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Beekeeping theory disease and pests of honey bee

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beekeeping theory course in English 2015-2016.

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Beekeeping theory disease and pests of honey bee

  1. 1. Disease and pest of the honey bees Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 1
  2. 2. Disease of the adult honey bee Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 2
  3. 3. Nosema disease Symptoms •Affected worker bees are unable to fly •Crawler about the hive entrance •Bees tremble on top of the frames •Abdomen of an infected worker often swollen •Dysentery, you see feacal spots in the hive or entrance Cause •Protozoa: Nosema apis or Nosema cerana Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 3
  4. 4. Nosema disease Treatment •No medicines for treatment in EU •Fumidil ( an antibiotic) not licenced in EU Prevention •Good husbandry •Maintaining strong colonies •Well fed •Young and prolific queens •Good location Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 4
  5. 5. Amoeba disease • Importance: Can lead in spring to damage, like Nosemosis is not often recognised. • Cause: Amboeba Malpighamoeba mellificae PRELL (Protozoe) • Incidence: In the malpighi tubuli, at the end of the digestive canal. • Sympotoms: Similar as nosemosis Dysentery Crawler Abdomen of an infected worker often swollen Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 5
  6. 6. Amoeba disease Malpighi tubuli Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 6
  7. 7. Amoeba disease Treatment: •No medicine available Prevention •Good husbandry •Maintaining strong colonies •Well fed •Young and prolific queens •Good location Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 7
  8. 8. Tracheal mite (Acarine) Importance In former days resonsible for winter looses? • partly by varroa‐treatment seized • on climatic inclement locations same problems • in same regions occur suppentily colonies with damage: USA (13 years ago), Baden • causes unknown Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 8
  9. 9. Tracheal mite Sympotoms Acarapisosis is the infestation of the breathing tubes (trachea) of the adult bee by the parasitic mite Acarapis woodi • Crawler • Feacal spots in the hive or entrance • Shorten the lifespan of the over‐wintering bees. This may lead to ‘spring dwindling’, where the winter bees die early in the spring, meaning that the expanding brood cannot be supported sufficiently leading to the demise of the colony Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 9
  10. 10. Tracheal mite Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 10
  11. 11. Tracheal mite Treatment Same varroacides effective: • formic acid • thymol Prevention • Stronge colonies • good location (climate, pollen) • dissolve infected colonies and weak colonies • Re‐queen colonies that are susceptible to the disease Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 11
  12. 12. Disease of the brood Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 12
  13. 13. distinction „brood damage“ from healthy brood Egg (~3 days) →larvae (~6 days) → capped phase (~12 days) → pupal stage: white eyed → red eyed → brown eyed → brown body → dark body → skinning → wings, hairs → tan colouring Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 13
  14. 14. This is? brood disease? healthy brood! Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 14
  15. 15. American foulbrood (AFB) Importance • Notifiable disease: • Everybody has even a suspicion to report! • high infectious • no self‐healing • onset of disease associate with prohibited area and the veterinary officer determined what to do Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 15
  16. 16. American foulbrood Diagnosis: „typical“ bee location Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 16
  17. 17. American foulbrood •Diagnosis: perforated and sunken cappings Strange smell: like chocolate Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 17
  18. 18. American foulbrood Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 18 Roping, sticky larval remains when drawn out with a matchstick
  19. 19. Control American foulbrood Number infected location last 20 years constant (250 – 400 in Germany) •All infected colonies are destroyed. The first stage is to destroy the adult bees and brood combs by burning, then the hives and any appliances are sterilised by scorching with a blow lamp. • No Antibiotic in the EU allowed! LV Hannover Imker Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 19
  20. 20. European foulbrood symptoms American foulbrood European foulbrood Smell like sauerkraut 20 Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016
  21. 21. European foulbrood Primär: - Melissococcus plutonius Sekundär: - Achromobacter eurydice - Streptococcus faecalis - Bacillus alvei Anton Imdorf, Liebefeld Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 21
  22. 22. European foulbrood •Erratic or uneven brood pattern •Twisted larvae with creamy‐white guts visible through the body wall •Melted down, yellowy white larvae •An unpleasant sour odour •Loosely‐attached brown scales Stress supports the spread of the pathogen shortage of food bad weather period Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 22
  23. 23. Chalkbrood •Adult bees usually tear down the brood cell cappings to remove the dead larvae, often noticeable on the hive floor or at the hive entrance Disease signs Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 23
  24. 24. Chalkbrood Treatment A good, strong healthy colony will usually be able to tolerate chalkbrood and it is not usually a serious disease. However, in smaller colonies or those under stress (for example suffering heavy varroa infestations) chalkbrood can be a problem. The best method for keeping chalkbrood to a minimum is the maintenance good strong stocks of bees, although in particularly bad cases the problem may be solved by re‐queening with a young and vigorous queen from a chalkbrood‐free colony. Choice of apiary site is also important and you should avoid damp sites. Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 24
  25. 25. Varroa bee pest no.1 Importance • Nowadays responsible for dramatic losses of colonies (partly 30% a year) • Very different distibutions in the country, in the bee colonies • Consistend treatment leeds to less losses Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 25
  26. 26. „Varroa family“ in a worker cell after 11 days after capping the cell Protonymph Deutonymph Deutochrysalis Fresh young femal Mother mite Adult male Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2015 26 Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 26
  27. 27. Livecyclus Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2015 27 Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 27
  28. 28. Deutsches Bienenmonitoring „DEBIMO“ Effective varroa burden to winter losses 2005 - 2009 Anzahl Varroa-Milben pro 100 Bienen im Oktober EingegangeneVölker[%] n = 3.588 Bienenvölker From 5 mite/ 100 bees risk of winter losses increase 5 10% Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2015 28 Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 28
  29. 29. Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 29 Diagnosis Varroa mite
  30. 30. Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 30 Drawer with varroa mite
  31. 31. Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 31 Drawer colony 1 colony 2
  32. 32. Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 32 Diagnosis with icing sugar Quelle: ADIZ/db/IF 8/2011 Fotos: Pocker; Binder- Kölhofer
  33. 33. Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 33 Drone brood removal oAt the beginn of the willow bloom give the frame for drone brood direct near the brood nest. oSuccess 20-50%. ocombine swarm-control with Varroa control oWax free of arrears for wax foundation Best with 2 drone comb frames.
  34. 34. Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 34 Drone brood removal …ist eine rückstandsfreie, natürliche Varroamilben-Falle …wirkt schwarmvorbeugend …dient der Wachsproduktion Regelmäßige Drohnenbrutentnahme… nach 14 bis 24 Tagen
  35. 35. Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 35 Summer treatment Varroa treatment in colonies with brood • synthetic Bayvarol danger of resistance, thus inadequate effectiveness • Naturally occurring substances formic acid 60% and 85% Thymol Apilife VAR After the last honey harvest, or nucleus colonies without honey harvest
  36. 36. 36 Thymol treatment • Alternative to a treatment with formic acid • No effect in capped brood • Treatment for 4 weeks, after 2 weeks new drug • Wafers placed directly on top bars of brood nests. • Minimum 0,5 cm distance to cover • Keep hive entrance small, put the drawer under mesh floor • Daytime temperatures above 15°C Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016
  37. 37. Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 37 Long time evaporator Nassenheider Professional Nassenheider alte Ausführung Liebig-Dispenser
  38. 38. Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 38 Nassenheider Verdunster Professional • You need a empty box (honey super) • You have to controll the amount of formic acid that evaporated • Procedure: • After the last honey harvest, check supplies of feed ( minimum need 5‐6kg ) • 1. treatment with 290 ml formic acid 60% for 14 days • Afterwards 14 days to feed the colony. Check the natural mite fall • Perhaps 2. treatment with 60% or 85% formic acid
  39. 39. Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 39 Authorised varroacides treatment of the colonies with brood • 60%/85% Ameisensäure • Apilife var • Bayvarol treatment of the colonies without brood • Oxuvar • Milchsäure 15%
  40. 40. Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 40 Winter treatment oxalic acid treatment • 3.5% acid solution in 60% sucrose trickled over combs of bees; 2.5ml per brood comb side (5ml per seam of bees) • Don’t use evaporated oxalic acid Latic acid treatment
  41. 41. Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 41 Oxalic acid
  42. 42. New Pests Small hive beetle Tropilaelabs mites Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2015 42 Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 42
  43. 43. Small hive beetle in Italy • On September 11 2014, the Italian Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, National Reference Laboratory for Apiculture (IZSV) confirmed the first detection of the presence of Small hive beetle (SHB) in South West Italy, in the port city of Gioia Tauro. • Untill now 1800 bee colonies destroyed Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2015 43 Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 43
  44. 44. Lundie 1940, Schmolke 1974, Neumann & Elzen 2004 In the colony Outside the colony Egg Larvae Wanderlarven Pupa 2‐6T 8 ‐ 29T 8T‐3M Small hive beetle livecyclus Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2015 44 Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 44
  45. 45. Adult Eggs • hidden • as parcel • 2/3 size of the honey bees eggs Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2015 45 Small hive beetle Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 45
  46. 46. Larvea 10-11mm • 1.2cm brown‐white • 6 legs 3 pair legs «Stachelborsten » Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2015 46 Small hive beetle Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 46
  47. 47. Acetic acid: depot of frames against Galleria mellonella Formic acid: In bee colony against Varroa destructor Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2015 47 Small hive beetle Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 47
  48. 48. Tropilaelaps Milben Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2015 48 Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 48
  49. 49. Tropilaelaps mite • Tropilaelaps mites are parasites of the bee brood. • original host Apis dorsata, Apis brelivigual, Apis laboriosa (Südostasien, Iran to Neu-Guinea and up to Korea • Life cycle probably similar Varroa destructor Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2015 49 Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 49
  50. 50. Small hive beetle and Tropilaelaps mite Notifiable parasite/disease!!!!! Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2015 50 Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 50
  51. 51. Virus in honey bees Akute paralysis virus ABPV Chronical bee paralysis virus CBPV Deformed wing virus DWV Sacbrood bee virus SBV Kaschmir bee virus KBV Black queencell virus BQCV Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 51
  52. 52. Bee virus & varroa Akuter paralysis virus ABPV Chronical bee paralysis virus CBPV Deformed wing virus DWV Sacbrood bee virus SBV Kaschmir bee virus KBV Black queencell virus BQCV DWV, ABPV, SBV and KBV will be transmitted by Varroa!!! 52 Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016
  53. 53. Virus + Varroa Bee virus alone hardly effects Bee virus + varroa often dramaitcally effects varroa mites: 1. spread virus 2. The can virus activate Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 53
  54. 54. Prevention of diseases by the beekeeper! 1. General hygiene 2. controll the colony strength and broodnest 3. Early spring manangement 4. Make new colonies 5. Queens: age and genetic quality 6. Summer management 7. Varroa‐Treatment Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 54
  55. 55. 7. Varroa-treatment: „treatment plan“ 1. Spring Drone brood removal 2. Summer Formic acid Thymol 3. Winter treatment Oxalic acid 4. Diagnosis! During and after the treatment!!! 55 Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016
  56. 56. Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 56 Pest • Wax moth • Green woodpeaker • Badger • Racoon • Ants • Vespa velutina • Mouse
  57. 57. Vespa velutina Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 57
  58. 58. Villmools Merci firs nolauschteren Theoretische Anfängerkurse FUAL Andreas Reichart 2016 58

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