The norman conquest & Lexical Alternatives in English


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The norman conquest & Lexical Alternatives in English

  1. 1. The Norman Conquest& Lexical Alternatives in English<br />2007130629 Park Seongwoo<br />2007130776 Kim Bedeul<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />The Norman Conquest<br />The Norman<br />The Norman Conquest<br />Consequences<br />Lexical Doubleness of English<br />Verbs, adjectives, adverbs<br />Nouns – Cuisine vocabulary<br />Conclusion<br />
  3. 3. The Norman Conquest<br />The Norman<br />The Norman Conquest<br />Consequences<br />
  4. 4. The Norman<br />In 911, French ruler Charles the Simple allowed a group of Vikings to settle in northern France, a region that was experiencing extensive Viking resettlement.<br />Their settlement proved successful, and the Vikings in the region became known as the Northmen(i.e. Norman) from which the place name Normandy is derived.<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. The Norman Conquest<br />
  7. 7. The Norman Conquest<br />Harold Godwinson<br />the second most powerful man in England and an advisor to Edward.<br /> With this kingly endorsement, the Witan (the council of royal advisors) unanimously selected Harold as King. <br />
  8. 8. The Norman Conquest<br />William the Conqueror<br />Duke of Normandy<br />William justified his claim through his blood relationship with Edward and by stating that some years earlier, Edward had designated him as his successor.<br />
  9. 9. The Norman Conquest<br />
  10. 10. The Norman Conquest<br /> Stamford Bridge Battle<br />Hardrada of Norway struck first. In mid September, Hardrada's invasion force landed on the Northern English coast.<br />Defeated by Harold <br />Resting after his victory, Harold received word of William's landing near Hastings.<br />
  11. 11. The Norman Conquest<br />Hastings Battle<br /><ul><li>King Harold fell as did the majority of the Saxon aristocracy.
  12. 12. William's victory was complete.
  13. 13. On Christmas day 1066, William was crowned King of England in Westminster Abbey.</li></li></ul><li>Consequences<br />Elite replacement<br />Near-total elimination of the old English aristocracy.<br />Loss of English control over the Catholic Church in England.<br />Natives purged from high governmental and ecclesiastical office, replaced by Normans.<br />
  14. 14. Consequences<br />Language<br />Introduction of Anglo-Norman (a northern dialect of Old French) as the language of the ruling classes, displacing OE.<br />A large proportion of the words in the English language had disappeared and been replaced by French words.<br />Resulted in linguistic division between the nobility and the commoners.<br />
  15. 15. Lexical Doubleness<br />Verbs<br />Adjectives<br />Nouns<br />Nouns – Cuisine<br />Others<br />
  16. 16. Verbs<br />die<br />< ME dien, deien < Old Norse deyja (“to die, pass away”) < Proto-Germanic dawjanan, diwanan (“to die”)<br />perish<br />< ME perishen < OF periss-, stem of certain parts of perir < Latin perire (“to pass away, perish”)<br />ask/interrogate, start/commence, own/possess<br />
  17. 17. Adjectives<br />deep<br />< OE dēop<br />profound<br />< Late Anglo-Norman profound < OF profont < Latin profundus (“bottom; foundation”)<br />hearty/cordial, godly/divine, <br />
  18. 18. Adverbs<br />often<br />< OE oft<br />frequently<br />frequent + ly<br />< OF frequent < Latin frequens(“crowded, crammed, frequent, repeated, etc.”)<br />
  19. 19. Nouns<br />smell<br />< ME smellen, smyllen, smullen<br />cf) Dutch smeulen, cognate to Low German smölen, smelen (“to smolder”)<br />odor/odour<br />< ME odour < OF odour < Latin odor<br />work/labour, gift/present, height/altitude<br />
  20. 20. Nouns - Cuisine<br />chicken<br />< ME < OE ċicen, cycen(“chicken”)<br />poultry<br />< French poulet ("chicken", as in dish) < Latin pullus ("chick")<br />ox/beef, calf/veal, deer/venison, swine/pork<br />
  21. 21. Nouns - Cuisine<br />sheep<br />< OE scēap < Proto-Germanic skæpom<br />mutton<br />< OF mouton (“sheep”)<br />cf) lamb<br />< OE lamb < Proto-Germanic lambaz < Proto-IE hlhonbhos<br />
  22. 22. Others<br />Hand<br />Manual, manufacture, manuscript, manipulate, manicure, etc.<br />Foot<br />Pedal, peddle, pedestal, pedestrian, pedicure, etc.<br />God<br />Deity, divine, divinity, divination, etc.<br />
  23. 23. Conclusion<br />Though the Norman Conquest took a large proportion of OE vocabularies away, it made the English language rich in "lexical alternatives“.<br />Through high affinity between high level English and everyday French, high level English speakers may easily learn French.<br />
  24. 24. <ul><li>References
  25. 25. Algeo, John. The Origins and Development of the English Language. 6th ed. Boston: Wadsworth, 2010.
  26. 26. Barber, Charles. The English Language: a historical introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
  27. 27. Wiktionary
  28. 28. Wikipedia
  29. 29. Image source
  30. 30. Wikipedia</li></ul>Thank you<br />