INTRODUCTION OF CITY:
What is city?
• A city is a relatively large and permanent
• Although there is no agreement on how a city is
distinguished from a town within general English
Language meanings, many cities have a particular
administrative, legal, or historical status based on
Introduction of Ancient city of ROME
• Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that began growing on
the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.
• Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city
of Rome, it expanded to become one of the largest empires in the
ancient world with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants.
• According to the founding myth of Rome, the
city was founded on 21 April 753 BC by twin
brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended
from theTrojan prince Aeneas and who were
grandsons of the Latin King, Numitor of Alba
• King Numitor was deposed from his throne
by his brother,Amulius, while Numitor's
daughter, Rhe Silvia, gave birth to the
twins. Because Rhea Silvia was raped and
impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war,
the twins were considered half divine.
• The twins then founded their own city, but
Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the
location of the Roman Kingdom, though some
sources state the quarrel was about who was
going to rule or give his name to the city
The imperial city of Rome was the largest urban center of its time, with a population
of about one million people (about the size of London in the early 19th century,
when London was the largest city in the world), with some high-end estimates of 14
million and low-end estimates of 450,000.
The public spaces in Rome resounded with such a din of hooves and clatter of
iron chariot wheels that Julius Caesar had once proposed a ban on chariot traffic
during the day.
Ancient city of Rome is ruled by Kings. And Kings were elected from
each of Rome’s major tribes in turn.
The class struggles of the Roman Republic resulted in an unusual
mixture of democracy and oligarchy.
In addition to the authority of the King, there were three
administrative assemblies: the Senate, which acted as an advisory
body for the King.
1. Comitia Curiata: which could endorse and ratify laws suggested by
2. Comitia Calata: which was an assembly of the priestly college that
could assemble the people to bear witness to certain acts, hear
proclamations, and declare the feast and holiday schedule for the
Ancient Rome commanded a vast area of land, with tremendous
natural and human resources, for example: farming and trade.
Industrial and manufacturing activities were smaller. The largest such
activities were the mining and quarrying of stones, which provided
basic construction materials for the buildings of that period.
Ancient Roman architecture
1. Ancient Roman architecture adopted certain aspects of Ancient
Greek architecture, creating a new architectural style.
2. The Roman use of the arch and their improvements in the use
of concrete and bricks facilitated the building of the
many aqueducts throughout theempire, such as the Aqueduct of
Segovia and the eleven aqueducts in Rome itself, such as Aqua
Claudia and Anio Novus.
3. The dome permitted construction of vaulted ceiling without
crossbeams and provided large covered public space such as public
baths and basilicas.
•New York is the most populous city in the United States and
the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most
populousurban agglomerations in the world.
•Located on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New
York City consists of five boroughs each of which is a county of
New York State.
•With a census-estimated 2012 population of
8,336,697] distributed over a land area of just 302.64 square
miles (783.8 km2), New York is the most densely populated
major city in the United States.
In the precolonial era, the area of present day New York City was
inhabited by various bands ofAlgonquian tribes of Native Americans,
including the Lenape, whose homeland, known asLenapehoking,
included Staten Island, the western portion of Long Island (including
the area that would become Brooklyn and Queens), Manhattan, and
the Lower Hudson Valley, including The Bronx.
• New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of
styles and from distinct time periods from the saltbox style Pieter
Claesen Wyckoff House in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates
to 1656, to the modern One World Trade Center, the skyscraper
currently under construction at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan and
currently the most expensive new office tower in the world.
1. Mass transit use in New York City is the highest in the United
States, and gasoline consumption in the city is the same rate as the
national average in the 1920s. The city's high level of mass transit
use saved 1.8 billion US gallons (6,800,000 m3) of oil in 2006; New
York City saves half of all the oil saved by transit nationwide.
2. The city's population density, low automobile use and high transit
utility make it among the most energy efficient cities in the United
3. The city government was a petitioner in the
landmark Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency
Supreme Court case forcing the EPA to regulate greenhouse gases
• Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, is
the most complex and extensive in North America.
• The iconic New York City Subway system is the busiest in the Western
Hemisphere, while Grand Central Terminal, also popularly referred to
as "Grand Central Station", is the world's largest railway station by
number of platforms. New York's airspace is one of the world's busiest
air transportation corridors.
• New York City is the top international
air passenger gateway to the United