HOW TO SET UP AND IMPLEMENT
ANIMAL WELFARE AUDITING
SYSTEMS
Temple Grandin
Department of Animal Sciences
Colorado State Un...
You Manage What You Measure
!   Maintaining high standards requires
continuous measurement
!   Handling quality can be mai...
Auditing Required for
Maintaining High Standards
!   20% of stockpersons always stay
good
!   Others slip back into rough ...
A Good Auditing System
Must Not be Vague
Ban the words “properly”, “adequate” and
“sufficient”. What is “proper” to one au...
Example of a Clearly
Worded Guideline
All pigs must have
enough space to lie
down without being
on top of each
other
American Meat Institute
Basic Critical Control Points
(Core Criteria)
1. Percentage of animals stunned correctly on the fi...
Advantages of
Numerical Scoring
!   Simple and easy to train auditors
and inspectors
!   Objective and measured instead of...
Objective Scoring Reduces Subjectivity and
Improves Agreement Between Different
Auditors from Different Customers
Auditing...
American Meat Institute
Objective Scoring System
It measures a small number of critical
control points that will objective...
!   HACCP Principles same as food
safety
!   Directly observable things that
are outcomes of bad practices or
bad faciliti...
Percentage of Beef Plants That Stunned
95% or More Cattle with the First Shot
USDA
survey prior
to industry
wide auditing
...
Simple Equipment Improvements
!   Improved stunner maintenance
!   Non slip flooring in races and stun
boxes
!   Adding so...
Animals are
spooked by
distractions
outside this pen
Cattle
movement
improved after
solid sides
were installed
Cardboard to prevent cattle
from seeing through cracks
Animals Are Afraid of Dark Places
Adding a light at the restrainer entrance or
making other lighting changes that eliminat...
Reflections
on the floor
make
animals
balk
Moving Ceiling Lights
Eliminated Reflections
Three Parts of an Effective
Auditing System
!   Internal self audits done weekly
!   Independent outside third party
audit...
What Has Been Learned??
!   First year - No difference in the results
between announced and unannounced
audits
!   2nd and...
Video Auditing Over the
Internet Improves Handling
!   Saw a lot of bad handling before
employees knew cameras were on
!  ...
What Was The Biggest Change
Observed in the Plants?
People and cattle were calmer.
Yelling and whistling stopped!
Three Types of Variables
for Auditing Animal Welfare
1. Animal based outcome measure
(continuous variables)
2. Prohibited ...
On-Farm Animal-Based Outcome
Measures (Continuous Variable)
Should Receive the Most Emphasis
!   Body Condition Score
!   ...
Example: Lameness is an
Outcome of Many Bad Conditions
!   Poor Housing
!   Rapid Growth
!   Poor Leg Conformation
!   Poo...
Variables That Can Be Measured in
Records - Less Emphasis Because
Direct Observation is Not Possible
!   Death losses duri...
Examples: Prohibited Practices
!   Sow Gestation Stalls
!   Docking Dairy Cow Tails
!   Beating Animals
!   Small Chicken ...
A Few Important
Input Based Measures for
Baseline Minimum Standards
!   Space requirements for housing
!   Space requireme...
Use Numerical Scoring to
Show Improvement After
Changes are Made
Reduction in Cattle Vocalizations
After Equipment Modifications by
Reducing Electric Prod Use
Light on
Restrainer
Entrance...
Cattle perceive a man on a horse and
a man on foot as two different things
They need to be habituated to both
www.grandin.com
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[Palestra] Temple Grandin: Princípios de comportamento animal - como manejar seu gado em alto nível e dicas de manejo de instalações.

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[Palestra] Temple Grandin: Princípios de comportamento animal - como manejar seu gado em alto nível e dicas de manejo de instalações.

  1. 1. HOW TO SET UP AND IMPLEMENT ANIMAL WELFARE AUDITING SYSTEMS Temple Grandin Department of Animal Sciences Colorado State University
  2. 2. You Manage What You Measure !   Maintaining high standards requires continuous measurement !   Handling quality can be maintained by regular audits of your handling practices with an objective numerical scoring system PREVENTS BAD FROM BECOMING NORMAL
  3. 3. Auditing Required for Maintaining High Standards !   20% of stockpersons always stay good !   Others slip back into rough practices unless management constantly supervises
  4. 4. A Good Auditing System Must Not be Vague Ban the words “properly”, “adequate” and “sufficient”. What is “proper” to one auditor might be considered “terrible” by another. A guideline must have clearly written standards which are not subject to different interpretations by different people.
  5. 5. Example of a Clearly Worded Guideline All pigs must have enough space to lie down without being on top of each other
  6. 6. American Meat Institute Basic Critical Control Points (Core Criteria) 1. Percentage of animals stunned correctly on the first attempt 2. Percentage of animals rendered insensible 3. Percentage of animals prodded with an electric prod 4. Percentage of animals that vocalize 5. Percentage of animals that slip or fall All scores are on a per animal basis
  7. 7. Advantages of Numerical Scoring !   Simple and easy to train auditors and inspectors !   Objective and measured instead of subjective opinions !   Easy to understand – Similar to speed limits for cars
  8. 8. Objective Scoring Reduces Subjectivity and Improves Agreement Between Different Auditors from Different Customers Auditing System 1 Auditing System 2 Auditing System 3 % of Plants That Passed the Stunning Audit. Twenty or more plants were scored by each auditing system
  9. 9. American Meat Institute Objective Scoring System It measures a small number of critical control points that will objectively locate many different problems affecting welfare. Scoring is based on performance. When CCPs are being chosen, a good CCP will be a point that monitors a variety of problems.
  10. 10. !   HACCP Principles same as food safety !   Directly observable things that are outcomes of bad practices or bad facilities !   Not a paperwork audit
  11. 11. Percentage of Beef Plants That Stunned 95% or More Cattle with the First Shot USDA survey prior to industry wide auditing McDonald’ s Audits started Continued auditing by major customers. Continuous auditing maintains good performance
  12. 12. Simple Equipment Improvements !   Improved stunner maintenance !   Non slip flooring in races and stun boxes !   Adding solid sides to block distractions !   Adding lights and moving lights
  13. 13. Animals are spooked by distractions outside this pen
  14. 14. Cattle movement improved after solid sides were installed
  15. 15. Cardboard to prevent cattle from seeing through cracks
  16. 16. Animals Are Afraid of Dark Places Adding a light at the restrainer entrance or making other lighting changes that eliminate shiny reflections will improve animal movement.
  17. 17. Reflections on the floor make animals balk Moving Ceiling Lights Eliminated Reflections
  18. 18. Three Parts of an Effective Auditing System !   Internal self audits done weekly !   Independent outside third party audits !   Audits by major meat buyers
  19. 19. What Has Been Learned?? !   First year - No difference in the results between announced and unannounced audits !   2nd and 3rd year – Some employees had to be removed !   5th to 10th year – Management learned to put on a show for the auditor !   10th year – Falsified internal audits found
  20. 20. Video Auditing Over the Internet Improves Handling !   Saw a lot of bad handling before employees knew cameras were on !   Stunning stayed good because it is so dependent upon stunner maintenance !   Effective video auditing must be monitored by people outside the plant
  21. 21. What Was The Biggest Change Observed in the Plants? People and cattle were calmer. Yelling and whistling stopped!
  22. 22. Three Types of Variables for Auditing Animal Welfare 1. Animal based outcome measure (continuous variables) 2. Prohibited practices (discreet variable) 3. Input-based engineering variables (discreet variable)
  23. 23. On-Farm Animal-Based Outcome Measures (Continuous Variable) Should Receive the Most Emphasis !   Body Condition Score !   Lameness !   Dirty Animals !   Injuries, Sores, Swellings, Cancer Eye !   Coat Condition (Organic) !   Ammonia Levels (Indoor facilities) !   Abnormal Behaviors
  24. 24. Example: Lameness is an Outcome of Many Bad Conditions !   Poor Housing !   Rapid Growth !   Poor Leg Conformation !   Poor Foot Care !   Foot Diseases !   Injuries
  25. 25. Variables That Can Be Measured in Records - Less Emphasis Because Direct Observation is Not Possible !   Death losses during transport !   On-farm death losses !   Sickness
  26. 26. Examples: Prohibited Practices !   Sow Gestation Stalls !   Docking Dairy Cow Tails !   Beating Animals !   Small Chicken Cages
  27. 27. A Few Important Input Based Measures for Baseline Minimum Standards !   Space requirements for housing !   Space requirements for transport !   Stunning equipment specifications !   Ammonia levels in indoor housing !   Feeder and waterer space
  28. 28. Use Numerical Scoring to Show Improvement After Changes are Made
  29. 29. Reduction in Cattle Vocalizations After Equipment Modifications by Reducing Electric Prod Use Light on Restrainer Entrance 8% reduced to 0% Reduce Pressure on Neck Restraint 23% reduced to 0%
  30. 30. Cattle perceive a man on a horse and a man on foot as two different things They need to be habituated to both
  31. 31. www.grandin.com

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