure. 1) Floor 2) Roof 3) Lintel 4) Parapet 5) Sun Shade 6) Doors & Windows FLOOR: Fig. 2.4 Flooring Floor is that part of a building on which furniture, household, commercial, industrial or any other type of items are stored. Floor is used for walking around . Floor separates the different levels of a building. Building is also named with reference to floor. Like Ground floor, first floor, or a floor that is below ground level like basement floor.
  19. 19. Page 19 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V ROOF: Roof is made to cover room from upper face. Different types of roofs are used in building depending on the location and weather. Sloping roofs are generally considered better in mountain areas. While, in plan areas flat roofs are preferred. LINTEL: Lintel is constructed above doors, windows etc. to support load of wall on openings. Lintel beam is generally made as reinforced cement concrete member. While, in residential houses sometime lintel is made by using concrete and bricks. Breadth of lintel is generally equals to the breadth of wall. In case of metric unit, it is normally equals to 10cm, 15cm, 20cm etc. While, in case of FPS system it is consider as 6”, 9”, 12” etc. Thickness of lintel should not be less than 10cm (4.5”) and maximum thickness of lintel should not be more than its breadth. SUN SHADE: Sun shade is a slab that is cast on the top of doors and windows. Sun shade protects doors and windows from sun and rain. Sun shade is cast monolithically with the lintel. DOORS AND WINDOWS: A door is a moving structure used to block off, and allow access to, an entrance to or within an enclosed space, such as a building or vehicle. Doors normally consist of a panel that swings on hinges on the edge, but there are also doors that slide or spin inside of a space. A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light and, if not closed or sealed, air and sound
  20. 20. Page 20 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V CHAPTER 3 : MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION 3.1 CEMENT: Cement was first discovered by an English brick layer named Joseph Aspdin in 1824. He called it Portland cement for the reason that the cement he discovered resembled the limestone found in Portland. The approximate composition of Portland cement is given below Lime(Cao) 60-70% Silica(SiO2) 20-25% Alumina(Al2O3) 5-10% Ferric Oxide(Fe2O3) 2-3% Table 3.1 Composition of Portland cement The function of cement is to combine with water and to form cement paste. This paste first sets i.e. it becomes firms and then hardens due to chemical reaction, called hydration, between the cement and water. On setting & hardening, the cement binds the aggregate together into a stone like hard mass & thus provides strength, durability & water-tighten to the concrete. Quality of cement is based on grade of cement. The grades of cement are as- 33 Grades 43 Grades 53 Grades  33 Grade OPC is used for general construction works like plastering and finishing works in normal environmental conditions. However, its use is virtually phased out today.  Coming to the 43 Grade OPC, it is the most commonly used grade for home construction. It has its applications in plastering, finishing works, precast items, foundations, brick work, and compound wall and so on. It has more strength development than the 33 grade cement.  53 Grade OPC develops strength very fast. High rise building constructions use 53 grade cement. This is applicable for use in structures where high grade concrete is required.
  21. 21. Page 21 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V At the site Portland cement of 53 grades (JK SUPER CEMENT) is used. The cost per beg = 275 rupees The initial setting time of cement = 30 minutes (1/2 hr) The final setting time of cement = 10 hrs. 3.2 AGGREGATE: Aggregates are small pieces of broken stones in irregular size and shapes. Neat cement is very rarely used in construction works since it is liable to shrink too much and become cracks on setting. More over, it will be costly to use neat cement in construction work. Therefore cement is mixed with some inert strong & durable hard materials. They also reduce the cost of concrete because they are comparative much cheaper as cement. TYPES OF AGGREGATES: .Fine Aggregate .Coarse Aggregate 3.2.1 FINE AGGREGATE (SAND): The aggregate, which pass through 4.75 mm, I.S. sieve and entirely retain on 75 micron (.075mm) I.S. sieve is known as fine aggregate. FUNCTION OF FINE AGGREGATE: The function of using fine aggregate in a concrete mix is to fill up the voids existing in the coarse aggregate and to obtain a dense and strong concrete with less quantity of cement and increase the workability of the concrete mix. 3.2.2 COARSE AGGREGATE: The aggregate, which pass through 75 mm I.S. sieve and entirely retain on 4.75 I.S. sieve is known as coarse aggregates. At the site the coarse aggregate was 10mm & 20mm (graded).
  22. 22. Page 22 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V Fig. 3.1 Coarse Aggregates FUNCTION OF COARSE AGGREGATE: The coarse aggregates are used in mixing of concrete. It is mixed cement, sand with water. These aggregates increase the strength of bonding in aggregates. Coarse aggregates are used in construction of plan cement concrete (PCC), foundation, beams and columns etc. GRADING OF CONCRETE: The art of doing gradation of an aggregate as determined by sieve analysis is known as grading of aggregate. The grade of concrete is depends on size of aggregates. The principle of grading is that the smaller particles will fill up the voids between large particles. This results in the most economical use of cement paste for filling the voids & binding together the aggregate in the preparation of concrete. Thus proper grading of fine & coarse aggregate in concrete mix produces a dense concrete with less quantity of cement. REINFORCEMENT: The material that develops a good bond with concrete in order to increase its strength is called reinforcement. Steel bars are highly strong in tension, shear, bending moment, torsion and compression.
  23. 23. Page 23 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V FUNCTION OF REINFORCEMENT: Reinforcement working as a tension member because concrete is strong in compression and week in tension so reinforcement resists the tensile stresses in the concrete members. At the site contractor using the high strength steel bars and T.M.T. (Thermo Mechanically Treated) bars of diameter 8 mm, 10 mm, 16 mm, & 32 mm as per requirement of design. 3.3 WATER: It is an important ingredient of concrete because it combines with cement and forms a binding paste. The paste thus formed fills up the voids of the sand and coarse aggregate bringing them into close adhesion. In this project source of water is a tube well which is closely spaced to the building. The quality of water is good and can be used for drinking purpose aiso. 3.4 R.C.C. Though plain cement concrete has high compressive strength and its tensile strength is relatively low. Normally, the tensile strength of a concrete is about 10% to 15% of its compressive strength. Hence if a beam is made up of plain cement concrete, it has a very low load carrying capacity since its low tensile strength limits its overall strength. It is, there reinforced by placing steel bars in the tensile zone of the concrete beam so that the compressive bending stress is carried by concrete and tensile bending stress is carried by steel reinforcing bars. Generally in simply supported and Cantilever beams the tension zone occurs at bottom and top of beam respectively.
  24. 24. Page 24 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V CHAPTER 4 : MATERIAL TESTING 4.1 TESTS OF AGGREGATES: Below are some of the important test which are perform on aggregates at every construction site to check the quality of the aggregate for better construction and fulfil the requirement of the client. 1. Crushing Test 2. Impact Test 3. LOS Angles Abrasion Test 4. Shape Test 5. Water Absorption Test. 4.1.1 CRUSHING STRENGTHTEST: Standard: IS: 2386 (Part IV)-1963 Methods of test for aggregate for concrete Part IV Mechanical Properties. Equipment used: o Steel Cylinder o Sieves (12.5mm,10mm) o Cylindrical metal measure o Tamping Rod o Balance (0-10kg) o Oven (3000c) o Compression testing Machine (2000KN) . Procedure: 1. The cylindrical steel cup is filled with 3 equal layers of aggregate and each layer is tamped 25 strokes by the rounded end of tamping rod and the surplus aggregate struck off, using the tamping rod as a straight edge. 2 .The net weight of aggregate in the cylindrical steel cup is determined to the nearest gram (WA) and this weight of aggregate is used for the duplicate test on the same material.
  25. 25. Page 25 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 3. The cup is fixed firmly in position on the base of the machine and the whole of the test sample is added in thirds, each third being subjected to 25stokes from tamping rod. 4. The surface is leveled and the plunger is inserted so that it rests horizontally on the surface. The whole assembly is then placed between the platens of testing machine and loaded at a uniform rate so as to reach a load of 40 tones in 10 minutes. 5. The load is then released and all aggregate is removed from the cup and sieved on 2.36 mm. IS sieve until no further significant amount passes in one minute. 6. The fraction passing the sieve is weighed to an accuracy of 0.1 g (WB). Aggregate Crushing Value: (WB/WA) *100 4.1.2 IMPACT TEST: Standard: IS: 2386 (Part IV) – 1963 Equipment’s used: The equipment’s as per IS: 2386 (Part IV) – 1963 consists of: 1. A testing machine weighing 45 to 60 kg and having a metal base with a painted lower surface of not less than 30 cm in diameter. It is supported on level and plane concrete floor of minimum 45 cm thickness. The machine should also have provisions for fixing its base. 2. A cylindrical steel cup of internal diameter 102 mm, depth 50 mm and minimum Thickness 6.3 mm. 3. A metal hammer or top weighing 13.5 to 14.0 kg the lower end being cylindrical in shape, 50 mm long, 100.0 mm in diameter, with a 2 mm chamfer at the lower edge and case hardened. The hammer should slide freely between vertical guides and be concentric with the cup. Free fall of hammer should be within 380±5 mm. 4. A cylindrical metal measure having internal diameter 75 mm and depth 50 mm 5. For measuring aggregates. 6. Tamping rod 10 mm in diameter and 230 mm long, rounded at one end. 7. A balance of capacity not less than 500g, readable and accurate up to 0.1 g.
  26. 26. Page 26 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V Procedure: The test sample consists of aggregates sized 10.0 mm 12.5 mm. Aggregates may be dried by heating at 100-110° C for a period of 4 hours and cooled. (i) Sieve the material through 12.5 mm and 10.0mm IS sieves. The aggregates Passing through 12.5mm sieve and retained on 10.0mm sieve comprises the test material. (ii) Pour the aggregates to fill about just 1/3 rd depth of measuring cylinder. (iii) Compact the material by giving 25 gentle blows with the rounded end of the tamping rod. (iv) Add two more layers in similar manner, so that cylinder is full. (v) Strike off the surplus aggregates. (vi) Determine the net weight of the aggregates to the nearest gram (W). (vii) Bring the impact machine to rest without wedging or packing up on the level plate, block or floor, so that it is rigid and the hammer guide columns are vertical. (viii) Fix the cup firmly in position on the base of machine and place whole of the test sample in it and compact by giving 25 gentle strokes with tamping rod. (ix) Raise the hammer until its lower face is 380 mm above the surface of aggregate sample in the cup and allow it to fall freely on the aggregate sample. Give 15 such blows at an interval of not less than one second between successive falls. (x) Remove the crushed aggregate from the cup and sieve it through 2.36 mm IS sieves until no further significant amount passes in one minute. Weigh the fraction passing the sieve to an accuracy of 1 gm. Also, weigh the fraction retained in the sieve. Observations: Description Sample1 Sample2 Total weight of dry sample ( W1 gm) Weight of portion passing 2.36 mm sieve (W2 gm) Aggregate Impact Value (percent) = W2 / W1X 100 Table 4.1 Observations for impact test
  27. 27. Page 27 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 4.1.3 LOS ANGLES ABRATION VALUE: Standard: IS: 2386 (Part IV) – 1963 Equipment’s used: The apparatus as per IS: 2386 (Part IV) – 1963 consists of: (i) Los Angeles Machine: It consists of a hollow steel cylinder, closed at both the ends with an internal diameter of 700 mm and length 500 mm and capable of rotating about its horizontal axis. A removable steel shaft projecting radially 88 mm into cylinder and extending full length (i.e.500 mm) is mounted firmly on the interior of cylinder. The shelf is placed at a distance 1250 mm minimum from the opening in the direction of rotation. (ii) Abrasive charge: Cast iron or steel balls, approximately 48mm in diameter and Each weighing between 390 to 445g; six to twelve balls are required. (iii) Sieve: 1.70, 2.36,4.75,6.3,10,12.5,20,25,40,50,63,80 mm IS Sieves. (iv) Balance of capacity 5kg or 10kg (v) Drying oven (vi) Miscellaneous like tray Fig. 4.1 Los Angles Apparatus Procedure: The test sample consists of clean aggregates dried in oven at 105° – 110°C. The sample should conform to any of the grading shown in table 1. (i) Select the grading to be used in the test such that it conforms to the grading to be used in construction, to the maximum extent possible. (ii) Take 5 kg of sample for grading A, B, C & D and 10 kg for grading E, F & G. (iii) Choose the abrasive charge as per Table 2 depending on grading of aggregates.
  28. 28. Page 28 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V (iv) Place the aggregates and abrasive charge on the cylinder and fix the cover. (v) Rotate the machine at a speed of 30 – 33 revolutions per minute. The number of revolutions is 500 for grading A, B, C & D and 1000 for grading E, F & G. The machine should be balanced and driven such that there is uniform peripheral speed. (vi) The machine is stopped after the desired number of revolutions and material is discharged to a tray. (vii) The entire stone dust is sieved on 1.70 mm IS sieve. (viii) The material coarser than 1.7mm size is weighed correct to one gram. Observations: • Original weight of aggregate sample = W1 g • Weight of aggregate sample retained = W2 g • Weight passing 1.7mm IS sieve = W1 – W2 g Abrasion Value = (W1 – W2 ) / W1 X 100 4.1.4 SHAPE TEST: Equipment’s used:  Thickness/FlakinessIndexGauge  Length/ElongationIndexGauge  Aggregate sample tobe tested Fig. 4.2 Shape Testing Apparatus
  29. 29. Page 29 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V Shape of particle: 1. Rounded (river gravel) 2. Flaky (laminated rock) 3. Elongated 4. Angular( crushed rock) Flaky:  A flaky particle is the one whose least dimension (thickness) is than 0.6 times the mean size.  These are the materials of which the thickness is small as compared to the other two dimensions.  Limit of flaky particles in the mixes is 30%. If the flaky particles are greater than 30% then the aggregate is considered undesirable for the intended use. Flakiness Index: It is the percentage by weight of flaky particles in a sample. Procedure for Flakiness Index:  Perform the sieve analysis on the given aggregate sample  The aggregates are then arranged in the into a number of closely limited particle size groups -stored on the test sieves into a number of closely limited particle size groups – 2 ½’’ – 2’’, 1 ½’’ – ¾’’ & ½’’ – 3/8’’  Each group (fraction) is weighed and tested for thickness on appropriate opening of the thickness gauge by passing each particle through slot of specified thickness along least dimension.  The weight of particles passing the thickness gauge is recorded for each fraction. This is the weight of flaky particles.  The flakiness index is calculated by expressing the weight of flaky particles as a percentage of total weight of the sample.
  30. 30. Page 30 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V Elongation: These are the particles having length considerably larger than the other two dimensions and it is the particle whose greater dimension is 1.8 times its mean size. Limit of elongated particles in the mixes is 45%. Thus, if the elongated particles are greater than 45%, then the aggregate is considered undesirable for the intended use. Elongation Index: It is the percentage by weight of elongated particles in a sample. The Elongated index is calculated by expressing the weight of Elongated particles as percentage of total weight of the sample. 4.1.5 WATER ABSORPTION TEST: Standard: IS: 2386 (Part 3) – 1963 – Method of test for aggregates for concrete (Part I) Particle size and shape. Equipment’s used:  Wire basket  Oven (3000c)  Container for filling water and suspending the basket  An air tight container  Balance[0-10 kg]  Shallow tray & absorbent clothes. Procedure:  bout 2kg of the aggregate sample is washed thoroughly to remove fines, drained and then placed in the wire basket and immersed in distilled water at a temperature between 22 to 320C with a cover of at least 50 mm of water above the top of the basket  Immediately after the immersion the entrapped air is removed from the sample by lifting the basket containing it 25 mm above the base of the tank and allowing it to drop 25 times at the rate of about one drop per second. The basket and the aggregate should remain completely immersed in water for a period of 24±0.5 hours afterwards.
  31. 31. Page 31 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V  The basket and the sample are then weighed while suspended in water at a temperature of 22 to 320C. The weight is noted while suspended in water (W1) g.  The basket and the aggregate are then removed from water and allowed to drain for a few minutes, after which the aggregates are transferred to one of the dry absorbent clothes.  The empty basket is then returned to the tank of water, jolted 25 times and weights in water (W2) g.  The aggregates placed in the dry absorbent clothes are surface dried till no further moisture could be removed by this clothe.  Then the aggregate is transferred to the second dry cloth spread in a single layer, covered and allowed to dry for at least 10 minutes until the aggregates are completely surface dry. 10 to 60 minutes drying may be needed. The surface dried aggregate is then weighed W3 g.  The aggregate is placed in a shallow tray and kept in an oven maintained at a temperature of 1100C for 24 hours. It is then removed from the oven, cooled in air tight container and weighed W4 g.  Weight of saturated aggregate suspended in water with basket = W1 g  Weight of basket suspended in water = W2 g  Weight of saturated aggregate in water = (W1-W2)g = Ws g  Weight of saturated surface dry aggregate in air = W4 g  Weight of water equal to the volume of the aggregate = (W3-Ws) g  4.2 TESTS OF CONCRETE: Below are some of the concrete test which are perform on concrete at site and laboratory.
  32. 32. Page 32 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 1. Compressive Strength Test. 2. Permeability Test. 3. Slump Test. 4. Flexural Strength Test 4.2.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTHTEST: Standard: IS: 516-1959 – Methods of tests for strength of concrete. Equipment’s used:  Compression testing machine (2000 KN)  Curing tank/Accelerated curing tank  Balance (0-10 Kg) Representative samples of concrete shall be taken and used for casting cubes 15 cm x 15 cm x 15 cm or cylindrical specimens of 15 cm dia. x 30 cm long. Procedure: 1. The concrete shall be filled into the moulds in layers approximately 5 cm deep. It would be distributed evenly and compacted either by vibration or by hand tamping. After the top layer has been compacted, the surface of concrete shall be finished level with the top of the mould using a trowel; and covered with a glass plate to prevent evaporation. 2. The specimen shall be stored at site for 24+ ½ h under damp matting or sack. After that, the samples shall be stored in clean water at 27+20C; until the time of test. The ends of all cylindrical specimens that are not plane within 0.05 mm shall be capped. 3. Just prior to testing, the cylindrical specimen shall be capped with Sulphur mixture comprising 3 parts Sulphur to 1 part of inert filler such as fire clay. 4. Specimen shall be tested immediately on removal from water and while they are still in wet condition. 5. The bearing surface of the testing specimen shall be wiped clean and any loose material removed from the surface. In the case of cubes, the specimen shall be placed in the machine in such a manner that the load cube as cast, that is, not to the top and bottom. 6. Align the axis of the specimen with the steel plates, do not use any packing. 7. The load shall be applied slowly without shock and increased continuously at a rate of approximately 140 kg/sq.cm/min until the resistance of the specimen to the increased load breaks down and no greater load can be sustained. The maximum load applied to the specimen shall then be recorded and any unusual features noted at the time of failure brought out in the report. 8. Compressive strength (kg/cm2) = Wf / A
  33. 33. Page 33 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 4.2.2 PERMEABILITYTEST: Equipment’s used: A concrete permeameter apparatus consisting of the following basic components,  A permeameter cell which can maintain a seal over the circumference of a saturated cylindrical concrete specimen and which is capable of operating effectively under pressures of up to 1000kPa.  A means of supplying de-aired water to the top surface of the concrete specimen contained within the permeameter cell at a constant pressure head of up to 1000kPa. MAIN ROADS Western Australia Water Permeability of Hardened Concrete Page 1 of 7 Twa625_1.rtf Test Method 71/10/625.1 Issue 1 10/98 Pavements & Structures TEST METHOD WA 625.1  A pressure gauge to measure input pressure and a thermometer to measure ambient temperature.  Data acquisition equipment to record, at suitable intervals of time, the pressure, volumetric flow of water into and out of the concrete specimen and the ambient temperature 1. Diamond cut saw. 2. Balance of suitable capacity readable to 0.1g with a limit of performance of not more than 0.6g at the 99% confidence level. 3. Supply of de-aired water. 4. Vacuum pump. 5. Vernier callipers. 6. Diamond corer drill. 7. 100mm diameter concrete mould complying with AS 1012.8. 8. Worksheet (optional). A graphical representation of the data, including the calculation of the D’Arcy Coefficient of Permeability is suitable. Procedure: 1. Obtain samples of hardened concrete of appropriate diameter from existing structures by diamond core drilling or from moulded specimens. The specimens shall be prepared in accordance with AS 1012. Using a diamond saw cut a section of the sample to allow
  34. 34. Page 34 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V approximately 2mm clearance at each end of the Room Temperature Vulcanizing (RTV) silicone rubber seal. The test sample should have a minimum length of 2.5 times the maximum aggregate size. The cut section will be the test sample. 2. . Condition the test sample in accordance with AASHTO T277 to a Saturated Surface Dry state, deleting the section referring to the use of epoxy resins. 3. Fill the voids that are 2mm or greater in diameter that occur on the sides of the test sample with plasticine or a similar material. 4. Measure and record the mass of the test sample to the nearest 0.1g and the diameter (D) and length (L) of the sample to the nearest 1mm. 5. Seal the test sample within the permeameter cell. 6. Ensure that the permeameter apparatus is completely filled with de-aired water and contains no air pockets or bubbles. 7. Apply a constant pressure head of water to the inflow side of the permeameter cell and continuously monitor the pressure throughout the duration of the test. 8. Continuously monitor and record the volumetric inflow and outflow of water. 9. Continuously monitor and record the ambient temperature, to the nearest 0.1°C. Ensure that the temperature is maintained within a range of 21 to 25°C. 10. After steady state flow through the sample has been achieved, monitor and plot volume flow (Q) against time (t) until the slope of the inflow and outflow lines can be achieved. Calculate the permeability by taking the mean of the inflow and outflow plots within the steady state flow range. NOTE: This test is designed to determine the order of magnitude for concrete permeability. A variation between the inflow and outflow slopes of up to 20% will not significantly affect the outcome. 11. Remove the test sample from the apparatus and measure and record the mass of the test sample to the nearest 0.1g. 4.2.3 SLUMP TEST: Equipment’s used:  Slump cone,  Scale for measurement,  Temping rod (steel)
  35. 35. Page 35 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V Fig 4.3 Slump Test Procedure: 1. The mold for the slump test is a frustum of a cone, 300 mm (12 in) of height. The base is 200 mm (8in) in diameter and it has a smaller opening at the top of 100 mm (4 in). 2. The base is placed on a smooth surface and the container is filled with concrete in three layers, whose workability is to be tested . 3. Each layer is temped 25 times with a standard 16 mm (5/8 in) diameter steel rod, rounded at the end. 4. When the mold is completely filled with concrete, the top surface is struck off (leveled with mould top opening) by means of screening and rolling motion of the temping rod. 5. The mould must be firmly held against its base during the entire operation so that it could not move due to the pouring of concrete and this can be done by means of handles or foot - rests brazed to the mould. 6. Immediately after filling is completed and the concrete is leveled, the cone is slowly and carefully lifted vertically, an unsupported concrete will now slump. 7. The decrease in the height of the center of the slumped concrete is called slump. 8. The slump is measured by placing the cone just besides the slump concrete and the temping rod is placed over the cone so that it should also come over the area of slumped concrete.
  36. 36. Page 36 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 9. The decrease in height of concrete to that of mould is noted with scale. (Usually measured to the nearest 5 mm (1/4 in). 4.2.4 FLEXURAL STRENGTHTEST: Standard: IS: 516: Methods of tests for Strength of Concrete Apparatus: Flexural Strength Machine. Fig 4.4 Flexural Strength Testing Procedure:  Take put specimen for curing tank, Clean it with Water  Make a 5cm Mark vertically, on specimen on either ends.  Specimen shall be placed in machine such a way that the load shall be applied to the upper most surface as cast in mould.  The axis of the specimen shall be carefully aligned with the axis of the loading device  Load shall be applied continuously and without shock.  The load shall be increased until the specimen fails and load applied is recorded at the failure.
  37. 37. Page 37 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V CHAPTER 5: EQUIPMENTS AND MACHINES 5.1 BATCHING MACHINE: The measurement of materials for making concrete is known as batching. The machines which used for batching is known as batching machine. 5.2 CONCRETE MIXER: This is a power mechanically operated machine which is used to mix the concrete. It consists a hollow cylindrical part with inner side wings. In which cement, sand, aggregates and water is mix properly. Fig. 5.1 Concrete Mixing Machine
  38. 38. Page 38 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 5.3 TRANSPORTATION: The process of carrying the concrete mix from the place of it’s mixing to final position of deposition is termed as transportation of concrete. There are many methods of transportation as mentioned below- Transport of concrete by pans Transport of concrete by wheel barrows Transport of concrete by tipping Lorries Transport of concrete by pumps Transport of concrete by belt conveyors At this site belt conveyors were used. Fig 5.2 Belt Conveyors
  39. 39. Page 39 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 5.4 COMPACTORS: When the concrete has been placed, it shows a very loose structure. Hence, it must be compacted to remove the air bubbles and voids so as to make it dense and solid concrete to obtain a high strength. There are two method- of compaction. Manual compaction Mechanical compaction Generally in large projects mechanical compactors are used . There are various mechanical compactors which uses according to requirement as needle and screed vibrators needed to compact the column and floor respectively.
  40. 40. Page 40 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V CHAPTER 6 : BRICK MASONARY The bricks are obtained by moulding clay in rectangular block of uniform size and then drying and burning these blocks. Brick masonry easy to construct compare stone masonry. It is less time consuming and there is no need of skilled labour to construct it. The bricks do not require dressing and the arty of laying bricks is so simple. 6.1 CLASS OF BRICKS : On the basis of quality and performance of brick is classified in three parts- CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C At this site A class brick is used. Fig. 6.1 Bricks
  41. 41. Page 41 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 6.2 SIZE AND WEIGHT OF BRICKS: The bricks are prepared in various sizes. On the basis of size , BIS bricks are categories in two parts- MODULAR BRICKS: BIS recommends a standard size of brick which is 190mm*90mm*90mm. With mortar thickness, size of such a brick become 200mm*100mm*100mm. TRADITIONAL BRICKS: The brick of which size varies and not standardized known as traditional brick. WEIGHT OF BRICK: It is found that the weight of 1 cubic meter brick earth is about 1800 kg. Hence the average weight of a brick will be about 3 to 3.5 kg. 6.3 STRUCTURE OF BRICK: STRETCHER: If brick laid along its length then front view of brick is known as stretcher. HEADER: If brick laid along it’s width , then front view of brick is known as header. FROG: It is top of brick. It provides strong bonding between two courses of masonry by filling the mortar. It also consists the name of company. QUEEN CLOSER: This is obtained by cutting the bricks longitudinally in two equal parts.
  42. 42. Page 42 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V BAT: This is piece of brick , considered in relation to the length of brick as half bat, three quarter bat, etc. 6.4 TYPES OF BRICK MASONARY: Brick work is classified according to quality of mortar, quality of brick and thickness of joints. They types of brick work as follows- BRICK WORK IN MUD MORTAR: IN this type of brick work mud is used to fill up the joints. Mud is mixer of sand and clay. The thickness of mortar joint is 12mm. BRICK WORK IN LIME MORTAR: In this type of brick work, lime mortar is used to fill up the joints. Lime mortar is mixer of lime and sand the thickness of joints does not exceeds 10mm. BRICK WORK IN CEMENT MORTAR: In this type of brick work ,cement mortar is used to fill up the joints. Cement mortar is mixer of cement and sand in ceftain ratio. The ratio Of cement and sand varies according to construction as in brick masonary it generally kept 1:6.The thickness of joint does not exceeds 10mm. The brick work with cement mortar provide high adopted in building construction. At this site cement mortar is used in brick work. The ratio of Cement to sand is 1:6. 6.5 TOOLS USED IN BRICK MASONRY: The tools used in brick masonry are trowel, spirit level, plumb bob, square, hammer, straight edge. 6.6 BONDS IN BRICK WORK: There various bonds which provided in brick work to increase the stability of walls. Various types of bonds are as follows-
  43. 43. Page 43 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V Stretcher Bond Header Bond English Bond Flemish Bond STRETCHER BOND : The bricks are laid along its length in all courses. A half and three quarter bat is used in alternative courses to break the verticality of joints. Fig. 6.2 Stretcher Bond HEADER BOND: The bricks are laid along its width in all courses. A half and three quarter bat is also used in alternative courses to break the verticality of joints. ENGLISH BOND: This bond is widely used in practice. It is consider the strongest bond. Alternate courses consist of stretcher and header. A queen closer is put next to quoin header to break the verticality of joints. Generally such types of bond is provided in walls width is 9 inches. At this site ENGLISH BOND is prefer in main wall and STRETCHER BOND in partition walls.
  44. 44. Page 44 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V Fig. 6.3 English Bond FLEMISH BOND: This is also widely used because it gives better appearance to English bond. It also provides good strength. Stretcher and header is provided in each course alternatively. A queen closer is put next to quoin header in each alternate course to break the verticality of joints. 6.7 THICKNESS OF WALLS: Thickness of wall depend on load, strength of material ,length of wallet. In this project the thickness of main wall is 9 inches and partition wall is 4.5 inches.
  45. 45. Page 45 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V Fig. 6.4 Thickness of Wall 6.8 PROCEDUREOF BRICKMASONRY: In frame structure brick work starts after construction of foundation, column, beam, and slabs. Following procedure is adopt to construct the brick masonry- 1. Initially clean and wet the surface on which brick wall is be constructed. 2. Set a straight alignment by using threads in both side of a wall . 3. Prepare the cement mortar. 4. At this site cement sand ratio is 1:6 for all walls. 5. Mortar is laid on surface base and then bricks are laid over it . 6. Prepare a course and then again laid the mortar on existing course and provides bricks in such a way that the vertical joint should not stand in a line. 7. To break the verticality of joints generally English or Flemish bond is adopted. 8. Use the plumb bob to check the verticality at regular interval. 9. Also use square to check the wall is constructing straight or not. 10. After each 1 meter height of wall provide a layer of reinforced cement concrete of 1.5 to 2 inches. 11. It will increase the strength of structure.
  46. 46. Page 46 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V CHAPTER 7: PLASTER The term plastering is used to describe thin cover that is applied on the surface of walls. It removes unevenness of surface of walls. Sometimes it is use for decorative purpose also. 7.1 MORTAR FOR PLASTERING: Selection of type of mortar depends on various factors such as suitability of building material, atmospheric conditions, durability etc. there are mainly three type of mortar which can be used for the purpose of mortar Lime mortar Cement mortar Water proof mortar LIME MORTAR: The main content of lime mortar is lime that is mixed with correct proportion of sand. Generally fat lime is recommended for plaster work because the fat lime contains 75% of CaO and it combines with CO2 of atmosphere and gives CaCO3 quickly. Thus, the lime sets quickly, but it imparts low strength. So it can be use only for plaster work. The sand to be used for preparing lime mortar for plastering work should be clean, coarse and free from any organic impurities. CEMENT MORTAR: The cement mortar consists of one part of cement to four part of clean and coarse sand by volume. The materials are thoroughly mix in dry condition before water is added to them. The mixing of material is done on a watertight platform. It is better than lime mortar. It is widely used in construction work.
  47. 47. Page 47 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V Fig. 7.1 Plastering WATER PROOF MORTAR: Water proof mortar is prepared by mixing one part of cement, two part of sand and pulverized alum at the rate of 120Nperm3 of sand. In the water to be used, 0.75 of soft soap is dissolve per one liter of water and this soap water is added to the dry mix. 7.2 TOOLS FOR PLASTERING: Gauging Trowel Metal Float Floating Rule Plumb Bob Sprit Level Brushes
  48. 48. Page 48 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 7.3 METHOD OF PLASTERING: According to the thickness of wall there are three method of plastering. One coat method Two coat method Three coat method ONE COAT METHOD: It is in the cheapest form of construction that plaster is applied in one coat. This method is quietly used in rural areas for the construction of low category and cheap house. TWO COAT METHOD: Following procedure is carried out for two coating plaster work Clean the surface and keep it well watered on which plaster work to be done. If it is found that the surface to be plastered is very rough and uneven, a preliminary coat is applied to fill up the hollows before the first coat of plaster is put up on the surface. Now the first coat is applied on the surface. The usual thickness of first coat for brick masonry is 9mm to10mm. Second coat of plaster is applied after about 6 hours and the thickness of second coat is usually about 2mm to 3mm.It is finished as per requirement. THREE COAT METHOD: The procedure for plaster in three coats is the same as above except that the num of coats of plaster is three. Table: Name of coat Thickness First coat Rendering coat 9 to 10 mm Second coat Floating coat 6 to 9 mm Third coat Finishing coat 3 mm Table 7.1 Different Coats of Plaster
  49. 49. Page 49 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V CHAPTER 8: BUILDING BYLAWS For the construction of any building, certain restrictions are laid down by Municipal bodies, Urban development authorities ,and other government departments as town planning trusts to clear open spaces to be left around the buildings. 8.1 OBJECTIVE OF BUILDING BYLAWS:  Allows disciplined and systematic growth of buildings and towns and prevent haphazard development.  Protect safety of public against fire, noise , health hazards and structural failures.  Provides proper utilization of space. Hence maximum efficiency in planning can be derived from these bylaws.  They give guidelines to the architect or an engineer in effective planning and useful in preplanning the building activates.  They provides health, safety and comfort to the peoples living in the building.  Due to these bylaws, each building will have proper approaches, light air, ventilation which are essential for health , safety and comfort. 8.2 PLINTH AREA REGULATIONS: The minimum area of buildings of different classes shall be governed by the following: 1. In an industrial plot, the plinth area should not exceed 60% of the site area. 2. In a market area, the plinth area should not exceed 75% of the area of site, provided sufficient off-street parking facilities for loading and unloading of vehicles are provided on the same plot as the building. 3. In residential plots, the covered areas should be as given in the table 1.
  50. 50. Page 50 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V S.no Area of plot Maximum permissible covered area 1 Less than 200 sq. m 66.66 % of the plot area on the ground. 2 201 to 500 sq. m 50% of the plot area or 133 sq. m whichever is more. 3 501 to 1000 sq. m 40% of the plot area or 250 sq. m whichever is more. 4 More than 1000 sq. m 33.33 % of the plot area or 400 sq. m whichever is more. Table 8.1 Maximum permissible covered area 8.3 HEIGHT AND SIZE REGULATIONS FOR ROOMS: 8.3.1 HEIGHT REGULATIONS:  Habitable rooms: The minimum height from the surface of the floor to the ceiling or bottom of slab should be not les than 2.75m. For air-conditioned rooms, a height of not less than 2.4 m measured from the top of the floor to the lowest point of the air- conditioning duct or the false ceiling should be provided.  Bathrooms, water closets and stores: The height of all such rooms measured from the floor in the ceiling should not be less than 2.4m. In the case of a passage under the landing, the minimum headway may be kept as 2.2m.  Kitchen: The height of the kitchen measured from the floor to the lowest point in the ceiling should not be less than 2.75m except for the portion to accommodate floor trap of the floor. 8.3.2 SIZE REGULATIONS:  Habitable rooms: The area of habitable rooms should not be less than 9.5 sq. m where there is only one room. Where there are two rooms, one of these should not be less than 9.5 sq. m and other be not less than 7.5 sq. m with a minimum width of 2.4m.  Kitchen: Minimum floor area required is not less than 5.5 sq. m. It should not be less than 1.8min width at any part. With a separate storeroom, the area may be reduced to
  51. 51. Page 51 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V 4.5 sq. m. A kitchen cum dining room should have a floor area not less than 9.5 sq. m with a minimum width of 2.4m. Each kitchen should be provided with a flue.  Bathrooms and water closets: The size of bathroom should not be less than 1.5m x 1.2m or 1.8 sq. m. If it is combined with water closet, its floor area should not be less than 2.8 sq. m. the minimum floor area of a water closet should be 1.1 sq. m. 8.4 LIGHTING AND VENTILATION REGULATIONS: a) Rooms: Every habitable room which should have for the admission of air and light, one or more apertures such as windows and fanlights, opening directly to the external air or into an open verandah and of an aggregate area, inclusive of frames, of not les than i. One-tenth of the floor area excluding doors for dry hot climate. ii. One-sixth of the floor area excluding doors for wet/hot climate. No portion of a room should be assumed as lighted if is more than 7.5m away from the door or window which is taken for calculation as ventilating that portion. Cross-ventilation by means of windows and ventilators or both shall be effected in at least living room of tenement either by means of windows in opposite walls or if this is not possible or advisable, then atleast in the adjoining walls. b) Bathrooms and water closets: The rooms should be provided with natural light and permanent ventilation by one of the following means: i. Windows having an area of not less than 10% of the floor area and located in an exterior wall facing a street alley, yard or an air shaft whose dimensions in the direction perpendicular to the window is not less than one-third the height of the building on which the window is located, subject to a minimum limit of 1m and maximum 6m. ii. Skylights, the construction of which shall provide light and ventilation required in (i) above.
  52. 52. Page 52 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V iii. Ventilation ducts: Provided such ducts have 130 square cm of area for each square meter of area with a minimum total area of 300 square cm and least dimension of 9cm. c) Stores, backrooms: These will have at least half the ventilation required for living room. d) Basement and floors: Basements and rooms located therein except room shall be lighten and ventilated by windows in exterior walls having a ventilating area of not less than 2.5% of the floor area. e) Kitchen shall be ventilated according to standards prescribed for habitable rooms near the ceiling as far as possible. f) Stairways: every staircase should be lighted and ventilated from an open air space of not less than 3m depth measured horizontally in case of ground and one upper floor structure, 4.5 m in case of ground and two upper and in higher structure than this, the open air space shall not be less than 6m, provided that the lighting area shall not be less than 1 sq.m per floor height. Every staircase shall be ventilated properly. 8.5 OPEN SPACE REGULATIONS: OPEN SPACE AROUND RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Front open space: every building should have a front yard of minimum width of 3m and in case of two or more sides a width of an average of 3 m but in no case it shall be less than 1.8 m. Such a yard shall form an inseparable part of the site. Rear open space: Every residential building shall have a yard of an average width of 4.5 m and at no place the yard measuring less than 3 m as an inseparable part of the building, except in the case of back to back sites where the width of the yard could be reduced to 3m provided no erection, re-erection or material alteration of the building shall be undertaken, if at common plot line straight lines drawn downwards and outwards from the line of intersection
  53. 53. Page 53 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V of the outer surface of any rear wall of the building with the roof perpendicular to that line form an angle of more than 63.5 degree to the horizontal. Side open space: every residential building may have a permanently open air space not less than 1m in width on one of its sides other than its front and rear and such side open space shall form an inseparable part of the site. In case, side open air space is to be used for ventilation, it shall be in accordance with the requirements mentioned in the previous paragraph. In case, the side open space abuts a road, the width shall not be less than 3m. 8.6 FIRE PROTECTION REGULATIONS: High-rise buildings have unique challenges related to fire protection such as longer egress times and distance, evacuation strategies, fire department accessibility, smoke movement and fire control. The numbers of persons living on high-rise buildings are high compared to low- rise buildings, and only evacuation method in case of fire is the staircase. So, the fire protections of high rise buildings have gained significant attention worldwide. Thus, in case of high rise buildings, the following provision should be made for safety of buildings from fire: (i) National building code should be followed for fire-safety requirement of high rise structures and at least one lift should be designed as fire-lift as defined in the Code and be installed. (ii) At least one stair-case shall be provided as a fire staircase as defined in the National Building Code. Provided that this shall not be applicable if any two sides of a staircase are kept totally open to external open air space. (iii) Water Supply: Underground tank of the capacity of one lakh liters and two lakh liters for the buildings situated within the municipal limit and outside of the municipal limit respectively be invariably provided in all the high rise buildings. Water in the normal use tank should come only through the overflow of fire tank so provided. (iv) In high rise buildings, the internal fire hydrants shall be installed as provided in the National Building Code or as prescribed in the Indian Standard Code of practice for installation of internal fire hydrants in high rise buildings. The detailed plan showing the
  54. 54. Page 54 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V arrangement of pipe lines, booster pumps and water-tanks at various levels shall be submitted for approval of the concerned authority along with the plans and sections of the buildings. (v) In case of high rise buildings, an external fire hydrant shall be provided within the confines of the site of the building and shall be connected with Municipal Water mains not less than 4″ in diameter. In addition, fire hydrant shall be connected with Booster Pump from the static supply maintained on site. (vi) In case of high rise buildings separate electric circuits for lift installation, lighting of passages, corridors and stairs and for internal fire hydrant system shall be provided. (vii) All the requirements under the above regulations shall be clearly indicated on plans duly signed by the owner and the person who has prepared the plans. The Competent Authority may direct the owner to submit such further drawings as may be necessary to clarify the implementation of the provisions of the above regulations. (viii) Every building having a height of more than 25 Mts. shall be provided with diesel generators which can be utilized in case of failure of the electricity. (ix) The standard of National Building Code must be adopted fully in providing stair-case and alarm system. (x) There should be Provision of dry-powder fire extinguisher to the extent of two on each floor with a capacity of 5 kgs, in all the high rise buildings.
  55. 55. Page 55 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V CONCLUSION The general terms of construction are included in this study. Different types of Bonds in brick masonary are also studied in this report. Study about different types of foundation is also studied in this report. Study about the different Building By-laws is also done in this report. As per my training report I have conclude that , during last 60 days I am familiar with the construction of brick masonry & plastering and other works under a Rajasthan Housing Board project. Brick masonry is provided to transfer the load of structure to foundation. All though maximum load of building comes on columns and beams. Plaster is necessary to cover and protect the masonry from weathering factor. It is a layer of cement mortar of thickness is 1 to 1.5 inches. The basic knowledge of field is also important for my future. I am very thankful to all those people who help me to get knowledge of brick masonry and plastering.
  56. 56. Page 56 of 56 AIETM/CE/2016-2017/P.T.I.V REFERENCES  J.P Chawla (Project Manager at site)  Google.com  Wikipedia  I.S Codes for building construction  Building By-laws  Books on Building Construction

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