II. Buildings and structures for containment
to suit different climatic conditions

Dan Loy
Professor of Animal Science
Di...
WIND Control
Shelter
MUD Management
Open lot and mound construction
Mud Management-Concrete
Concrete open lot
Heat Stress Solutions

#1 - Shade, #2 - Sprinklers
Heat Stress
July 2011
1999 Heat Wave
• Death loss in NE 5,000 hd
• Death loss in SW Iowa 100 hd
• Why the difference?
• Emergency plan in place
...
July 11 & 12, 1995
• High Temperatures
• High Humidity
• No Wind
• Deadly Combination
July 11 & 12, 1995
13 West Central Iowa counties

• Market 323,300 HD/year
• Estimates 50% on feed = 161,650 HD
• 3750 HD ...
Effective Ambient Temperature
• Air temperature
• Solar radiation
• Air movement
• Contact surfaces
• Precipitation
Weather Conditions July 11 & 12
• High 40 C
• 50% Relative Humidity
• Calm winds after 3 to 5 P.M.

• No cloud cover
• Pre...
1995 Heat Stress Survey Results
• 36 producers responded
• 81 lots of cattle
• 9830 head on feed

– 7445 steers
– 2385 hei...
1995 Heat Stress Survey Results
Item
No. of lots
No. of cattle
No. of heifers
Lot area
Shade area
Death loss
% of lots wit...
Confinement Building with Solid
Floor

Around 30.5 m
Deep bedded vs open lots (closeout comparison)

• 997 pens fed 2007-2009. LOL/Purina
closeouts.
Open Lots

Deep Bedded

DM...
Confinement Building with Solid Floor
Confinement Building with Solid Floor

12.2-15.2 m
Confinement Building with Solid Floor
ISU Armstrong Research Farm
Lewis, Iowa
Completed building
Three year summary of performance
Item

Hoop

Feedlot

SEM

PValue

Pens
Head
Days on feed
Initial weight, kg
Final weight...
Three year summary of carcass
data
Item
Hot carcass wt., kg
Dressing %
Fat thickness, cm
KPH fat, %
Ribeye area, sq. in.
M...
Example facilities
Example facilities
Example Facilities

Story County
South Dakota State Univ.
SDSU Opportunities Farm
Open

Partial

Monoslope

DMI (kg)

11.1

11.1

11.0

ADG (kg)*

1.61

1.67

1.65

F/G*

6.90

6.6...
Complete Confinement Building
with Slatted Floor
Mats for Slats?
(progress report—3reps)
Rubber
mats

Concrete P>F
slats

DMI, lb.

9.45

9.18

.54

ADG, lb.

1.40

1.30

...
University of Wisconsin
• Preference study

Plaster et al (2011)
Thank You !
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo  Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy:  Construções e estruturas de confinamento par...
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Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy: Construções e estruturas de confinamento para adequar as diferentes condições climáticas

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Workshop Internacional – Como Confinar o ano todo Palestra com Dr. Dan Loy: Construções e estruturas de confinamento para adequar as diferentes condições climáticas

  1. 1. II. Buildings and structures for containment to suit different climatic conditions Dan Loy Professor of Animal Science Director, Iowa Beef Center Iowa State University
  2. 2. WIND Control
  3. 3. Shelter
  4. 4. MUD Management
  5. 5. Open lot and mound construction
  6. 6. Mud Management-Concrete
  7. 7. Concrete open lot
  8. 8. Heat Stress Solutions #1 - Shade, #2 - Sprinklers
  9. 9. Heat Stress
  10. 10. July 2011
  11. 11. 1999 Heat Wave • Death loss in NE 5,000 hd • Death loss in SW Iowa 100 hd • Why the difference? • Emergency plan in place – Memory of 1995 • Wind speed on July 29, 1999 • Acclimation of cattle week of July 25, 1999
  12. 12. July 11 & 12, 1995 • High Temperatures • High Humidity • No Wind • Deadly Combination
  13. 13. July 11 & 12, 1995 13 West Central Iowa counties • Market 323,300 HD/year • Estimates 50% on feed = 161,650 HD • 3750 HD dead • 2.32% death loss • $ 2.8 M cattle losses • $28.0 M production losses
  14. 14. Effective Ambient Temperature • Air temperature • Solar radiation • Air movement • Contact surfaces • Precipitation
  15. 15. Weather Conditions July 11 & 12 • High 40 C • 50% Relative Humidity • Calm winds after 3 to 5 P.M. • No cloud cover • Predicted high approximately 32 C
  16. 16. 1995 Heat Stress Survey Results • 36 producers responded • 81 lots of cattle • 9830 head on feed – 7445 steers – 2385 heifers • Average weight 485 kg • Death loss average 2.82% per lot
  17. 17. 1995 Heat Stress Survey Results Item No. of lots No. of cattle No. of heifers Lot area Shade area Death loss % of lots with no death loss Shade 35 3940 329 349 24 sq. ft. .19% No Shade 46 5890 2056 568 0 sq. ft. 4.81% 86% 19%
  18. 18. Confinement Building with Solid Floor Around 30.5 m
  19. 19. Deep bedded vs open lots (closeout comparison) • 997 pens fed 2007-2009. LOL/Purina closeouts. Open Lots Deep Bedded DMI, kg 10.2 10.2 ADG, kg 1.31 1.37 F/G 7.94 7.46 Pastoor et. al. (2012). 4.5% improvement in ADG, 6.3% improvement in FE to bedded housing
  20. 20. Confinement Building with Solid Floor
  21. 21. Confinement Building with Solid Floor 12.2-15.2 m
  22. 22. Confinement Building with Solid Floor
  23. 23. ISU Armstrong Research Farm Lewis, Iowa
  24. 24. Completed building
  25. 25. Three year summary of performance Item Hoop Feedlot SEM PValue Pens Head Days on feed Initial weight, kg Final weight, lb. ADG, lb. DMI, lb Feed/gain (DM) Mud score2 18 712 103 410 595 1.80 12.5 6.9 1.9 18 716 103 410 612 1.86 12.5 6.7 2.2 .5 11 11 .3 .1 .1 .1 0.62 0.94 0.32 0.19 0.98 0.17 0.02 Honeyman et. al. (2010)
  26. 26. Three year summary of carcass data Item Hot carcass wt., kg Dressing % Fat thickness, cm KPH fat, % Ribeye area, sq. in. Marbling score2 % Choice and up % YG 1 and 2 Hoop 369 62.0 1.09 2.4 85.2 1031 75.4 63.4 Honeyman et. al. (2010) Feedlot 371 60.6 1.09 2.4 84.5 1027 74.3 62.9 SEM 6 P-Value .59 .01 .01 .1 .5 2.7 2.7 .9+2 .99 .38 .61 .78 .94
  27. 27. Example facilities
  28. 28. Example facilities
  29. 29. Example Facilities Story County
  30. 30. South Dakota State Univ.
  31. 31. SDSU Opportunities Farm Open Partial Monoslope DMI (kg) 11.1 11.1 11.0 ADG (kg)* 1.61 1.67 1.65 F/G* 6.90 6.67 6.71 Holland, et. al. (2011). 6,615 cattle fed 2004-2011. Shelter provided 1.8% increase in ADG and 2.8% improvement in F/G (year round). Most performance responses were in cattle closed out in the 1st and 2nd quarters.
  32. 32. Complete Confinement Building with Slatted Floor
  33. 33. Mats for Slats? (progress report—3reps) Rubber mats Concrete P>F slats DMI, lb. 9.45 9.18 .54 ADG, lb. 1.40 1.30 .41 F/G 6.76 7.04 .42 Euken et. al. 2013 (in press)
  34. 34. University of Wisconsin • Preference study Plaster et al (2011)
  35. 35. Thank You !

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