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Cliffnotes distanceedhistoryandinfo

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Cliffnotes distanceedhistoryandinfo

  1. 1. <ul><li>Distance Education </li></ul><ul><li>Systems In Brief </li></ul>
  2. 2. “ Distance Education” <ul><li>The term “ distance education was coined in 1982 at a conference of the International Council for Correspondence Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Became International Council for Distance Education. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Distance Education Definitions <ul><li>Mortensen’s Adaptation (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>A method of instruction characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Physical separation of some or all the learners from the teacher. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Organized instructional program. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Technological media. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Provisions for two-way communication. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Distance Education Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Correspondence Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Broadcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast T.V. </li></ul><ul><li>Audio/Phone Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Conferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chats, WWW, “Blackboard” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video Conferencing </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Distance Education </li></ul><ul><li>Jargon </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sites or activities implemented in concurrent or &quot;real&quot; time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Two-way video & audio. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Events happening at different points in time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correspondence education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail, discussion boards </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Distance Education </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Course sharing is cost efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide expertise not locally available. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to communicate with different sites in real time (some systems). </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to provide courses or receive courses not locally available. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Distance Education </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Costs for startup can be very expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires special teaching and learning techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology intensive requiring technical knowledge of systems (i.e. video production knowledge). </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling problems between sites. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Foundations of Successful Distance Education </li></ul>Trained Faculty Demonstrated Need Appropriate I.D. Administrative Support Adequate Funding
  9. 9. <ul><li>Student Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Student Achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research is consistent in that DE students achieve equal to traditional classroom instruction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many achieve higher! </li></ul></ul>But . . .
  10. 10. <ul><li>Student Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Student Achievement Caveats- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes that course was appropriately implemented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>delivery system was appropriate for background and experience level of students. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Student Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude toward course and delivery method - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, students exhibit positive attitudes as long as the equipment works! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most complaints about technology regard poor audio quality. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Student Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Attrition and Persistence - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drop out rate is very high in many non-interactive situations such as telecourses or correspondence courses. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DE requires increased prep time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different delivery techniques. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different materials. preparation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a unique personality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>competently operate the hardware. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Students - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>students must be &quot;taught&quot; how to learn in DE situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some delivery methods may conflict with certain learning styles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for the most part, students are &quot;O.K..&quot; with DE techniques and systems. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Course Content </li></ul><ul><li>How to Teach It - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knezek 50 - 20 Theory states that a DE course will require 50% more development time and content delivery time is reduced 20% due to equipment manipulation and contrived interactivity. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Research Into Action </li></ul><ul><li>Operational tips - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be online on time! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a natural delivery style. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use effective visuals and maintain a visual &quot;pace.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage remote site participants-keep 'em active! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use student names as a tool for active participation. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>A Question . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Are you the distance ed type? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research indicates that same skills necessary for regular instruction are necessary for DE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>BASIC SKILLS FOR THE DISTANCE ED. TEACHER* </li></ul><ul><li>*System Dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Video skills </li></ul><ul><li>Audio skills </li></ul><ul><li>General hardware manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Have the personality or demeanor </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to constrain style to system </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to keep students involved in the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the limitations of the </li></ul><ul><li>system </li></ul>