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Student Efficacy: Are they Learning?

Beck Pitt
Beck Pitt
Beck PittResearch Fellow at The Open University (UK)

This slide deck was presented at CNX 2014 in Houston, USA on 1 April 2014 as part of the "Student Efficacy: Are they Learning?" rapid fire panel. It contains preliminary research findings on educators and students using OpenStax College open textbooks. Final, updated research findings can be found in the slide deck "The Impact of Open Textbooks in the USA and South Africa..." and via http://oerresearchhub.org

Student Efficacy: Are they Learning?

1 of 40
Student Efficacy: Are They 
Learning? 
Rapid Fire Panel, CNX 2014 
1 April 2014 
Dr. Beck Pitt 
The Open University
Background
• 2-year research project based at The Open University (UK) 
• Funded by William & Flora Hewlett Foundation 
• Aiming to build the most comprehensive picture of OER impact 
• Eleven research hypotheses 
• Collaboration model across different educational sectors 
• Fellowship Scheme 
• Global reach but with a US focus 
• Practicing openness: CC-BY licensed research instruments / SOO Course / 
Impact Map 
OER Research Hub 
oerresearchhub.org 
#oerrhub @OER_Hub
Keyword Hypothesis 
Performance OER improve student performance/satisfaction 
Openness People use OER differently from other online materials 
Access OER widen participation in education 
Retention OER can help at-risk learners to finish their studies 
Reflection OER use leads educators to reflect on their practice 
Finance OER adoption brings financial benefits for students/institutions 
Indicators Informal learners use a variety of indicators when selecting OER 
Support Informal learners develop their own forms of study support 
Transition OER support informal learners in moving to formal study 
Policy OER use encourages institutions to change their policies 
Assessment Informal assessments motivate learners using OER
Collaboration Model 
Collaboration Model
Collaboration Model 
Collaboration Model

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Student Efficacy: Are they Learning?

  • 1. Student Efficacy: Are They Learning? Rapid Fire Panel, CNX 2014 1 April 2014 Dr. Beck Pitt The Open University
  • 3. • 2-year research project based at The Open University (UK) • Funded by William & Flora Hewlett Foundation • Aiming to build the most comprehensive picture of OER impact • Eleven research hypotheses • Collaboration model across different educational sectors • Fellowship Scheme • Global reach but with a US focus • Practicing openness: CC-BY licensed research instruments / SOO Course / Impact Map OER Research Hub oerresearchhub.org #oerrhub @OER_Hub
  • 4. Keyword Hypothesis Performance OER improve student performance/satisfaction Openness People use OER differently from other online materials Access OER widen participation in education Retention OER can help at-risk learners to finish their studies Reflection OER use leads educators to reflect on their practice Finance OER adoption brings financial benefits for students/institutions Indicators Informal learners use a variety of indicators when selecting OER Support Informal learners develop their own forms of study support Transition OER support informal learners in moving to formal study Policy OER use encourages institutions to change their policies Assessment Informal assessments motivate learners using OER
  • 9. OER Impact Map http://chaos.open.ac.uk
  • 10. OER Impact Map http://chaos.open.ac.uk
  • 13. Overview OER improve student performance/satisfaction People use OER differently from other online materials OER use leads educators to reflect on their practice OER adoption brings financial benefits for students/institutions Spring-Summer 2013 Developing Questionnaires with OpenStax College IRB Process Autumn 2013-Christmas 2013 Surveys deployed Ongoing Interviews with educators and students Comparative impact data / Stories of Impact Adding evidence to the Impact Map Jan-Apr 2014 Data analysis and Dissemination of findings Interviews with Educators
  • 14. Student Survey In total 63 usable survey responses were recorded: • OpenStax Newsletter Student User Survey (50) Incentivised • College One (3) • College Two (10) 44 out of the 63 respondents have used, or currently use, OpenStax College textbooks: • OpenStax Newsletter Student User Survey (39) • College One (2) • College Two (3)
  • 15. Educator Survey In total 97 usable survey responses were recorded: • OpenStax Adopter Email list (52) • OpenStax Newsletter Educator Survey (41)* Incentivised • Individual Educators from direct introductions (4) 82 out of the 97 respondents have used, or currently use, OpenStax College textbooks: • OpenStax Adopter Email list (47) • OpenStax Newsletter Educator Survey (31) • Individual Educators from direct introductions (4)
  • 16. Student Sample • 44 Respondents in total (have used/use OSC textbooks) • 56.8% Male (n=25) and 43.2% Female (n=19) • 86.0% of respondents live in the United States (n=37) • Other respondents live in Germany, Canada, Hong Kong, UK & India (14.0%, n=6) • 65.9% of respondents have English as their first spoken language (n=29) • Just under 5% of respondents consider themselves to have a disability (4.5%, n=2) • Just under 70% of respondents were between 15-18 years old (68.3%, n=28) • Nearly 60% of respondents told us they are studying at School (59.1%, n=26). • Over 60% of respondents reported having either a High School Diploma or No Formal Qualifications (n=10, 28.6% and 34.3%, n=12 respectively) • Just under 10% of respondents who use OSC textbooks receive any form of financial aid (9.5%, n=4)
  • 17. Educator Sample • 82 Respondents in total (have used/use OSC textbooks) • 75.3% Male (n=61) and 24.7% Female (n=20) • Over 85% of respondents live in the United States (86.4%, n=70) • Other respondents live in Canada, Singapore, Malaysia & Australia (13.6%, n=11) • 90.0% of respondents have English as their first spoken language (n=72) • Over 90% of respondents have a Masters degree and/or PhD (38.3%, n=31, 54.3%, n=44 respectively) • Over 50% of respondents work in a HE/University context (57.3%, n=47) • 78.0% of respondents do F/T face-to-face teaching (n=64) • Nearly 70% of respondents have been teaching for more than 10 years (67.5%, n=54)
  • 19. Student Overview • Over a quarter of respondents studied their subject via OER before joining their course (26.8%, n=11). • 17.5% of respondents told us that their use of OER influenced their decision to register for their current course of study (n=7) • Just under a third of respondents told us that they have adapted OER to fit their needs (31.0%, n=13) • The biggest challenge for respondents when using OER was knowing where to find resources (61.0%, n=25)
  • 20. Student Overview • 75.0% of respondents first became aware of OpenStax College Textbooks via their instructor/course (n=30). • 54.5% of respondents currently use the Biology textbook for their studies (n=24). • 55.0% of students told us OpenStax College textbooks were required reading and they did not purchase any other textbooks for their course (n=22)
  • 21. Educator Overview • 92.6% of respondents have adapted OER to fit their needs • Just under 50% of respondents have created OER for study or teaching (48.1%, n=39) • The biggest challenge for respondents when using OER was finding resources of a sufficiently high quality (67.5%, n=54)* • Top three types of OER used for teaching/training by respondents: open textbooks (98.9%, n=81), videos (78.0%, n=64) and images (72.0%, n=59) • Almost 60% of respondents think their institution benefits financially by using OER (59.3%, n=48)
  • 22. Educator Overview • 34.6% of respondents first became aware of OpenStax College Textbooks via an internet search (n=28). • Over a quarter of respondents became aware of OSC via a colleague or other recommendation (25.9%, n=21) • 61.0% of respondents currently use the College Physics textbook with their students (n=50). • Over 80% of respondents teach Science (82.7%, n=67) with 77.8% using OER in this area (n=63) and over a third creating OER in this subject (34.6%, n=28)
  • 24. In which of these ways (if any) has your use of Open Educational Resources made an impact on your formal studies? (Check all that apply) "Using Open Educational Resources (e.g. OpenStax College textbooks) has led to my...” Increased interest in the subjects taught (69.0%, n=29) Increased satisfaction with the learning experience (66.7%, n=28) Grades improving (47.6%, n=20) Increased participation in classroom discussions (45.2%, n=19) Having increased independence and self-reliance (45.2%, n=19) Increased engagement with lesson content (45.2%, n=19) Increased experimentation with new ways of learning (45.2%, n=19) Gaining confidence (38.1%, n=16) Increased enthusiasm for future study (38.1%, n=16) Increased collaboration with my peers (35.7%, n=15) Being more likely to complete my course of study (33.3%, n=14) Becoming interested in a wider range of subjects than before I used these resources (31.0%, n=13)
  • 25. In what ways, if any, has using OpenStax College textbooks impacted on your studies? Range of responses, including comments on: 40.6% Better Study Experience (n=13) 31.3% Accessibility of Resources (n=10) 12.5% Cost savings (n=4) 9.4% Improved Grades (n=3) 9.4% Less Weight to Carry (n=3)
  • 26. In what ways, if any, has using OpenStax College textbooks impacted on your studies? “Saved my back, I already have so many other books in my backpack and using my computer for more info saved additional stress that would have been on my back.”
  • 28. Based on your experiences as a teacher, to what extent do you agree with the following statements? % of educators who strongly agree or agree with the following statements: "Use of Open Educational Resources (e.g. OpenStax College textbooks) in the classroom...” Allows me to better accommodate diverse learners’ needs (67.9%, n=53) Increases learners’ satisfaction with the learning experience (65.8%, n=52) Increases learners’ experimentation with new ways of learning (64.1%, n=50) Increases learners’ engagement with lesson content (60.3%, n=47) Increases learners’ interest in the subjects taught (55.7%, n=44) Develops learners’ increased independence and self-reliance (55.7%, n=44) Increases learners’ participation in class discussions (49.4%, n=39) Leads to improved students’ grades (47.4%, n=37) Increases learners’ enthusiasm for future study (45.6%, n=36) Builds learners’ confidence (45.5%, n=35) Increases collaboration and/or peer-support among learners (44.2%, n=34) Leads to learners becoming interested in a wider range of subjects than before they used OER (41.0%, n=32)
  • 29. In what ways, if any, has using OpenStax College textbooks impacted on your own teaching practice?
  • 30. In what ways, if any, has using OpenStax College textbooks impacted on your students? “The resource gave them a sound understanding of the topic and they were able to do self-directed study from it. The result is that seniors have excelled in their exams.”
  • 31. In what ways, if any, has using OpenStax College textbooks impacted on your students? “Students seem somewhat more engaged.” “more student engagement in lab activities and lecture presentation”
  • 32. As a result of using OpenStax College textbooks… • 96.3% of educators who use OSC textbooks are more likely to recommend OpenStax College textbooks to fellow educators/teachers (n=77) • 81.0% of respondents who use OSC textbooks are more likely to discuss using OpenStax College textbooks with their institution’s administrators (n=64) • Over three quarters of respondents who use OSC textbooks are more likely to use OER for teaching (77.9%, n=60)
  • 34. Student Financial Savings Do you think you have saved money by using OpenStax College textbooks? “Yes” 77.3% “No” 15.9% “Don’t Know” 6.8% Do you believe that your students have saved money by using OER? “Yes” 89.0% “No” 8.5% “Don’t Know” 2.4% By using OpenStax College textbooks each student surveyed saved on average ca. $155 (n=19)
  • 36. Summary of Results Efficacy: Are they Learning? • Over 60% of both students and educators report increased satisfaction with their own or their students’ learning experience as a result of using OER/OSC textbooks • Almost 70% of students surveyed told us that they thought use of OER/OSC textbooks had led to an increased interest in the subjects taught • Over 45% of students thought that their grades had improved due to using OER/OSC textbooks • Emerging evidence for different ways in which “open” is making a specific difference: students can both access materials earlier (e.g. pre-course/pre-payment of financial aid) but can also continue to access/use resources post-course (don’t have to sell textbook/limited access). Positive impact on learning?
  • 38. Next Steps • Further analyses of data: e.g. comparison of adopters with newsletter respondents (educators), non-users/users of OSC textbooks, students studying in different contexts, different OSC textbooks etc. • Comparison of data with other open textbook surveys • Disseminating results (Impact Map inc. anonymised data) • Future/current work focused on building case studies and comparative impact data • We need you! Looking for YOUR best examples of impact... • Help us build the most comprehensive picture of the impact of OER by contributing your evidence to the Impact Map
  • 39. Thanks for listening! oerresearchhub.org chaos.open.ac.uk Twitter: @OER_Hub @BeckPitt
  • 40. in service of The Open University