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Zoo presentation

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Zoo presentation

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Zoo presentation

  1. 1. Zoo Vaccination Plan Rebecca Dixon
  2. 2. Vaccines  Purpose of vaccines is to mimic immune response  Generally two types of vaccine  Modified Live Vaccine  Attenuated pathogens, able to replicate  Killed Vaccine  Safer than MLV, don’t replicate
  3. 3. Vaccines – pros & cons  Protects animal from infection  Helps prevent spread of disease in face of outbreak  Decreases severity of clinical disease • Can’t ensure 100% protection • Vaccine can produce side effects and rarely anaphylaxis • Clinical disease can be caused by vaccination • Some vaccinations can interfere with diagnostic tests
  4. 4. Marsupials  Swamp Wallaby: susceptible to clostridium tetani  Protected by mother’s colostrum  Vaccinate once out of the pouch - ~8months  Annual boosters  Lumpy jaw: fusobacterium necrophorous, actinobacillus bacteria  Koala:  Chlamydia spp  Koala retrovirus
  5. 5. Primates  Clostridium tetani, poliomyelitis virus, measles  Two options:  Oral trivalent MLV containing Tetanus, Polio and Diphtheria (3 doses, 2-3 months apart, boost in 3-5yrs) and MLV MMR (12-15 months, boost 4-6yrs) or  Monovalent vaccines:  Tetanus – IM 2, 4, 6, 15-18 months, 4-6 years, then every 5 years  Measles – SC 12-15 months, repeat again between 28 days and 4 years after  Polio – PO 2, 4, 15-18 months then at 4-6 years  Rabies – in the face of an outbreak
  6. 6. Lagomorpha  Two diseases to vaccinate against  Combined vaccine of:  Killed Viral Haemorrhagic Disease and MLV Myxomatosis  Can be given from 5 weeks, boosted annually
  7. 7. Carnivora  Felines – Feline herpes virus, feline leukaemia virus, feline parvovirus  Same as in cats: 8 weeks, 12 weeks, annual booster  All MLV  Others – Canine Adenovirus 2, Canine Distemper, Canine Parvovirus, Canine Parainfluenza, L. interrogans serovar canicola, icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, grippotyphosa  Same as in dogs: 8 weeks, 10 weeks, then annual booster  All MLV
  8. 8. Perissodactyla  Grevy’s Zebra and Kiang  Clostridium tetani – first at 3-4 months, second a month later, annual booster  Equine Herpes virus  foals to be vaccinated at 3-4 months, then every 4 months until 1 year old, annual booster  MLV and KV available  Equine Viral Arteritis – KV, >9 months, repeat in 3-6 weeks, boost 6-12 months
  9. 9. Artiodactyla  As with cattle, want to vaccinate these animals against the clostridial spp:  Perfringens, novyi, septicum, tetani, sordellii, chauvoie  First at 3-4 months, second 1 month later, annual booster  Leptospirosis in Vicuna and Suids – in endemic areas  Cattle vaccine so L. interrogans serovar hardjo  If high prevalence may require semiannual revaccination  BVD – in case of outbreak  Blue tongue – in case of outbreak
  10. 10. Aves  Avian polyomavirus:  Breeding psittacine birds should get 2 doses 2 weeks apart  Neonates should receive a dose when >35 days old, boosted in 2-3 weeks  Canary pox virus:  For susceptible passerine birds once >4 weeks old, boosted at 6-12 months  Duck Viral Enteritis:  Can be administered to waterfowl >2 weeks of age or in face of outbreak
  11. 11. References  The Merck Veterinary Manual  European Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians – Transmissible Diseases Handbook  http://www.oie.int/en/international-standard-setting/terrestrial-manual/access-online/  www.hpa.org.uk Public Health England  http://wildpro.twycrosszoo.org/000ADOBES/Bonobos/D425_PASA_PrimateVetManualSecondEd/3. 12_Vaccination_programmes.pdf  http://www.msd-animal-health.co.nz/binaries/21471_ISPAH_Covexin10_DL_Farmer_v5_tcm51- 36969.pdf  http://www.vetmed.wsu.edu/depts-vth/camelids/vax.aspx

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