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From Tourism to "Tourism 2.0" in the French hospitality industry

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Presentation of my paper at EUTIC 2014, interrogating the problematic evolution from Tourism to Tourism 2.0, via e-tourism.

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From Tourism to "Tourism 2.0" in the French hospitality industry

  1. 1. From Tourism to Tourism 2.0 EUTIC 2014 What role for ICT and technology in general for the design of information and cognitive processes. Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, October 22-24, 2014 Beer Bergman / EUTIC 2014 / From Tourism to Tourism 2.0 / Lisbon, October 2014 1
  2. 2. Beer Bergman / EUTIC 2014 / From Tourism to Tourism 2.0 / Lisbon, October 2014 2
  3. 3. Is the move from object oriented innovation to human centered organizations the key to the development of the more sustainable « Tourism 2.0 » approach? What can be the role of Design Thinking in this process? Beer Bergman / EUTIC 2014 / From Tourism to Tourism 2.0 / Lisbon, October 2014 3
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  9. 9. Greeters in France / 2013 : 1150 greeters - 11 000 visitors - 4500 walks or « greets » Beer Bergman / EUTIC 2014 / From Tourism to Tourism 2.0 / Lisbon, October 2014 9
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  11. 11. Category or platform? In competition with whom? Beer Bergman / EUTIC 2014 / From Tourism to Tourism 2.0 / Lisbon, October 2014 11
  12. 12. In contrast with the peer to peer advertising sites, Airbnb, through a narrative of authentic encounters and connections, is « fulfilling technology’s promise of social cohesion and self-realization » (Germann Molz, 2012) Here the « third rationality » comes in action : « In this perspective trust based rationalism, trust, social capital, and collaborative relationships are introduced as the key concepts. » (Kunmar, Van Dissel, Bielli - 1998) Beer Bergman / EUTIC 2014 / From Tourism to Tourism 2.0 / Lisbon, October 2014 12
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  14. 14. Internet technology has already profoundly modified the French tourism landscape and tourism actors tend to think about tourism in terms of commodities, regulation and coercion while talking about quality. « digital hospitality » supposes new ways of interacting, dealing with confidence and trust, sharing and identity. Authorities struggle with these new co-constructed realities that have emerged in the private sector, and blame them for eluding existant regulations. But Airbnb, Greeters and Ambassadors seem to provide technology-mediated authentic experiences the contemporary tourist is searching for. The term « authentic » needs clarification, and we are opting for Wang’s theory of objective authenticity, constructive or symbolic and existential authenticity: authenticity may be searched for in objects, relations or experiences. Beer Bergman / EUTIC 2014 / From Tourism to Tourism 2.0 / Lisbon, October 2014 14
  15. 15. French DMOs and quality labels are both struggling to ensure their survival and surplus value within this context, and are doing so by cooperation models (Greeters), expansive models (Ambassadors) and resistance (AirBnb and similar platforms). Design Thinking might be an effective way to redefine how to evolve towards more flexible organizations (Enterprise 2.0), that embrace co-construction with the new tourist through the concept of « Tourism 2.0 ». The latter encompasses « e-Tourism », but is profoundly different in its approach by the acceptance of the « plural » traveller as a relevant actor and not as a client or annoying spin-off in digital and physical space. Beer Bergman / EUTIC 2014 / From Tourism to Tourism 2.0 / Lisbon, October 2014 15
  16. 16. As a result of France’s history in social tourism, its industry suffers from a deeply rooted suspicion towards capitalist models linked to economically liberal or even libertarian bodies of thought, but all stakeholders will have to rethink their positions and to reconfigure the sociality that is embedded in technology-driven tourism practices. Rather than defining first what tools should be developed, design thinking might be an excellent approach to reconnecting « traditional » and new shared tourist values with the challenges they face in the era of Tourism 2.0. Beer Bergman / EUTIC 2014 / From Tourism to Tourism 2.0 / Lisbon, October 2014 16
  17. 17. Beer Bergman / EUTIC 2014 / From Tourism to Tourism 2.0 Lisbon, October 2014 MERCI DE VOTRE ATTENTION Bilance / Beer Bergman – bb@beerbergman.com www.facebook.com/Bilance www.beerbergman.com www.bilance.fr http://twitter.com/BeerBergman

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