Woody Biomass for Energy in Minnesota: Consumption and Availability

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Presented by Dr. Steve Bratkovich at the April 29 Forest Biomass Harvesting Stakeholder Forum, Eveleth, MN

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Woody Biomass for Energy in Minnesota: Consumption and Availability

  1. 1. Woody Biomass for Energy in Minnesota: Consumption and Availability <ul><li>April 29, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Steve Bratkovich </li></ul><ul><li>Dovetail Partners, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>www.dovetailinc.org </li></ul>
  2. 2. Woody Biomass for Energy in Minnesota: Consumption and Availability <ul><li>Energy from biomass – exciting options for Minnesota </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass availability – several studies </li></ul><ul><li>Current biomass consumption </li></ul><ul><li>A need for better information </li></ul>
  3. 3. Dovetail Partners: Who Are We? <ul><li>Dovetail Partners’ mission is to provide authoritative information about the impacts and trade-offs of environmental decisions, including consumption choices, land use, and policy alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>www.dovetailinc.org </li></ul>
  4. 4. Energy from Biomass: Exciting Opportunities for Minnesota
  5. 5. Energy from Biomass: Exciting Opportunities for Minnesota <ul><li>Minnesota is currently one of the nation’s leading producers of ethanol and biodiesel. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Energy from Biomass: Exciting Opportunities for Minnesota <ul><li>Minnesota is currently one of the nation’s leading producers of ethanol and biodiesel. Current production is based on corn starch and soybean oil. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ethanol Production and Consumption in Minnesota 1990-2007 Source: Minnesota Department of Commerce (2008). Net exports
  8. 8. Energy from Biomass: Exciting Opportunities for Minnesota <ul><li>Minnesota is currently one of the nation’s leading producers of ethanol and biodiesel. Current production is based on corn starch and soybean oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies allowing production of ethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, and other liquid fuels from woody biomass are under development. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Energy from Biomass: Exciting Opportunities for Minnesota <ul><li>Minnesota is currently one of the nation’s leading producers of ethanol and biodiesel. Current production is based on corn starch and soybean oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies allowing production of ethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, and other liquid fuels from woody biomass are under development. Forest biomass will soon be a preferred raw material. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ethanol Production and Consumption in Minnesota 1990-2030 Source: Minnesota Department of Commerce (2008). Million Gallons
  11. 11. Biomass Availability in Minnesota – Results of Several Studies
  12. 12. Availability of Biomass for Energy Production in Minnesota, Based on ONRL 1999 Study* *Walsh et al. 1999. Resource Quantity Available (000 dry tons/year) Quantity Available Without Ag. Residues (000 dry tons/year) <$30/t <$40/t <$50/t <$30/t <$40/t <$50/t Forest residues 468 682 875 468 682 875 Mill residues (wd) 71 916 1,121 71 916 1,121 Ag. residues 0 11,936 11,936 Energy crop pot. 0 427 5,783 0 427 5,783 Urban wd waste 1,533 1,533 1,533 1,533 1,533 1,533 Total 2,072 15,494 21,248 2,072 3,558 9,312
  13. 13. Current biomass prices in Minnesota are about $25 /green ton ($50/dry ton).
  14. 14. Availability of Biomass for Energy Production in Minnesota, Based on ONRL 1999 Study* *Walsh et al. 1999. Resource Quantity Available (000 dry tons/year) Quantity Available Without Ag. Residues (000 dry tons/year) <$30/t <$40/t <$50/t <$30/t <$40/t <$50/t Forest residues 468 682 875 468 682 875 Mill residues (wd) 71 916 1,121 71 916 1,121 Ag. residues 0 11,936 11,936 Energy crop pot. 0 427 5,783 0 427 5,783 Urban wd waste 1,533 1,533 1,533 1,533 1,533 1,533 Total 2,072 15,494 21,248 2,072 3,558 9,312
  15. 15. Biomass Resources in Minnesota by Three Studies Source: NREL (2005) Source of Biomass Biomass in Resources from ORNL database (tons/year at < $50/ton) Biomass Resources from NREL GIS Group (tons/year) Biomass Resource est. from 1997 Institute for Local Self-Reliance (tons/year) Forest residue 874,900 - - Mill residue 1,121,000 1,017,688 571,960 Agricultural residue 11,935,896 40,709,527 22,040,438 Energy crops 5,783,002 - - Urban wood waste 1,532,529 - - Total 21,247,327 41,727,215 22,612,398
  16. 16. Berguson, NRRI 2007. NRRI Study of Minnesota Forest-based Biomass Availability for Energy Production Oak Ridge National Laboratory Study: 3,558,000 9,312,000 $40/ton $50/ton Biomass Source Current Near-Term Achievable Future Potential Notes Dry tons/yr. Dry tons/yr. Dry tons/yr. Roundwood 0 1,495,000 1,495,000 Current 3.7 m cord harvest; future 5.5m Harvest Residues 750,000 1,155,000 1,155,000 Residues from specified harvest level Red Pine Thinning 184,000 310,500 409,400 50% of volume in 1 st thinning assumed fuelwood Aspen Thinning 0 0 1,000,000 100,000 ac. @ 10 tons/ac. Brushlands 0 400,000 400,000 Energy Crops 0 0 5,600,000 3.5 tons/ac/yr yield, 1.6 million acres Total 934,000 3,360,500 10,059,400
  17. 17. Berguson, NRRI 2007. NRRI Study of Minnesota Forest-based Biomass Availability for Energy Production Note the large assumed contribution of energy crops (plantations) to future woody biomass supply. This will require planning, investment. Without energy crops, future availability is only 3.4 million dry tons annually. Biomass Source Current Near-Term Achievable Future Potential Notes Dry tons/yr. Dry tons/yr. Dry tons/yr. Roundwood 0 1,495,000 1,495,000 Current 3.7 m cord harvest; future 5.5m Harvest Residues 750,000 1,155,000 1,155,000 Residues from specified harvest level Red Pine Thinning 184,000 310,500 409,400 50% of volume in 1 st thinning assumed fuelwood Aspen Thinning 0 0 1,000,000 100,000 ac. @ 10 tons/ac. Brushlands 0 400,000 400,000 Energy Crops 0 0 5,600,000 3.5 tons/ac/yr yield, 1.6 million acres Total 934,000 3,360,500 10,059,400
  18. 18. Current Consumption of Biomass in Minnesota
  19. 19. Biomass consumption data courtesy of: Mimi Barzen, MN Dept of Natural Resources, Grand Rapids, and Calder Hibbard, University of Minnesota, St. Paul.
  20. 20. <ul><li>Consumption figures presented for four regions: </li></ul><ul><li>St Paul/Rosemount/Sartell/Little Falls/Benson/ </li></ul><ul><li>Collegeville. </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Rapids/Mountain Iron/Virginia/Hibbing/ </li></ul><ul><li>/Hoyt Lakes/Marcell/Deer River/Bemidji . </li></ul><ul><li>Duluth/Superior/Cloquet/Ashland/Park Falls. </li></ul><ul><li>International Falls/Fort Francis/Grand Marais/ </li></ul><ul><li>Thunder Bay </li></ul>
  21. 21. Biomass consumption estimates from Mimi Barzen, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Grand Rapids, and Calder Hibbard, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. 1,270,000 - 1,320,000 gt/yr. Current Woody Biomass Consumption in and near Minnesota 769,000 gt/yr. 520,000 –gt/yr. 320,000 – 380,000 gt/yr.
  22. 22. Biomass consumption estimates from Mimi Barzen, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Grand Rapids, and Calder Hibbard, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Current Woody Biomass Consumption in and Near Minnesota 3,000,000 – 3,120,000 gt/yr. 1.5 – 1.6 million dry tons/yr.
  23. 23. Biomass consumption estimates from Mimi Barzen, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Grand Rapids, and Calder Hibbard, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Current Woody Biomass Consumption in Minnesota If considering consumption within the borders of Minnesota only, then this number becomes 2,000,000 – 2,050,000 gt/yr. 1.0 – 1.1 million dry tons/yr.
  24. 24. Biomass consumption estimates from Mimi Barzen, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Grand Rapids, and Calder Hibbard, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. 1,300,000 - 1,350,000 gt/yr. Current and Announced Woody Biomass Consumption in and near Minnesota 1,519,000 gt/yr. 910,000 –gt/yr. 579,000 – 879,000 gt/yr.
  25. 25. Biomass consumption estimates from Mimi Barzen, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Grand Rapids, and Calder Hibbard, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Current and Announced Woody Biomass Consumption in and Near Minnesota 4,600,000 – 4,650,000 gt/yr. 2.3 million dry tons/yr.
  26. 26. Biomass consumption estimates from Mimi Barzen, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Grand Rapids, and Calder Hibbard, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Current and Announced Woody Biomass Consumption in Minnesota Again, if considering consumption within the borders of Minnesota only, then this number becomes 2,800,000 gt/yr. 1.4 million dry tons/yr.
  27. 27. A comparison of current consumption of woody biomass for energy production with estimates of biomass availability suggests considerable potential for expansion.
  28. 28. Compare current Minnesota consumption (1.0 mdt/yr.) and current plus developing consumption (1.4 mdt/yr.) with the following estimates that do not include volumes from energy crops or plantations : 3.1 mdt/yr – NREL ($40/ton) 3.5 mdt/yr – NREL ($50/ton) 3.4 mdt/yr – Berguson near term Potential exists for about 2.5X expansion if all estimates are correct, and all volumes identified are realistically available.
  29. 29. Also, compare current Minnesota consumption (1.0 mdt/yr.) and current plus developing consumption (1.4 mdt/yr.) with the following estimates that do include volumes from energy crops or plantations : 3.6 mdt/yr – NREL ($40/ton) 9.3 mdt/yr – NREL ($50/ton) 10.1 mdt/yr – Berguson future In this case a 6 to 7-fold expansion might be possible.
  30. 30. <ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><li>It would appear, based on various </li></ul><ul><li>estimates of biomass availability and </li></ul><ul><li>recent estimates of consumption, that </li></ul><ul><li>there is room for significant expansion of </li></ul><ul><li>biomass consumption for energy </li></ul><ul><li>production . The greatest expansion </li></ul><ul><li>potential is linked to plantation </li></ul><ul><li>development. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><li>If full biomass energy potential from </li></ul><ul><li>woody biomass is to be realized, planning </li></ul><ul><li>and investment in dedicated tree </li></ul><ul><li>plantations for energy development will be </li></ul><ul><li>needed. It is not too early to embark on </li></ul><ul><li>this process. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><li>In areas where significant volumes of </li></ul><ul><li>woody biomass and agricultural residues </li></ul><ul><li>both exist, development of facilities </li></ul><ul><li>capable of handling both types of biomass </li></ul><ul><li>should be considered; this possibility </li></ul><ul><li>significantly increases the potential for </li></ul><ul><li>biomass energy development in some </li></ul><ul><li>regions. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><li>All current use and announced expansions </li></ul><ul><li>involve production of electricity or fuel </li></ul><ul><li>pellets. </li></ul><ul><li>In the future, and perhaps soon, liquid </li></ul><ul><li>biofuels and biochemicals will emerge as </li></ul><ul><li>options for use of woody biomass, posing </li></ul><ul><li>a new source of competition for this </li></ul><ul><li>resource. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass availability estimates are highly </li></ul><ul><li>variable and none (with perhaps the </li></ul><ul><li>exception of Berguson) consider what </li></ul><ul><li>volume is realistically available. </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass consumption and availability </li></ul><ul><li>within Minnesota is not being monitored </li></ul><ul><li>by any state agency or institution. It </li></ul><ul><li>should be. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>For additional information: </li></ul><ul><li>www.dovetailinc.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.blandinfoundation.org/html/public_vital_conf_Bio_07a.cfm </li></ul>

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