I. Cattle Performance and Comfort
under
Different
Environmental
Conditions

Dan Loy
Professor of Animal Science
Director, ...
January 2013 Feedlot Inventories
1,000 Head
Texas

2,730

Nebraska

2,550

Kansas

2,250

Iowa

1,280

Colorado

1,030
US Cattle Feeding Regions
Market share change 2012-2013
Percent of US
Cattle on Feed
2012

Percent of US
Cattle on Feed
2013

Change

Texas

20.9

2...
Source: World weather online
Source: World weather online
Source: World weather online
Location of Cattle Feeding and Average
Annual Precipitation
Location of Cattle Feeding and
Days less than 0 C
Environmental Challenges
• Cold Stress
• Heat Stress

• Mud
Effect of Environment on Energy
Requirements
Lower
Critical
Temperature

Cold stress

Low

Upper
Critical
Temperature

THE...
Cold Stress
Hair as insulation
ower Critical Temperature C
•Coat Description

LCT

•Summer or wet

15

•Fall

7

•Winter

0

•Heavy winter

-8
Effective Temperature
Wind Speed
(kph)
Calm
8
24
48

-23
-23
-27
-32
-43

Temperature (celcius)
-18
-12
-7
-1
-18
-12
-7
-...
• Affected by effective
ambient
temperature
• Air temperature
• Solar radiation
• Air movement
• Contact surfaces
• Precip...
Heat Stress
• Beef NRC (2000)
• Maintenance requirement increased when
temperatures exceed 30 C
– 7% for rapid shallow bre...
July 19, 2011 - 3:00 pm
• 35 degrees C
• Sunny
Feels like 44 degrees C
Wind 9.3 km/hr south
Humidity 58%
Images and data f...
Black Steer Full Sun
40.0 C
51.6 °C

43.7 °C

54.0 °C

50.8 °C
Black Steer Shade Monoslope
41.9 °C

41.8 °C

38.6 °C

42.2 °C

41.0 °C
Black vs White Steer Full Sun
42.0 °C

45.3 °C

52.4 °C
http://www.iowabeefcenter.org/heatresources.html
NRC (1981)
Effects of Mud on Performance
Mud depth

Intake reduction

10-20 cm

5-15%

30-35 cm

15-30%

Plus: reduced insulation val...
Effects of Mud on Cattle Performance
• Reduction in intake
• Loss of insulation value of hair coat
• Increased energy expe...
NEm Required, Mcal/BW0.75

Energy Requirements vs. Previous Temp.
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
-20

-10

0

10

20

Previous...
Questions?
Thanks !!!

Dan Loy
Professor of Animal Science
Director, Iowa Beef Center
Iowa State University
 Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy: Desempenho de bovinos confinados durante as ...
 Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy: Desempenho de bovinos confinados durante as ...
 Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy: Desempenho de bovinos confinados durante as ...
 Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy: Desempenho de bovinos confinados durante as ...
 Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy: Desempenho de bovinos confinados durante as ...
 Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy: Desempenho de bovinos confinados durante as ...
 Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy: Desempenho de bovinos confinados durante as ...
 Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy: Desempenho de bovinos confinados durante as ...
 Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy: Desempenho de bovinos confinados durante as ...
 Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy: Desempenho de bovinos confinados durante as ...
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Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy: Desempenho de bovinos confinados durante as diferentes situações climáticas

  1. 1. I. Cattle Performance and Comfort under Different Environmental Conditions Dan Loy Professor of Animal Science Director, Iowa Beef Center Iowa State University
  2. 2. January 2013 Feedlot Inventories 1,000 Head Texas 2,730 Nebraska 2,550 Kansas 2,250 Iowa 1,280 Colorado 1,030
  3. 3. US Cattle Feeding Regions
  4. 4. Market share change 2012-2013 Percent of US Cattle on Feed 2012 Percent of US Cattle on Feed 2013 Change Texas 20.9 20.4 -.5% Kansas 16.9 16.9 NC Nebraska 18.7 19.1 +.4% Iowa 9.2 9.6 +.4%
  5. 5. Source: World weather online
  6. 6. Source: World weather online
  7. 7. Source: World weather online
  8. 8. Location of Cattle Feeding and Average Annual Precipitation
  9. 9. Location of Cattle Feeding and Days less than 0 C
  10. 10. Environmental Challenges • Cold Stress • Heat Stress • Mud
  11. 11. Effect of Environment on Energy Requirements Lower Critical Temperature Cold stress Low Upper Critical Temperature THERMONEUTRAL ZONE Optimum for Performance and Health Heat Stress High EFFECTIVE AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
  12. 12. Cold Stress
  13. 13. Hair as insulation
  14. 14. ower Critical Temperature C •Coat Description LCT •Summer or wet 15 •Fall 7 •Winter 0 •Heavy winter -8
  15. 15. Effective Temperature Wind Speed (kph) Calm 8 24 48 -23 -23 -27 -32 -43 Temperature (celcius) -18 -12 -7 -1 -18 -12 -7 -1 -21 -16 10 -5 -26 -21 -16 -10 -37 -32 -27 -21 *Maintenance Requirements increase 1.25% for each degree of cold stress.
  16. 16. • Affected by effective ambient temperature • Air temperature • Solar radiation • Air movement • Contact surfaces • Precipitation
  17. 17. Heat Stress • Beef NRC (2000) • Maintenance requirement increased when temperatures exceed 30 C – 7% for rapid shallow breathing – 18% for open mouth panting
  18. 18. July 19, 2011 - 3:00 pm • 35 degrees C • Sunny Feels like 44 degrees C Wind 9.3 km/hr south Humidity 58% Images and data from Dr. Grant Dewell, DVM, Extension Beef Veterinarian, ISU
  19. 19. Black Steer Full Sun
  20. 20. 40.0 C 51.6 °C 43.7 °C 54.0 °C 50.8 °C
  21. 21. Black Steer Shade Monoslope
  22. 22. 41.9 °C 41.8 °C 38.6 °C 42.2 °C 41.0 °C
  23. 23. Black vs White Steer Full Sun
  24. 24. 42.0 °C 45.3 °C 52.4 °C
  25. 25. http://www.iowabeefcenter.org/heatresources.html
  26. 26. NRC (1981)
  27. 27. Effects of Mud on Performance Mud depth Intake reduction 10-20 cm 5-15% 30-35 cm 15-30% Plus: reduced insulation value of hair coat and increased energy cost for walking NRC (1981, 2001)
  28. 28. Effects of Mud on Cattle Performance • Reduction in intake • Loss of insulation value of hair coat • Increased energy expenditure to move between feed, water and resting location
  29. 29. NEm Required, Mcal/BW0.75 Energy Requirements vs. Previous Temp. 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 -20 -10 0 10 20 Previous Temperature, 30 O C 40
  30. 30. Questions?
  31. 31. Thanks !!! Dan Loy Professor of Animal Science Director, Iowa Beef Center Iowa State University

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